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- amidst the general corruption, and how the spirit of emancipation has extended its ramifications throughout the land. It is scarcely known on this side of the Channel how numerous are the congregations of Protestants in France. For the present we must return to our original undertaking, to which we shall superadd the means of forming a tolerably correct idea on all collateral subjects.

The first thing which would strike an observer, who was unacquainted with the canons of a foreign church, is the anomaly of rank amongst certain of the priests. Thus in this Code we read that formerly Archdeacons could not be ordained without losing their dignity. When, however, Archdeacons entered into orders, they were obliged to be priests, lest the curés should be subjected to a person of inferior rank. Primates also of France are of lower rank thạn Archbishops. The Pope is considered simply as chief Bishop, the successor of St. Peter; he is not allowed to judge causes of faith; he is not permitted to exercise authority over other Bishops, except in cases where custom has permitted him to interfere.

The Inquisition, although established in Languedoc, does not exercise any authority in France—it is altogether abolished; and even the Index Expurgatoriusis prohibited from being printed, by the laws. The Bishops are sole judges in such matters. The Pope, however, occasionally issues bulls and briefs on particular occasions, as chief Bishop.*

The situation of the King is somewhat strange. The Gallican Church, which he swears to maintain, by an oath at his coronation, in all its liberties, considers him as most appropriately “a very Christian Majesty," on account of his favours done to the Church; nevertheless, history informs us that several of the Kings of France have been excommunicated for marriages contracted against the rules of

been spared her three days of blood, and Charles X. have remained the monarch of a free, a glorious, and a Protestant land. The evils of unchristian France must now lie heavy on his conscience; and if the future, pregnant as it is with mischief and misrule, rise in the eyes of our children as a monster of iniquity, it is to the weak-minded slave of a soul-destroying hierarchy that they may point as the author of such diabolical wickedness. But we hope for the best. Protestantism has an existence in now non-catholic France. May she prosper! May the Spirit of God go with her, exalting her standard, and increasing her glory, honouring her in the eyes of the people, and leading her on as the forerunner of that KING, whose dominion is “ to cover the earth, as the waters cover the sea!” For England, however, let us also pray, that, guided by that gospel which she does possess, her way may be safe, and her rulers righteous. Woe to her, if she repent not! The foot of Romanism has trod within her courts; her senate has wrung with the war-whoop of her enemy; and, like France, unless she be wiser in the knowledge of events, she may be left to an hour of affliction, and see her glory trampled on, her palaces dishonoured, her báttlements dismantled, and her name employed as the password of an infidel and licentious world.

* Perhaps some of our readers do not know the exact meaning of these formidable words. The brief is granted for unimportant favours; the bull is of a more authoritative description, sometimes of justice, sometimes of voluntary dispensations. The one concerns matters of faith; the other ecclesiastical discipline and morality. There is a dandyism about these affairs which is rather remarkable. The brief is a short letter, written on paper, sealed with red wax; and if it be an indulgence, the seal is placed under the name of the sinner, and signed by the secretary of briefs. The bull is sealed with lead, attached by threads of silk, if it be “ une bulle de grace ;” but by threads of hemp, if it be“ une bulle de justice!" The briefs also are written in a neater and more beautiful hand than the bulls.

the Church, in spite of writers who maintain that kings cannot be excommunicated.

The authority of the Priests, and the apostolical institutions of the three orders, is maintained inviolate by the Gallican canons, and defended by arguments which cannot be gainsaid. The Priests are liable to a severity of discipline little known on this side the Channel, for the particulars of which see the Code, 291-371. For the present we must quit our argument, intending to resume it in the following number.

COMMEMORATION OF THE THIRD CENTENARY OF THE CON· FESSION OF AUGSBURG, IN THE NORTH OF EUROPE. · THROUGHOUT the Protestant states of the north of Europe, the third centenary of the Confession of Augsburg has been celebrated this year, and indeed principally in the month of June last, with much solemnity. In Hanover, and the Prussian dominions, the 27th of that month was set apart as a day for the offering up of public thanksgivings, and the observance of special rites, in commemoration of an event so propitious to the cause of sound religion. The enthusiasm spread even into the heart of Russia, and the Protestant congregations of the university of Dorpat, and the town of Kasan were not behindhand in the display of their ardent and grateful feeling. A letter of the 25th of June, from the last-mentioned spot, speaks of the manner in which the event was celebrated, in the following terms:

“ It was a day which every member of the congregation will account amongst the most memorable of his life; its remembrance, indeed, can never be effaced from his heart. The rites with which it was hallowed, were distinguished by their dignity and simplicity; but no part of them was so delightfully prominent as the vocal performances of the archiepiscopal choir, who raised our hearts to heaven by the sublime and impressive manner in which they gave the · Te Deum laudamus,' and other appropriate pieces. The erection of a school, towards which the members of the German Lutheran congregation contributed one hundred pounds, will perpetuate the inciting recollections of this scene to our latest posterity."

ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURAL FACTS AND CUSTOMS,
By analogous Reference to the Practịce of other Nations.

RANK, THE EFFECT OF SLAVERY. The name of Mamaluke (signifying purchase or property) is given to children, who, carried off by merchants or robbers from Georgia, Circassia, or Anatolia, are afterwards sold in Constantinople, or at Grand Cairo. The great personages of Egypt, who are of similar origin, bring them up in their houses, intending them for their successors. This custom is perhaps of far higher antiquity than the time of the patriarch Joseph, (Gen. xxxvii. 28.), who, having been sold in this manner to Potiphar, became prime minister of Egypt.Letters from the Caucasus, p. 152.

CHIEF BUTLER,-CUPBEARER, &c. In Gen. xli. we read of these persons evidently holding high stations, as in the following account of the Abyssinian royal establishment.

Mr. Salt says, to give an idea of the dependance of the chiefs of the Ras, in Abyssinia, it is necessary to observe that some of those who were clothed most richly, and were followed by the most numerous suites, held the offices of chief butler, chief cupbearer, &c. The splendid suite and attire of the king's cook,—the master of the band,—the golden horn-blower, and others are in a similar manner alluded to by Mr. Bowdich, as most striking on their entrée into Coomassie, the capital of the recently visited kingdom of Ăshantee.—Bowdichs Essay, p. 19.

DIVINATION. It would far exceed our limits to enter fully upon so extensive a subject as that included under the term Divination. Suffice it to say, that the Jews at all periods of their history resorted to every mode adopted by their idolatrous neighbours of penetrating into futurity. With respect to the first of these alluded to in Genesis xliv. 5, we know that one of the most celebrated monarchs of the Persians—the great Giamschid, together with Alexander and others, referred to prophetic cups, and Pliny alludes to a similar practice in his time. That wands and staffs were used for similar purposes is also known to us on the authority of Strabo, who speaks of the rods held by the Magi during their religious ceremonies.

Gen. xliv. 5.-" Is this the cup whereby he divineth ?” Ezekiel xxi. 21.-" For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the

head of the two ways, to use divination : he made his arrows bright, he consulted with

images, he looked in the liver.” Hosea iv. 12.-"My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto

them.” Tacitus (de moribus Germanorum, ch. x.) thus explains their mode of divination by twigs or wands.—The branch of a fruit tree is cut into small pieces, which being all distinctly marked, are thrown at random on a white garment. With frequent prayers the priest raising his eyes to heaven three times, holds up each segment of the twig, and as the marks rise in succession, interprets the decrees of fate.

The method taken by the Noaaids, or Lapland priests, to recover stolen goods is this.—He comes into the tent where he has reason to suspect the thief is to be found, and pouring a quantity of brandy into a dish, which then reflects the features of any person looking into it, he makes a number of grimaces over it, and appears to consider it with very great attention. After some length of time employed in this way, he takes the suspected Laplander aside, charges him with the fact, declares that he saw his face plainly figured to him in the dish, and threatens to let loose a swarm of ganic-flies upon him, who shall torment him until he makes restitution.-Acerbis's Travels, Vol. II. p. 312.

The king, who was one of our company, this day, at dinner I observed, took particular notice of the plates; this occasioned me to make him an offer of one, either of pewter or of earthenware. He chose the first, and then began to tell us the several uses to which he intended to apply it. Two of them were so extraordinary, that I cannot omit mentioning them. He said, that whenever he should have occasion to visit any of the other islands, he would leave this plate behind him, at Tongataboo, as a sort of representative in his absence, that the people might pay it the same obeisance they do to himself in person. "He was asked, what had been usually employed for this purpose, before he got this plate ? and we had the satisfaction of learning from him that this singular honour had been hitherto conferred on a wooden bowl, in which he washed his hands. The other extraordinary use to which he intended to apply it, in the room of his wooden bowl, was, to discover a thief; he said that when anything was stolen and the thief could not be found out, the people were all assembled

the Church, in spite of writers who maintain that kings cannot be excommunicated.

The authority of the Priests, and the apostolical institutions of the three orders, is maintained inviolate by the Gallican canons, and defended by arguments which cannot be gainsaid. The Priests are liable to a severity of discipline little known on this side the Channel, for the particulars of which see the Code, 291-371. For the present we must quit our argument, intending to resume it in the following number.

COMMEMORATION OF THE THIRD CENTENARY OF THE CON

FESSION OF AUGSBURG, IN THE NORTH OF EUROPE. THROUGHOUT the Protestant states of the north of Europe, the third centenary of the Confession of Augsburg has been celebrated this year, and indeed principally in the month of June last, with much solemnity. In Hanover, and the Prussian dominions, the 27th of that month was set apart as a day for the offering up of public thanksgivings, and the observance of special rites, in commemoration of an event so propitious to the cause of sound religion. The enthusiasm spread even into the heart of Russia, and the Protestant congrega,tions of the university of Dorpat, and the town of Kasan were not behindhand in the display of their ardent and grateful feeling. A letter of the 25th of June, from the last-mentioned spot, speaks of the manner in which the event was celebrated, in the following terms:

" It was a day which every member of the congregation will account amongst the most memorable of his life ; its remembrance, indeed, can never be effaced from his heart. The rites with which it was hallowed, were distinguished by their dignity and simplicity; but no part of them was so delightfully prominent as the vocal performances of the archiepiscopal choir, who raised our hearts to heaven by the sublime and impressive manner in which they gave the · Te Deum laudamus,' and other appropriate pieces. The erection of a school, towards which the members of the German Lutheran congregation contributed one hundred pounds, will perpetuate the inciting recollections of this scene to our latest posterity."

ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURAL FACTS AND CUSTOMS,
By analogous Reference to the Practice of other Nations.

RANK, THE EFFECT OF SLAVERY. The name of Mamaluke (signifying purchase or property) is given to children, who, carried off by merchants or robbers from Georgia, Circassia, or Anatolia, are afterwards sold in Constantinople, or at Grand Cairo. The great personages of Egypt, who are of similar origin, bring them up in their houses, intending them for their successors. This custom is perhaps of far higher antiquity than the time of the patriarch Joseph, (Gen. xxxvii. 28.), who, having been sold in this manner to Potiphar, became prime minister of Egypt.Letters from the Caucasus, p. 152.

CHIEF BUTLER,—CUPBEARER, &c. In Gen. xli. we read of these persons evidently holding high stations, as in the following account of the Abyssinian royal establishment.

Mr. Salt says, to give an idea of the dependance of the chiefs of the Ras, in Abyssinia, it is necessary to observe that some of those who were clothed most richly, and were followed by the most numerous suites, held the offices of chief butler, chief cupbearer, &c. The splendid suite and attire of the king's cook,—the master of the band,—the golden horn-blower, and others are in a similar manner alluded to by Mr. Bowdich, as most striking on their entrée into Coomassie, the capital of the recently visited kingdom of Ashantee.-Bowdich's Essay, p. 19.

DIVINATION. It would far exceed our limits to enter fully upon so extensive a subject as that included under the term Divination. Suffice it to say, that the Jews at all periods of their history resorted to every mode adopted by their idolatrous neighbours of penetrating into futurity. With respect to the first of these alluded to in Genesis xliv. 5, we know that one of the most celebrated monarchs of the Persians—the great Giamschid, together with Alexander and others, referred to prophetic cups, and Pliny alludes to a similar practice in his time. That wands and staffs were used for similar purposes is also known to us on the authority of Strabo, who speaks of the rods held by the Magi during their religious ceremonies.

Gen. xliv. 5.-" Is this the cup whereby he divineth ?” Ezekiel xxi. 21.-" For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the

head of the two ways, to use divination: he made his arrows bright, he consulted with

images, he looked in the liver.” Hosea iv. 12.-"My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto

them.” Tacitus (de moribus Germanorum, ch. x.) thus explains their mode of divination by twigs or wands.— The branch of a fruit tree is cut into small pieces, which being all distinctly marked, are thrown at random on a white garment. With frequent prayers the priest raising his eyes to heaven three times, holds up each segment of the twig, and as the marks rise in succession, interprets the decrees of fate.

The method taken by the Noaaids, or Lapland priests, to recover stolen goods is this. He comes into the tent where he has reason to suspect the thief is to be found, and pouring a quantity of brandy into a dish, which then reflects the features of any person looking into it, he makes a number of grimaces over it, and appears to consider it with very great attention. After some length of time employed in this way, he takes the suspected Laplander aside, charges him with the fact, declares that he saw his face plainly figured to him in the dish, and threatens to let loose a swarm of ganic-flies upon him, who shall torment him until he makes restitution.-Acerbis's Travels, Vol. II. p. 312.

The king, who was one of our company, this day, at dinner I observed, took particular notice of the plates; this occasioned me to make him an offer of one, either of pewter or of earthenware. He chose the first, and then began to tell us the several uses to which he intended to apply it. Two of them were so extraordinary, that I cannot omit mentioning them. He said, that whenever he should have occasion to visit any of the other islands, he would leave this plate behind him, at Tongataboo, as a sort of representative in his absence, that the people might pay it the same obeisance they do to himself in person. He was asked, what had been usually employed for this purpose, before he got this plate ? and we had the satisfaction of learning from him that this singular honour had been hitherto conferred on a wooden bowl, in which he washed his hands. The other extraordinary use to which he intended to apply it, in the room of his wooden bowl, was, to discover a thief; he said that when anything was stolen and the thief could not be found out, the people were all assembled

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