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establish the believers, to settle the wavering, to force from the pagan idolater an unwilling assent to the superior blessedness of that religion which could yield support under the most afflicting tortures, and thus to convert the wondering infidel to the faith of Christ.
Ignatius left Antioch in the custody of ten soldiers, and proceeded on foot to Seleucia, where he took ship, and arrived, after a tedious voyage, at Smyrna. During a short stay in this place, he had an interview of the most affectionate and consolatory nature with his fellow-disciple Polycarp, who was Bishop of the city; the two friends mutually supporting each other under the present trying circumstances, and rejoicing in the progress which, by their means, Christianity was making in the world. From a passage in one of his Epistles, (Rom. 5. 5.) it is easily inferred, that this indulgence was procured for him at the suit of his companions, who proffered money to his guards for that purpose ; for the brutality with which it was their usual practice to treat him, is altogether inconsistent with the gratuitous offer of such a favour. They were induced, no doubt, by similar considerations, to admit into his presence the Bishops and Clergy of most of the neighbouring districts, who came to meet him at different stages of his journey, and to accommodate him with the means of writing valedictory epistles to several of the Churches in Asia Minor. From Smyrna he wrote to the Ephesians, the Magnesians, the Trallians, and also to Rome; and from Troas, to the church of Smyrna, which he had lately visited, and to that of Philadelphia. The Epistle to the Smyrnæans was accompanied with a private letter to their Bishop, Polycarp, reminding him of his episcopal duties, and exhorting him to be faithful in the discharge of them.
At Troas, Ignatius received the gratifying intelligence, that the persecution at Antioch had considerably abated since his departure; a rescript having been issued by the Emperor, to the effect that the Christians should not be sought after, and only punished upon conviction. From Troas he sailed to Neapolis ; from thence proceeded to Philippi; and, passing through Macedonia and Epirus, he came to Puteoli. He would fain have walked from Puteoli, in the footsteps of St. Paul, through the Appii Forum, and Three Taverns, to Rome; but a brisk wind springing up, his request was not complied with, and a day and night brought them to Ostia; whence he was hurried, with increased expedition, to the place of execution. The Roman Christians met him at the gates of the city, and some of them were disposed to exert themselves in his behalf; but Ignatius refused their affectionate zeal, and entreated them to place no impediment in the way between him and his Lord. He was accordingly led before the Prætor; and one of their great festivals was fixed for his execution ; upon which, before a vast concourse of spectators, he was torn to pieces by wild beasts in the amphitheatre. A few bones were all that remained of the holy martyr, which were conveyed to Antioch, and carefully deposited, wrapped in a napkin, in a cemetery near the city. In an after age, as the pious memory for the early saints degenerated into a superstitious and idolatrous veneration of their relics, these bones were disinterred by the Emperor Theodosius, and placed in a votive temple erected for their reception.
But it so
The date of the martyrdom of Ignatius,-and therefore of his Epistles, which were written during his journey from Antioch to Rome, -is reckoned, by Basnage, among the obscurities of chro. nology; and the learned are greatly at issue in their opinions respecting it. The “Acts of his Martyrdom" say expressly that he was condemned by Trajan in person, who came to Antioch in the ninth year of his reign, which corresponds with the year 106. It appears, however, from Dion Cassius, (LXVIII. 781.) that the Emperor was at Antioch in the year 116, when the city was visited by a tremendous earthquake, during which he scarcely escaped from the ruin of the house in which he resided. Now there is no record of the arrival of Trajan at Antioch before the year and therefore, Pearson, Grabe, and others, would substitute the nineteenth*
year, for the ninth, in the “ Acts,” fixing the martyrdom to the year 116, when Trajan is known to have been in that city. happens, that these “ Acts,” in a subsequent passage, (6.) state that Ignatius suffered under the consulate of Sura and Senecius, which corresponds with the year 107; and is also that which Eusebius, in his Chronicon, assigns to the same event. In this date Jerome also agrees. Against the testimony of these writers, that of Malala, a writer of the sixth century, can have little weight; and the evidence greatly preponderates in favour of the earlier date. To get rid of the difficulty arising from the circumstance that Trajan was not at Antioch in this year, Lardner questions the genuineness of the “ Acts,” observing, that Eusebius does not attribute the condemnation of Ignatius to the Emperor in person. But the chronology of the Parthian war is involved in considerable doubt; and, as preparations were certainly making for a war in that quarter as early as the year in question, Trajan may possibly have been in Antioch, for a short time, during that year, and returned to Rome upon the cessation of hostilities. He may, therefore, have passed sentence upon the bishop, as stated in the “ Acts;" according to which, the day on which he suffered was the 20th of December, A. D. 107, in about the eightieth year of his age.
We must defer the consideration of his Writings to our next Number.
No IX. BISHOP PORTEus's List. The following Books, among others, were recommended to Candidates for Orders, by Bishop Porteus. A pen was drawn through the works now placed between brackets, and those printed in Italics were substituted, or added in manuscript.
FOR DEACON'S ORDERS. The New Testament in the Original, Paraphrase) the Comment of Patrick, with Whitby's Commentary.
the time will admit, in the Original, Grotius de Veritate Religionis Chris-. or the Septuagint, with (Wells's tianæ. * That is, in Greek numerals, 10' instead of o'. will readily be granted that the might easily have been displaced.
(Clarke's Evidences of Natural and Collier's Sacred Interpreter. Revealed Religion.)
Gibson's Pastoral Letters. Paley's Evidences of the Christian Re- Bishop Pretyman's Elements of Chrisligion.
tian Theology Pearson on the Creed.
Barrow's, Tillotson's, Clarke's, SherBurnet on the Thirty-nine Articles. lock's, and Secker's Sermons. Wheatly on the Common Prayer.
FOR PRIEST'S ORDERS. The Old Testament continued with Butler's Analogy, with Bishop Halli
(Wells's Paraphrase) Patrick and fax's Introduction.
Lowth, and Pool's Synopsis. Stillingfleet's Origines Sacræ. Wake's Apostolical Fathers.
Newton's Dissertations on the ProMosheim's Ecclesiastical History.
phecies. Burnet's History of the Reformation. Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity.
No. X. ARCHDEACON WRANGHAM's List. “Si me conjectura non fallit, totius Reformationis pars integerrima est in Anglia, ubi cum studio Veritatis viget studium Antiquitatis.”—Isaaci Casaub. Epist. ad Salmas.
Candidates for Deacons' Orders should be thoroughly versed in the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in the Greek Testament; and, for those of Priests, in the Epistles in addition. If they can construe them into correct Latin, so much the better.
Both classes ought, likewise, to have a complete knowledge of the Old and New Testament narratives, the principal evidences of Christianity, and its fortunes, from the death of its Divine Founder, to its establishment under Constantine the Great ; as likewise of the leading doctrines of the Church of England, its reformation from Popery, and the chief tenets of the various English Dissenters; in many of which particulars, Bishop Tomline's “ Elements of Christian Theology” will be found of important service. Dr. Doddridge's "Family Expositor" is, also, a work which can scarcely be commended too much, or consulted too frequently.
To this should, farther, be added a perfect acquaintance with Grotius “De Veritate Religionis Christianæ," and the power of translating with facility any of the Thirty-nine Articles from English into Latin, and vice versa.
To occupy the Clergy after their ordination, three Lists of Books are subjoined, adapted (as it is, after much consideration, concluded) to their successive stages of theological proficiency. Many a welldisposed young divine, it may be feared, for want of some such humble guide as is supplied by the first (not pressing too heavily upon either the intellect or the purse), has gradually felt his purposes of virtuous industry give way, and afforded a melancholy illustration of the sentence of the Roman historian, Invisa primò desidia postremò amatur. If he render himself master of the first, it can hardly be doubted, that he will seize every opportunity of going on to the second at least. The latter part of the third will be, in every sense, of more arduous acquisition.
Sylloge Confessionum sub tempus reD'Oyly's and Mant's Bible.
formandæ Ecclesiæ. Parkhurst's Greek Lexicon.
Pearson on the Creed.
Butler's Analogy of Natural and ReJennings' Jewish Antiquities.
vealed Religion. Wells' Geography of the Old and New Magee on Atonement and Sacrifice. Testament.
Beveridge's Thesaurus Theologicus. Tomline's Elements of Christian Theo- Trapp on the Gospels. logy.
Barrow's Select Sermons. Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History.
Beausobre and L'Enfant's Introduction Burnet's History of the Reformation
to the New Testament. Abridged.
Jortin on the Truth of the Christian Van Mildert's Bampton Lectures for
Nott's Bampton Lectures. Skelton's Deism Revealed.
Watson's Theological Tracts.
The Clergyman's Assistant.
1.-LXXII. Virorum Versio. Shepherd on the Common Prayer.
Trommii Concordantiæ Græcæ. Prideaux's Connexion of the Old and
Biel Thesaurus Philologicus. New Testament.
Suiceri Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus. Newton's Dissertations on the Pro- Wetstein Prolegomena in N. T. phecies.
Cave Ecclesiastica Historia Literaria. Campbell's Dissertation on Miracles.
Jones on the Canon of the N. T. Secker's Works.
Leland's View of the Deistical Writers. Sherlock's Sermons.
Van Mildert’s Sermons on Infidelity. (Randolph's) Encheiridion Theologi- Bennet's Abridgment of the London
Cases, The Clergyman's Instructor.
Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses.
Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon.
Kennicott Dissertatio Generalis. Routh Reliquiæ Sacræ.
Hodius De Bibliorum Textibus OrigiSchleusneri Lexicon in N. T.
nalibus. Schmidii Concordantiæ Græcæ N. T. Bythner's Lyra Prophetica. Elsley's Annotations on the Gospels Glassii Philologia Sacra, by Dathe. and Acts.
Fabricii Lux Salutaris Evangelii. Slade's Annotations on the Epistles. Lightfoot's Works. Macknight's Harmony of the Gospels. Lowth De Sacrâ Poësi Hebræorum. Stillingfleet's Origines Sacræ.
Michaelis' Introduction to the N. T.
No. XI.-BISHOP BURgess's List. A List of Books to be read or abridged by the Candidates in their
preparatory Studies. 1.-Mason on Self-knowledge. Bishop Bull's Companion for CandiDewar on Personal & Family Religion. dates for Holy Orders. Wilks's Essay on the Signs of Conver- Bishop Burnet's Pastoral Care.
sion and Unconversion in Ministers Bishop Taylor's Advice to the Clergy. of the Church.
William Law's Advice to the Clergy. VOL. XII.
Baxter's Reformed Pastor.
Sir H. Lind's Via Tuta and Via Devia.
the English Church, and of the
Sects which have separated from it. Stillingfleet’s Unreasonableness of Dis
sert. Nichols's Defence of the Church of
2.- The Bible.
4.--Herbert's Priest to the Temple.
and the Sick Man's Friend.
3.—Wheatly on the Common Prayer.
Errors of the Church of Rome.
Grey's Ecclesiastical Law.
VISITATION SERMONS. It is, we believe, customary to select for the preachers of Visitation Sermons, the last new incumbents in the Archdeaconry or Diocese. These are, of course, on an average, the young and inexperienced in ministerial duties. Is it then, we would ask, well that to such should be entrusted the office of preaching to the assembled clergy? The system serves certainly well enough for introducing the new comer to his clerical neighbours; it gives them a convenient opportunity of judging what sort of a person, or, at least, what sort of a preacher and divine he is likely to prove. This, however, seems to be a minor consideration, compared with the just uses of the pulpit, and the benefit which might, on such occasions, be derived from it to the assembled congregation. We should rejoice to see those appointed to this office, whose age and experience qualify them to exhort with somewhat of weight and authority, to whose acknowledged piety the younger clergy might look up with respect--whose advice they might adopt with confidence, and to whose preaching all might listen, with the conviction that they must learn and improve. In this suggestion, we are, we believe, already sanctioned, by the practice of more than one Diocese, and we are sure that we have the authority of Job, in the well-known passage, (xxxii. 7.) “Days should speak, and multitude of years should teach wisdom."