« AnteriorContinuar »
επί τον του ηλίου βωμόν τίθησιν αυτά, και ούτως εις τουπίσω αφορμα. Οι ούν ιερείς επισκέπτονται τας αναγραφές των χρόνων, και ευρίσκουσιν αυτόν πεντακοσιοστού έτους πεπληρωμένου εληλυθέναι. Μέγα και θαυμαστον ούν νομίζομεν είναι, ει ο δημιουργός των πάντων ανάστασιν ποιήσεται των οσίως αυτή δουλευσάντων έν πεποιθήσει πίστεως αγαθής, όπου και δι' ορνέου δείκνυσιν ημίν το μεγαλείον της επαγγελίας αυτού. Λέγει γάρ που και εξαναστήσεις με, και εξομολογήσομαί σοι. Και εκοιμήθην και ύπνωσα, εξηγέρθην, ότι συ μετ' εμού ει. Και πάλιν Ιώβ λέγει Και αναστήσεις την σάρκα μου ταύτην, την αναντλήσασαν ταύτα návra.
That this account of the Phønix is fabulous, Tacitus himself declares; though he adds, aspici aliquando in Ægypto eam volucrem non ambigitur : and even Herodotus professes himself incredulous respecting the stories which the Heliopolitans told him respecting the phenomenon. At the same time it was very generally believed, and gave rise to divers discussions about the time that Clement wrote ; SÓ that it was by no means unnatural that he should adopt it, though a vulgar superstition, as an illustration of the doctrine which he was anxious to establish. Whether he believed it or not was of little consequence : he knew it to be generally believed ; and those who did not withhold their credit from a prodigy so remarkable, could not with any reason deny the possibility of a resurrection. It is more than probable, however, that Clement was as credulous as others; but if his credulity is to raise an exception to the genuineness of his epistle, it will be no easy task to vindicate the writings of many others of the Fathers from a similar imputation. Tertullian, Origen, Cyril, Eusebius, Gregory Nazienzen, Epiphanius, Jerom, and several others, have employed precisely the same argument in proof of the same fact ; and of course their respective writings, in which their credulity is similarly exemplified, must stand or fall together.
The charge of ignorance depends entirely upon the mention which Clement makes, in chap. xx. of a worlds beyond the ocean." In this expression, however, he has merely adopted a mode of speaking, perfectly familiar to the age in which he lived. Thus Seneca calls the British isles orbem ultra oceanum ; and Virgil calls them penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos. Some, however, have supposed that the words in question allude to some country, yet unknown, of the discovery of which, Aristotle, Plato, and indeed the ancients generally, seem to have had some vague expectation. Either supposition will abundantly account for the use of the expression; but perhaps the former is more satisfactory.
Considering, then, the genuineness of the epistle to be fully established, the next point of inquiry is the time when it was written. On this subject there is no less difference of opinion than respecting the date of the writer's episcopacy. In the opening of the epistle it is given as a reason for the delay which had occurred in replying to the letter from Corinth, that they had been prevented by the calamities which had lately befallen them. Those who assign the earliest date to the bishoprick of Clement, or who suppose that he may have written his epistle before he was raised to that office, refer these calamities to the persecutions under Nero; and in support of their opinion they adduce a passage from the forty-first chapter, which seems, at first sight, to intimate that the Temple at Jerusalem was then standing. Hence they date the epistle between the years 64 and 70 of the Christian era. It is by no means clear, however, that the inference, which is drawn from the passage in question, can be established. Clement, it is true, says, in the present tense, the Levitical sacrifices are not offered every where, but only at Jerusalem ; but so also does Josephus (Ant. III. 9. 1.), in a passage precisely similar, and where the reference is avowedly subsequent to the destruction of · Jerusalem. It may be, therefore, that nothing more is intended, than that such was the appointment of the Mosaic law; and we must look for some other more determinate rules of time upon which to fix a more solid conclusion. Now from the forty-fourth chapter of the epistle it should seem that all the Apostles were now dead; in chap. xlvii. St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians is said to have been written in the beginning of the Gospel; and again, the Church of Corinth is called an ancient Church. These expressions are clearly more suitable to the age of Domitian than of Nero; and as the letter was confessedly written shortly after a period of persecution, its most probable date is the year 96. Of this date, which is Lardner's, it is a strong confirmation that Irenæus and the other Fathers, who make Clement the successor of Anencletus, agree in fixing it to the time of his episcopacy.
Our limits warn us to break off for the present month. We shall enter upon the examination of the epistle itself, and the other writings attributed to Clement, in our next Number.
The RUBRICK of the CHURCH OF ENGLAND, examined and considered ; · and its use and OBSERVANCE most earnestly recommended to all its
Members, according to the intent and meaning of it. By THOMAS COLLIS, D. D. of Magd. Coll. Oxon. London, 1737.
(Continued from p. 240.) The Ministration of Public Baptism of Infants. BAPTISM is to be administered upon Sundays, and other holidays, when the most number of people come together, as well that the congregation there present may testify the receiving of them that be newly baptized into the number of Christ's church ; as also because in the Baptism of Infants, every man present may be put in remembrance of his own profession made to God in his Baptism. Nevertheless, (if necessity so require,) children may be baptized upon any other day.
In the very early times of Christianity, whilst the faithful were under a state of persecution, there was no settled place of administering the rite of Baptism. It was then performed in the rivers, springs, and fountains, which occasioned that which contains the water to be called a font. It is commonly placed by the door or entrance into the church, to signify, that by that we are admitted into the congregation of Christ's flock.
And note, That there shall be for every male child to be baptized, two
godfathers and one godmother; and for every female, one godfather and two godmothers.
By the Canon 29, no parent is admitted to answer for his own child. Parents of children are already engaged under such strict bonds, by nature and religion, to take care of their children's education, that the Church does not think that she can lay them under greater.
It very often happens, that children are baptized at home, by some lawful Minister that can be procured. The Minister, therefore, always asks, whether the child has been already baptized or no ? If they answer, No, then shall the Priest proceed. · Then shall the Priest say, Let us pray. Though the people kneel down here, yet the Priest continues standing.
Then shall the people stand up, and the Priest shall say.
Before the two very same prayers in the office of Baptism for those of riper years, we read, And here all the congregation shall kneel. And then shall the people stand up.
Though there is no direction for the people to kneel any more, till Priest and people do so after the child is grafted into the body of Christ's Church; yet how often is it seen that they all kneel at the Thanksgiving, after the Exhortation, in which they were designed to express the elevation of their souls in their lifting them up unto the Lord.
The late Reverend Author of the “ Paraphrase, with Annotations on the Common Prayer,” page 203, intreats his brethren, to make a small pause at the end of the answers, that the congregation may have sufficient time to kneel down and direct their minds to God, and be ready to join in the following excellent prayers, though one of them is a consecratory one.
When the Minister has taken the child into his hands, if it is a boy, he says to the Godfathers; if a girl, to the Godmothers, Name this child.
There are some that sprinkle water upon the child at the name of each person of the ever blessed Trinity, the more fully to express that sacred mystery.
The Ministration of Private Baptism of Children in houses. The Curates of every parish shall often admonish the people, that they do not defer the Baptism of their children longer than the first or second Sunday next after their birth, or other holiday falling between, unless upon a great and reasonable cause, to be approved by the Curate. For this we have the practice of Zacharias, and others; “ And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child.” St. Luke, chap. i.
The ministrations of Private Baptism are not complied with, without great cause and necessity; but when need shall compel them to have it so done, let the Minister of the parish, or any other lawful Minister, with them that are present, call upon God, and say the Lord's Prayer,
and so many of the Collects, (the Consecratory Prayer for dedicating the water should be always one,) appointed to be said before in the form of public baptism, as the time and present exigence will suffer.
Water once blessed in so solemn a manner, and used to so sacred a purpose, should be taken care of by the Minister how it is dis'posed of. If the child do afterwards live, it is expedient that it be brought into
the Church, to the intent that if the Minister of the same parish did himself baptize that child, the congregation may be certified that he did so.
In which case he says, as he would if the child was baptized by any other Minister, I certify you that in this case, all is well done, &c.• I certify you, that according to the due and prescribed order of the Church, at such a time, and at such a place, before divers witnesses, I baptized this child, who being born in original sin, and in the wrath of God, is now by the laws of regeneration in Baptism received into the number of the children of God;' and so on to the end of the office. · After the Minister has read the brief exhortation upon the words of the Gospel, the people are apt to kneel down at the Lord's Prayer; but neither Priest or people are to do so, till they are to give thanks unto Almighty God for these benefits, and with one accord make their prayers unto him, that the child may lead the rest of his life according to this beginning.
After which yielding of thanks and prayers to God, all standing up, the Minister shall, &c.
As there is no addition printed here to the exhortation, it is easy to turn to it in Public Baptism. The Ministration of Baptism to such as are of Riper Years, and able to
answer for themselves. This office was thought to be composed by Dr. Griffith, Bishop of St. Asaph.
“ In 1662, in a Convocation of the Clergy then held, he concurred effectually in drawing up the Act of Uniformity, and making certain altérations in the Common Prayer then set out."— Athene Oxonienses, Vol. II. p. 271.
This is an office, that is so seldom used, that whenever it is, more than ordinary care is commonly taken about it. The persons are before-hand examined, whether they be sufficiently instructed in the principles of the Christian religion, and able to answer for themselves, when they take this great charge upon them. · All sureties are equally obliged to be thus qualified, who take upon themselves the trust of answering for others; as these are required to be, when they come to answer for themselves. The Gospel is the discourse our Saviour had with Nicodemus, touching the necessity of Baptism, and which is followed by an admirable exhortation of the same nature, taken out of several parts of Scripture. . It would be very useful for all persons to read this ministration carefully over before they come to be confirmed.....
A Catechism, that is to say, an Instruction to be learned of every Person, . . before he be brought to be confirmed by the Bishop.
Since children, in their baptism by their spiritual parents, engage to renounce the devil and all his works, to believe in God and to serve him, it is fit they be taught, so soon as they be able to learn,, what a solemn vow, promise, and profession they have made. Accordingly, after the offices appointed for baptism, follows this Catechism, which is an instruction first taught and instilled into a person, and then repeated upon examination, which sort of examination we frequently meet with in holy writ.
“Are ye able,” says our Saviour to James and John, (Matt. xx.) " to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with ?”—They say unto him, “We are able," ¿. e. We can with courage undergo affliction and persecution. And in St. John, we find him questioning Martha, much after the same manner. “ Believest thou this; or, dost thou believe this?”-She saith unto him, “ Yea, Lord, I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world.” And in the Acts of the Apostles, “ If thou believest,” says Philip to the Eunuch, “ with all thine heart, thou mayest be baptized.”- And he answered and said, “ I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God;" i.e. I believe all the prophecies of the Messiah to be fulfilled in Christ, and consequently that he is the Son of God.
There are some Ministers who choose to examine the youth sent to them, out of the pulpit ; for though the time and labour which is spent about preaching, is much more profitably bestowed in catechising ; yet the adult part of the congregation, especially the more zealous and precise part of it, who cannot but own that they receive the greatest benefit from it, are found not to attend so constantly, when this duty is performed only from the reading pew. The Curate of every parish shall diligently, upon Sundays and holidays,
after the Second Lesson at Evening Prayer, openly instruct and
examine so many children of his parish sent unto him as he shall · think convenient.
This order does not oblige Ministers to catechise every Sunday or holiday, but only as often as need requires, according to the number of children sent. In parishes where the inhabitants are very numerous, they may catechise often; otherwise the time of Lent may be sufficient, in imitation of the primitive Church, which had their solemn catechisings during that season. "
There are several houses in the country, beside hamlets, that are at a great distance from the Church. If children were to be catechised every Sunday, and the Catechism explained to them as required, those that live so remote from the Church, could not spare time, especially in the winter, from their daily business; but would easily be induced to excuse themselves from attending at so long a service.
This duty is performed in the midst of divine service, that the presence of masters and parents might be an encouragement to their servants and children to a diligent performance of their duty therein,