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opposed, and a battle ensued, in which, however, Harold was victorious. then thought himself secure. II. The Conquest.
Show that Harold was very much mistaken. While he was glorying in his late victory, news reached him that William the Conqueror had landed at Pevensey, in Sussex, with 60,000 men, to claim the crown which had been promised him by Edard with an oath. (The circumstances may be alluded to if there be time.) Harold on receiving the intelligence hastens his troops to the spot, and met the Gorman soldiers at Hastings. (Use the map.) However, they did not fight until next day. The evening before messages were sent from one to another, and the next morning they began. Picture out the scene. The Normans (well-skilled soldiers) on one side; and the Saxons, hardy and warlike men, on the other. Both armies were confident of victory. They commence; the Normans, headed by William, begin with a song. The Saxons were animated and encouraged by their brave leader, who is going in and out amongst them, inspiring them with energy and success. Lead the children, after this, to look at the importance of the battle. Is the country to be governed by Saxons or Normans? This battle will decide. They fight on and on till the evening begins to draw on quickly; the Saxons are getting more and more advantage; William's soldiers begin to despair; but a voice from their leader animates them again. They make their last attempt, which was successful. Harold is shot dead in the brain, and the battle is decided. After this, some of the reasons which prompted William to come to England may be alluded
1. The promise made by Edward to William.
2. A warlike disposition. 3. A covetous disposition.
III. The Reign.
1. The character of the reign.
2. An 3. A
Draw from the scholars the fact that William's reign will not be a peaceable one. because he had no just right to the throne. This thought must be kept in mind all through. Show that, in order to preserve his own comfort and the security of his kingdom, a monarch must have four great qualities, viz.: -1. A love for his people. ability to gain their affections. strong mind. 4. A quick perception. (Each of these will require illustration and explanation.) Apply these particulars to William. Show that he could have had little love for, and consequently could not gain the affections of, his people; because he treated them so cruelly; he destroyed many of their houses to plant himself a forest; but, worse than all, he made them slaves. However, he tried at first to gain their affections by allowing many of them to retain their lands; but he was unsuccessful! for he was a conqueror. He possessed a strong mind, but not being united with love, he made but a poor King. Had he, like Agricola, done them good, he would have succeeded better; but he ruled them by fear. The last quality he possessed to a great degree. Through this circumstance he quelled many insurrections both in England and Normandy The chief events in his reign were his wars in Normandy, the establishment of Doomsday Book, and Curfew Bell. (Explain these things.) Give the children also a little insight into the Feudal System. The King owner of all the land in the kingdom. His vassals held it from him; and also minor vassals holding it from the higher vassals, The serfs or slaves were the Saxons. The duty of the vassals was to assist their superiors in wars, pay tribute to them, and certain fines for such privileges as marriag
&c. There had been a little existence | robber, but was quieted by an offer of of this system previously; but Wil- money, &c. from those who conducted liam finally introduced it in its strictest the service. form. William also built several VI. Lessons. 1. Little dependance castles, &c. Battle Abbey he built in can be placed upon earthly events. commemoration of the Battle of Has- This may be illustrated by referring to tings. He fortified the five cinque Horold. He thought himself secure ports of Dover, Hastings, Romsey, but really was not. 2. "Be contented Hythe, and Sandwich. (The may, of with such things as we have." Engcourse, will be used in all these cases.) land only cost William pain and IV. · Character. This may be trouble. 3. "The wicked falleth into gathered from the scholars, by apply- the pit which he hath digged." ing the castle of that place, in a war William loved war and it was in that with Philip II., king of France. His employment, he lost his life. 4. Be horse trod upon some hot ashes and kind and gentle, William failed because overthrew him and he died. He was of his cruelty. buried at Caen. Relate the circumstances which occurred at the burial service, the disturbance caused by the man who arose and called William a
The lesson may be written by the scholars on their slates, taking special notice the Spelling of the names.
[In reference to the Matter of the above lesson we notice the following defects. There is no evidence that Harold thought himself secure, but the opposite. Harold did not meet the Norman Soldiers at Hastings, but at Senlac, nine miles from it. The establishment of the Curfew Bell was not one of the chief events in the reign, though the reduction of England was, yet this is not mentioned, assuming, as it seems, that England was conquered at the battle of Hastings, which is far from the truth. Neither is it true that William reduced the Saxons to serfdom and slavery, except in a qualified sense.
The great essential of Style is clearness, yet you say "refer the children to the year 1066, though your first division relates to the previous condition of of England. What is meant when you say "Harold was shot dead in the
In "Notes of Lessons," Method is greatly important, yet you speak first of the Conquest, and afterwards of the reasons which induced William to undertake it. A more natural order would have been to notice the reasons first, and the more so in this case, as you introduce the previous condition of England, out of which condition, William's reasons really grew. In the third division, you treat of the character of the reign, and then of the events. This is illogical. The character of a reign must be deduced from the events of the reign. Give the children the events of a reign, and if clearly given, they should be able to frame some notions as to its character. But by the "character of the reign" you evidently do not mean what the words import, but a forecasting of probabilities, or results likely to ensue from the character and circumstances of the Conqueror. We think it an error to attempt to introduce an exposition of the Feudal System, alongside of a general stretch of the reign. If necessary to be done, it should be taken up separately, and even then it is more than doubtful, whether the children would be able to lay hold of it. In a lesson, it is not desirable to increase the number of divisions, neither in any case, to make a leading division of a small element. Without attempting any standard number of lines, or amount of matter as constituting an orthodox division, there should never
theless be a little attention to symmetry, with respect to weight and measure. Thus we should not have made William's death a principal division. Its importance does not require it, and its natural place seems to be, a subdivision closing the third head. With respect to the "Lessons" under the sixth head, we think them too many. The deductions, come of course at the close of the lesson, when the time is nearly gone, and the attention of the children often gone altogether. To attempt, under such circumstances, a number of deductions, is to do so, with a certainty of failure. All parties should be satisfied, if one good point is secured. Apart from the number, there is a little objection to the "Lessons" themselves. They seem to want point, and a clear connexion with the matter from which they are professedly drawn. General deductions may be made to fit almost any subject. You should aim at "Lessons" somewhat more special, and make sure of your premises first, otherwise your conclusions fail. Thus it does not appear that "William loved war," neither "that he was cruel," though hard and cold his nature certainly was.]
MATTHEW XVII., 24-27, (See Examination Paper, p. 276.)
I. WORDS AND ALLUSIONS TO BE EXPLAINED. Capernaum.-This was the ordinary residence of our Lord and his family during the period of his ministry. See Matthew iv., 13. and hence account for their application. Compare with Luke ii., 3 & 4 and hence infer that the tribute now demanded was not of the same kind. Tribute. Explain the difference between "tribute" and "tax." Compare "custom" and "dues." Compare Luke ii., 1-3 with Matthew xxii., 17-20, in order to get the scriptural use of the term tribute.
"Jesus prevented him." comes in anxious to inform his master of the demand for the tribute, when Jesus, before He has time, introduces the matter; thus showing his omniscience. Compare with Luke vii., 39 and 40. "Of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute." The argument which these words introduce, shews the sense in which the term tribute is used. It is not in the sense
in which term is used in Matthew xxii., 17, for then the argument would have no force. Refer to the halfshekel tax for religious worship. Exodus xxxviii., 26. The tribute now demanded (didrachma) is of the same value, about fifteen pence; and was doubtless the same tax. Hence the force of our Lord's words. "Then are the children free."
"Then are the children free." Our Lord here asserts his sonship. Compare John ii. 16.
Offend; refer to the ordinary meaning of the word, and show that this is not its scriptural meaning. Compare Matthew v., 29 and 30, xviii., 6 and 7, 1 Cor. viii., 13.
"Go thou to the sea." This miracle may be considered simply as another illustration of our Lord's omniscience; or it may be considered as showing that, with his sovereign power; in which case reference might be made to Mark iv, 41.
II. INCIDENTAL INFERENCES WHILE EXPLAINING THE PASSAGE.
1. The narrative gives an illustra- | his public life to the advancement of tion of Peter's character from which a His great work. In this transaction caution might be urged against rash He shows His proper divinity. assertion.
2. The passage brings out forcibly our Lord's poverty: and is the only instance on record where He exerts His Divine power for His own personal benefit. Compare Matthew iv., 3-4. Hence a lesson of acquiescence in God's providence.
3. Our Lord turns every incident of
(a) His knowledge of what had taken place between Peter and the collectors.
(b) By the argument, that because the tax was for the service of His Father's house, therefore He-the Divine Son-was free.
(c) By the circumstance of the
CHIEF LESSONS TAUGHT IN THE PASSAGE to form topics of inference and illustration after the previous explanation.
1. Submission to established autho- | rity, even when that is wrong-if the matter is indifferent.
2. Yield our rights, suffer wrong
even, in our intercourse with others, rather than throw hindrance in the way of their salvation-" Lest we offend."
"Thy word is a lam; unto my feet, and a light unto my path."
I.-Path; its meaning; our journey through this world. Picture out the journey of a man along a dark road, which he knows not, first without,then with a light.
All men like this man, groping about in the dark; but
II.-The Bible is our light, i.e., to our mind, as the light was to the man on the road. We know not the way to please God or to go to heaven. We are apt to make a way of our own, but
Psalm, cxix., 105. only the Bible can teach and shew us the right way, and settle every doubt in our minds.
III.-What, then, should we be glad to do, and what is it our duty to do, if we wish to find the right way to heaven, and to know what God would have us do?
Text -"Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal li te and these are they which testify of me." J. W. G.
"And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life; he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst."
I.-Bread is the support of life. | Also obtain from the children that we require it again and again even in a single day.
John vi., 35.
II. Draw attention to the Person speaking,-Jesus the Son of God. Also to what He says, "I am the bread of life," &c.
[Under the head I. something fuller might have been given, as the following : (a.) Bread is the support of bodily life.
(b.) We must labour for it.
We must eat it daily.
We must have power to digest it.
Under head II. each of the above subdivisions must be closely followed. Under (a) we must "labour for the meat that perisheth," &c.
Under (d) we must not only eat, but inwardly digest the doctrines and precepts of his Gospel.-ED.]
NOTICES OF BOOKS.
The Science of Arithmetic. By J. Cornwell, Ph.D., and J. G. Fitch, M.A, Simpkin and Co. This work is altogether different from the ordinary school arithmetics. Its special purpose is not commercial arithmetic, though this is included, but, as its title indicates, the Science of arithmetic. It is constructed to meet the wants of those who seek to understand principles, rather than to obtain the power of performing facile operations by mere rule. Hence it is better adapted for teachers and students, than for children, except such as attend superior schools. To these classes, this work sould prove eminently. attractive and useful. This "Science of Arithmetie" is not a hasty production -one of those books rapidly constructed, and thrown into the market to meet a recent demand,—but à structure, skilfully conceived, and deliberately built up, of the result of many years experience in preparing students for publis examinations. The present issue is a revised and corrected edition which we have great pleasure in commending to our readers. The following extract from the Preface will show more fully the character of the work. Many important advantages would accrue to beginners, as well as to advanced students, if arithmetic were regarded more as a branch of mathematical science, and less as a mere system of practical rules. The art of computation is undoubtedly of much value in the business of life; but the habit of investigating the principles on which this art is based, is not of inferior importance. The first gives to the student a mastery of figures which will be serviceable in commercial and scientific pursuits; the second tends to concentrate his attention; to induce habits of patient abstraction, and accurate thought; to familiarize him with the laws of reasoning, and to compel him to examine well the grounds of