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"What promises were made unto him ?—When was it made ?—And how ratified?
1. What Character did David sustain in this Covenant? In general, He was God's viceroy over the Theocratical Kingdom,—a type of the Messiah, in his regal dignity: Hence this covenant is, with propriety, called a CoVenant Of Royalty. The analogy between the type and the antitype is manifest.
• i. As David was born in an obscure manner at Bethlehem, which* was little among the thousands of Judah; so also was Christ. The family was so far below the regal dignity, when the Messiah was born, that his supposed father handled the hatchet, instead of swaying the sceptre. And divine providence so moved the vast machine of the Roman empire, unweildy as it was, that the family of David, like a small pinion, was just at the point of Bethlehem against the moment, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Micah: "And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, art not the least among the thousands of Judah; for out of thee shall come a governor that slial! rule my people *."
2. Like David, the Messiah was the BeLoved Son of God. God's regard to David is more than insinuated in his name; for it signifies Beloved *. David was the beloved son of God by regeneration and adoption: The Messiah is the Son Of God on an infinitely higher account, even his eternal generation. As God announced his love to David in the discharge of his oifice, so did he also to Christ.
* Micah v. 2.
3. Like David, the Messiah was consecrated with an eminently glorious anointing .
That David mijjht be a more distingruilhed type of the Messiah in this respect, he was anointed three different times with material oil. He "was anointed by Samuel in Bethlehem, during the life and reign of Saul. And in this he typified that fulness of the Spirit which Christ enjoyed prior to his personal ministry. Again, David was anointed in Hebron, when he obtained the kingdom of Judah only. And Christ was also anointed with the» Holy Ghost, when he began to set up his kingdom in the land of Judea, by his personal ministry. In fine, David was again anointed when constituted king overall Israel. And, in like manner, the Messiah was enriched witli
* TD Sonans-AMABILEM et Dilectum. Sock, in Voc. "Utrinque etiam dilecti a Deo, argiimentinn eft, Filii Dei, et q 11 idem primo geniti, attribntum. Davidi, enim per regenerationis, et adoptionis gratiam, qua inter. Reges terræ excel]uit: Christo, vero -per generationis «■teriijc naturam, qua ita Filius Primogenitus, ut ctiam Unit, En 1 r us jure nuncupetur," F. Gouiar. Disput. Theol. Dili: xvi. 12.
C c c 2 a glorious a glorious fulness, when he fat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high *. He was Constituted both Lord and Christ. Jesus was, indeed, a Prince, in point of actual rule, as soon as he had any subjects in this world; and, in this respect, he excels David; but his three-fold unction did immediately precede the glorious exercise of his power in human nature. David was only anointed to the prophetic and regal office; but Christ was anointed unto these, and the priestly office in like manner. Should any enquire, Whether this covenant was made with David as a faint, or as a king? Whether in his private, or in his public character? I would answer, Though it respected his own salvation, as appears from his own confession j'; yet it was made with him in the character of a king. The truth is, no one of these considerations can be excluded, though the kingly character is chiefly intended: For it respected David's successors in office, as well as himself; but it does not appear that all of them were saints. The office was typically holy, although the person who bore it was frequently morally impure.
* I Sam. xvi. 13. 2 Sam. ii. 4. 2 Sam. v. 3. I am indebted to Cloppenbnrg for these observations, Vide Dispnt. Select. Tlieol. Disput. xvii. § 18. The thought is finely pursued by H. Witsius, in Symbol. Excrcit. ix.
f 2 Sam. xxiii. j.
II. I Shall now shew, What promises were made unto him.
I. God promsed him a royal Seed to succeed him in his thronc_ and kingdom. This is, indeed, the capital promise in this covenant* "I will set up thy Seed after thee, which (hall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establilh his kingdom."—" And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever*." "I will raise up thy Seed after thee, which shall be of thy sons, and I will cstablish his kingdom,"—" I will establish his throne for ever."—" I will settle him in mine house, and in my kingdom for ever; and his throne shall be establiihcd for evermore j"." This Sr; Ed was Solomon and his successors, in shadow j and a greater than Solomon, in substance. But, to take a narrower survey of this promise, we may observe the subject of it,— A-seed. Solomon is undoubtedly intended as the literal feed: For the promise was given to satisfy David's mind ay, to the building of the Temple. The prediction, accordingly, received a circumstantial accomplishment in him:
* 2 Sam. vii. 12, and 16.
t 1 Cliron. xvii. ir, 12, and 14. Psal. lxxxix. ami cxx.xii. much to the same purpose. These promises ;:re meant of Christ, at first instance j aiul contain an allusion to those mentioned in the history, rather than arcpetition os them.
But But it is also applied to Christ by the Apostle Peter: " Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne."—" Therefore, let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus whom ye have crucified both Lord and Christ *." This promise, then, was an advancement in the first promise, which had been renewed in various others, prior unto this time. Again, We have the Honou R
to be conferred on this Seed, even a throne and a kingdom. This promise found David on a throne, indeed; but it secured the succession in his family: And the fame thing had been promised, in substance, unto Judah, under the notion of a sceptre and a lawgiver. It included not only civil polity within themselves, but also the ensigns of royalty. Judah could not be deprived of both before the coming of the Siiiloh. That tribe was assured of pre-eminence by Jacob's testament, which ■was equivalent to a divine promise: But the import and ends of it are not so easily ascertained. The nature of it seems to imply royalty in swaying the Scjeptrf. ; and legislation in the high court of the Sanhedrim, with the explication of these la\vs bv the .Scribes "J" : For
if * Aifts ii. 30, and }6. •j- Ji'Nius, as well as Eusedius, of old, explained tliis sceptic os the ILaff -which, supported the ensign in the