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abhor them, amongst other particular heads of Papistry abjured therein. And, therefore, from the knowledge and conscience of our duty to God, to our King and country, without any worldly respect or inducement, so far as human infirmity will suffer, wishing a further measure of the Grace of God for this effect; We promise and swear, by the Great Name Of The Lord Our God, to continue in the profession and obedience of the foresaid religion; and that we shall defend the same, and resist all these contrary errors and corruptions, according to our vocation, and to the uttermost of that power that God hath put in our hands, all the days of our life.

And, in like manner, with the fame heart, we declare, before God and men, That we have no intention nor desire to attempt'any thing that may turn to the dishonour of God, or to the diminution of the King's greatness and authority :. But, on the contrary, we promise and swear, That we shall, to the uttermost of our power, with our means and lives, stand to tlie defence of our dread Sovereign the King's Majesty, his person and authority, in the defence and preservation of the foresaid true religion, liberties, and laws of the kingdom: As also, to the mutual defence and assistance every one of Us of another, in the fame cause of maintaining: the true religion and his Majesty's authority, with our best counsel, our bodies, means, and whole power, against all


sorts of persons whatsoever; so that whatsoever shall be clone to the least of us for that cause, shall be taken as done to us ajl in general, and to every one of us in particular. And , that we shall neither directly nor indirectly suffer ourselves to be divided or withdrawn, by whatsoever suggestion, combination, allurement, or terror, from this blessed and loyal conjunction; nor shall cast any let or impediment that may stay or hinder any such resolution, as, by common consent, mail be found to conduce for so good ends: But, on the contrary, shall, by all lawful means, labour to further and promove the fame; and if any such dangerous and divisive motion be made to us, by word or writ, We, and every one of us, (ball either suppress it, or, if need be, (hall incontinent make the fame known, that it may be timeoufly obviated. Neither do we fear the foul aspersions of rebellion, combination, or what else our adversaries, from their craft and malice, would put upon us; seeing what we do is so well warranted, and ariseth from an unfeigned desire to maintain the true worship.of God, the Majesty of our King, and the peace of the kingdom, for the common happiness of ourselves and our posterity.

And because we cannot look for a blessing from God upon our proceedings, except with our profession and subscription we join such a life and conversation as beseemeth Christians who have renewed their covenant with God:


"We therefore, faithfully promise, for ourselves^ our followers, aud nil others under us, both in public and in our particular families, and personal carriage, to endeavour to keep ourselves within the bounds of Christian liberty; and to be good examples to others of all godliness^ soberness, and righteousness, and of every duty we owe to God and man.

An D , that this our union and conjunction may be observed without violation, We call the LiVing God, T H F. Search E R Of Our Hearts, to witness, who kuoweth this to be our (incere desire and unfeigned resolution, as we shall answer to Jesus Christ in the great day, and under the pain of God's everlasting wrath, and of infamy and loss of all honour and respect in this world: Most humbly beseeching the Lord to strengthen us by his Holy Spirit for this end, and to bless our desires and proceedings with a happy success, that religion and righteousness may flourish in the land, to the glory of God the honour of our King, the peace and comfort of us all. In witness we have subscribed with our hands all the premisses."

Both nations having entertained ideas of civil power directly opposite to King Charles I. and as he considered Episcopal government as a more proper instrument of prerogative than any other form. The Parliament, with which he differed, having called together an Assembly bly of Divines, for the advancement of religion, they made considerable progress in the Dullness; while the Parliament promoted the cause of civil liberty. Charles had" recourse to arms. His opponents meant to defend themselves: And, having called in the astistance of their brethren in Scotland, they would comply only on condition of the South Britons joining with them in an ecclesiastic union, for promoting uniformity in religion, in conformity to the best Reformed Churches. Though the measure was disagreeable to many politicians ; yet, for political reasons, rather than religious motives, they complied with it: And the following Covenant, entided The Solemn League And Covenant, was entered into:

"WE Noblemen, Barons^ KnightSj Gentlemen, Citizens, Burgesses, Ministers of the Gospel, and Commons of all forts, in the kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland, by the providence of God living under one King, and being of one Reformed Religion, having beford our eyes the glory of God, and the advancement of the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, the honour and happiness of the King's Majesty and his posterity, and the true public liberty, sifety and peace of the kingdom, wherein every one's private condition is included: And calling to mind the treacherous and bloody plots, conspiracies, attempts, and practices of the enemies of God against the true religion, * N n n n and

and profcflbrs thereof, in all places, especially in these three kingdoms, ever since the Reformation of Religion ;v and how much their rage, power, and presumption are of late, and this time, increased and exercised, whereof the deplorable state of the Church and Kingdom of Ireland, the distressed estate of the Church and Kingdom of England, and the dangerous estate of the Church and Kingdom of Scotland, are present and public testimonies: We have now, at last, (after odier means of supplication, re-> monstrance, protestations, and sufferings), for the preservation of ourselves and our religion from utter ruin and destruction, according to the commendable practice of these kingdoms in former times, and the example of God's people in other nations, after mature deliberation, resolved and determined to enter into a mutual and Solemn League and Covenant, wherein we all subscribe, and each of us for himself, with our.hands lifted up to the Most High God, do swear,

I. That we shall sincerely, really, and constantly, through the grace of God, endeavour, in our several places and callings, the preservr*tion of the Reformed Religion in the Church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, discipline and government, against our common enemies; the Reformation of Religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government, according to the Word of God, and the example of the best


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