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LASTLY, I shall conclude this Dissertation with a few. Reflections on the whole.

1. This subject affords a noble directory for explicit and solemn Covenanting. Jacob turned God's promises into holy resolutions, and solemn professions; and he engaged to improve them, to all holy obedience. This transaction affords an idea of vowing and co-' venanting, vastly different from some modem theories of it: It teacheth us to consider this duty as referring unto divine promises, and articles of faith, as well as unto precepts;—as including engagements unto such duties as are necessary and moral, as well as those which were arbitrary and ritual: "Whereas, the modern theory seems to confine it to those things which are purely indifferent, or ceremonial. This vow of Jacob's teacheth us, that our engagements should include neither less nor more than God hath promised and enjoined. Nor was a famous Christian Council otherways minded : They enacted, That." no one thing is rightly vowed to God, unless we have received it from his hand; seeing all things which are offered to him are his own free gift*."

2. So L EMM vows should be carefully remembcred,that they maybe faithfully performed, and

* The Council of Orange, quoted by Calvin, Institnt. Lib. IV. cap. xiii. § j.

suitably suitably improved. Jacob not only vowed, but also set up a memorial of his vow: And God afterwards renewed his Bethel visits, and Bethel promises, on the one hand ; while Jacob remembered, and fulfilled his engagements on the other. The vows of many, alas 1 are forgotten almost as soon as they are made: But, where the Spirit brings them to remembrance, their salutary fruits will be found many days hence.




P A A T I.

Exod. xix.^———xxiv. 8*

AS this is one of the most stupendious and august scenes that was ever opened on the stage os' this world, we have much need to exercise an humble dependence on the Father of Lights, when we contemplate it. It is not our purpose to examine the various hypothesises which .have been invented on this subject; nor exhibit the foundations on which they have been established, farther than the consideration of these things may be requisite-for the declaration and confirmation of the Truth.

That we may avoid that which has been so

fatal to others, we shall,—I. Shew who are the

• * G g Parties Parties in this transaction.—II. What are the Contents of it.—-III. How it was Confirmed.— IV. What gave Occasion to it.—After which subjoin a sew Reflections on the whole.

FIRST, I am to shew who are the Parties. Covenanting. They are, Jehovah the Son of God; and Moses, with all Israel represented by him. Concerning the Great Author of this Transaction, I may observe,

1. Thou G H the right of le inflation belongs unto God, essentially considered; yet, the publication of the divine laws was executed by the Son, as the Prophet and King of the Olcl Testament Church. No one of the Sacred Three are excluded, indeed; but the Son must be chiefly intended; seeing this grand legislation, and federal transaction with Israel was a part of the execution of his Mediatorial office. This appears from various testimonies, especially from she writers of the New Testament. Stephen styles this Lawgiver the Angel, as well as the Lord God of Abraham, &c. " I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." —■" The angel'who spake with him (viz. Moses) in the mount Sinai *." The glorious speaker is the Most High God, whose name alone is Jehovah the Son; for it is competent

* Acts vii. 3 j. compared with verse $2.

unto unto him alone to be denominated The AxGel. The Psalmist and the Apostle afford their joint suffrage, likewise, in this matter: Said the former, "O God, when thou wentest forth before thy people, when thou didst march through the wilderness; Selah: The earth shook, the heavens also dropped at the presence of God; even Sinai itself was moved at the presence of God, the God of Israel."—1' The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels: The Lord is among them as in Sinai, in the holy place. Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: Thou hart received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the Lord God might dwell among them." And the latter explains it thus: "But unto every one of us is given grace, according to the measure of the gift of Christ. "Wherefore he faith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men *." Moreover, the Apostle declares,


* Psal. I.wiii. 7, 8. and verses 17, 18. compared with Tphcs. iv. 7, 8. The texts have been compared and explained by Zanchius dc Tribus Klohim, p. 34, 35, and 79. Dr Owen considers this us one ot' the most augnlt appearances of the Son of God under that dispensation. Mr Abraham Taylor as an irrefragable proof of the supreme Deity of the Son: On the Trinity, p. 219. A

'certain class of authors, I acknowledge, give a very different'account of this party: They represent him as "acting merely as a temporal prince, giving laws rather intended to direct the outward conduct than to regulate the actings of the heart," Dr Ersiane's Dislcrtations, p. 5. The fame author likeways avers, "God, as hus

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