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togetheV 011 a smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the finoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly. And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered *." How grand the preparation !—

How

* Exod. xix. 16—ro. As inspired, so likeways uninspired poets have been obliged to this scene for imagery. Witness MiltOn and Dr Young:

-" Forth rusli'd with whirlwind found

The chariot of Paternal Deity,

Flashing thick flames, wheel within wheel undrawn,

Itself instinct with spirit, hut convoy'd

By four cherubic shapes; four faces each

Had wondrous; as with stars their bodies all,

And wings were set with eyes, with eyes the wheels

Of beryl, aud careering sires between;

Over their heads a crystal firmament,

Whereon a sapphire throne, inlaid with pure

Amber, and colours ofthe fhow'ry arch,

He, in celestial panoply all arm'd

Of radiant Urim, work divinely wrought, (

Ascended: At his right hand Victory

Sat eagle-wing'd; beside him hung his bow,

And quiver with three-bolted thunder stor'd;

And from about him fierce effusion roll'd

Of smoke, and bick'ring flame, and sparkles dire.

Attended with ten thousand thousand saints,

He onward came; far offhis coming shone;

And twenty thousand (1 their number heard)

Chariots of God, half on each hand, were seen.

He on the wings of cherub rode sublime

On the crystaliue sky, in sapphire thron'd,

Illustrious far and wide."——Parad.i-ost B. VI. 1. y;o.

» «h « Lond How astonishing the phœnomcna! The heavens bow before their maker! The forky lightnings play around the mountain's towering top! The flashes of sire pursue each other with inconceiveable rapidity! The thunder claps are more and more ingeminated! The clangor of the trumpet, the terrible emblem of the archangel's final blast, waxeth louder and louder! The tremendous note wounds nature's trembling ear! Heaven "roans beneath the dreader ©

ful weight! Earth trembles to its verv centre I Stubborn Sinai quakes to its lowest base! The blackness of darkness, and mountains of smoke add unto the horror of the day! Well might Moses exclaim, "I exceedingly fear and quake." Shall the inanimate creation tremble at the giving of the Law, and shall not sinners tremble at the breaking of it? Yes, verily; either in filial fear, while here ; or before a judgementseat, hereafter. In sine, the horror of the former exhibits that of the latter: As the Son of God manifested his Glory at the giving of the law; so he will appear in his own Glory,

"Loud peals of Thunder give the Sign, and all
Heav'n's terrors in array surround the ball;
Sharp lightnings with the meteors blaze conspire,
And darted downward set the world on fire;
Black riling clouds the thicken'd æther choke,
And spiry flames shoot thro' the rolling smoke."

Last Day, Book III.

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and his Father's when lie comes to enquire how men have kept it *.

The other Party is Moses, and all Israel represented by him. Here I may observe,

I; Moses stood in the capacity of a representative, or mediator. He was constituted

Israel's Israel's representative by a special mandate from heaven for that effect: "The Lord called to him (viz. Moses) out of the mount, faying, Thus lhalt thou fay to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel," &c. "These are the words which thou shalt speak unto die children, of Israel. And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which the Lord commanded him. And all the people answered together, and said, All that the Lord hadi spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the Lord. And the Lord said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever *." And immediately before giving die ten commandments, by the voice of God from Sitiai, his commission is renewed: " And thou ilialt come up, thou and Aaron with thee: but let not the priests, nor the people, break through, to come up unto the Lord, lest he break forth upon them*." Thus he was authorised to draw near to God in the room of the people, as well as to deal with the people in the name of the Lord.

* " Here-was the lightning darted in their eyes, the thunders roaring in their ears, tile trumpet of God drowning the thunder-claps, the voice of God out-speaking the trumpet of the angel; the cloud enwrapping, the smoke ascending, the fire naming, the mount trembling, Moses climbing and quaking, paleness and death in the face of Israel, uproar in the elements, and all the glory of heaven turned into terror. In the destruction of the first world; there was clouds without lire: In.thede-stru^ftiun of Sodom, there was fire raining without clouds: but here was fire, smoke, clouds, thunder, earthquakes, and whatsoever might work more astonishment, than e

"ver was in any vengeance inflicted. And if the Law

were thus given, how mall it be required .' If such were the proclamation of God's statutes, what shall the sessions be? I lee, and tremble at the resemblance. The trumpet of the angel called unto the one: The voice of an arch-angel, the trumpet of God, shall summon us to the other. To the one, Moses (that climbed up that hill, and alone saw it) says, God came with ten thousand of his faints; in the other, thousand thousands shall minister to him, and ten thousand thousands shall stand before him. In the one, mount Sinai only was in a flame ; all the world shall be so in the other: In the one, there was sire, smoke, thunder, and lightning; in the other, a iiery stream shall ifliie from him, wherewith the heavens shall Le dissolved, and the elements shall melt away with a noise. O God, how powerful art thou to

Hli 2 inflict

inflict vengeance upon sinners, who didst thus forbid sin! -And if thou wert so terrible a lawgiver, what a judge lhalt thou appear? What {hall become of the breakers of so fiery a law ? Oh, Where shall those appear that are guilry of the transgressing that law, whose very delivery was little less than death! If our God should exact his law but in the fame rigor wherein he gave it, sin could not quit, the cost: Bnt now the fire wherein it was delivered, was but terrifying; the fire wherein, it sliall be required, is consuming. Happy are those that are from under the terrors of that law, which was given in sire, and in sire shall be required." Hall's Conteinp. Book V.

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2. God considers Israel, in this transaction, as already a covenanted Seed. This is evident from the account which he gives of them himself, when he called them unto this duty: "Thus shalt thon fay unto the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel," &c. They had dedicated themselves to God, and taken Israel's God for their God, in the loins of their father Jacob. This is equally certain from the relative character by which Cod made himself known in this transaction: He revealed himself in the very same character by which he was known to Moses at the Bush; there he engaged to meet with IVIoses, and all Israel, at tins mount: "Certainly 1 will be with thee: and this mail be a token unto thee; when thou hast brought forth the people out of F.gypt, ye (hall lervc God on this mountain j." Now, the gracious accomplisher of this promise was no other than " the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." And God, who best knows his own designs, declares, that this transaction was a renovation and ad-.

• Exod. xix. 24. + Exod. iii. 12. See also verse 6.

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