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a future time we may, perhaps, state what has already been done in this way, and show how generally diffused are Protestant principles

in consequence of its enormities, infidelity and disobedience, and anarchy and bloodshed, are taxed upon those who should have been the preachers and the teachers of faith and obedience, and peace and love. We lay at the door of Romanism the crimes which the last month has seen committed with such reckless bravery. Men we know talk of these crimes as matters of congratulation; and evil spirits are abroad, who, incapable of guiding the storm, yet love to ride upon the whirlwind of popular fury, rejoicing in the devastation which it produces, and revelling in the spoil which marks its track of rapine and dismay. They are the children of darkness, and they love its deeds. But reflection, looking below the surface, sees deeper into the complexion of events; and in the overpraised and boasted bravery of the citizens of Paris, sees a more serious evil than the universal levy of a people rising to dethrone their king. If we could, as many seem to do, be contented to believe that the mischief is over, and that the wound is healed, we should rejoice like them. But if history speaks prophetically, as all true history does; if experience gives authority to doubt or to decide; if there be any faith in the conniexion of the past and the present; then, what our imaginative seers have hailed as the dawning splendours of the day of freedom for their afflicted neighbour-land, must be regarded as the stormy twilight of a dark and awful night. But whether the pestilence have or have not completed its allotted destiny, the complication of miseries which produced it, and which emanate therefrom, must all and each be charged upon the wilful and disgusting wickedness of Romanism. It was Romanism, working in the bigoted and priest-ridden heart of Charles, which set him up as the tyrant, instead of the father, of his people ; it was Romanism which blinded his eyes against the light of truth, and made him a perjured betrayer of the trust reposed in him, and which he had sealed with his own solemn oath before the altar of God; it was the spirit of Romanism, Jesuitical domination and ambition, and lust of power, which urged his haughty and corrupt advisers to push the victim to the edge of the precipice whence he has fallen; and it is to the influence of Romanism—its wretched excluding of the light of the gospel from the people, producing doubt, and the wild fanaticism of infidelity—that the vengeance of the populace must be attributed. Had they been taught to “ fear God," they would have learned to honour the king;" had they been shown, by a just exercise of the rights committed to them, that " the powers that be are ordained of God," France might yet have possessed a king without having done violence to regal authority, and have sheltered herself under the banners of a Church, which would have invoked the blessing of heaven on her righteous acts. But what are we to say—what are our hopes for the future to be—when we see a king ruling not as a king, but as a subject (a “citizen-king!”) over fellow-subjects, that have placed him on the throne, against which he once fought, and which they have recently overturned, after stripping it of its dignity, its respect, and its consequence in the eyes of men ? What are we not to fear, when we see the established church of the land (let us say so far rightly) blotted out of her charter, without a substitute, without a successor, to guide the ignorant, to comfort the afflicted, to hallow the laws, or to sanctify their dispensation? What are we not to tremble for, when we see the education of youth, and the public services of moral government, committed to a man who,-in the person of the Duc de Broglie,—does not even profess to be a Christian, who ridicules religion as a fable, and laughs at revelation as a wild delusion? What are we to say, when the language of the democrats of the eighteenthi century yet speaks the sentiments of their disciples of the day; when there is fearful evidence that the fire then kindled in the bosom of society is yet burning in secret, and is likely to plunge all Europe into the horrors of a “war of principle?" These things may be laughed at, but are they less evils for that? And to what are they to be attributed but to Romanism? To Romanism must Charles attribute his downfall; to Roinanism, the uprising of his people; to Romanism belongs the production of almost catholic infidelity; to Romanism, the overthrow of a Church which was founded on itself! We shall show in our future papers on this subject what that Romanism was ; we shall see how it worked even in its mildest form, and what delusions it sanctioned and professed even whilst it boasted liberty. The sin of Charles X. is awful in the extreme. To him was committed the blessed work of bringing in a reformation in the government and the religion of his people; to him, ruling under a charter which established his rights, and authorised his fair pretensions, was given “ the sword of the spirit” of eniancipation—and had he known his duties, or consulted his reason, France might have

amidst the general corruption, and how the spirit of emancipation has extended its ramifications throughout the land. It is scarcely known on this side of the Channel how numerous are the congregations of Protestants in France. For the present we must return to our original undertaking, to which we shall superadd the means of forming a tolerably correct idea on all collateral subjects.

The first thing which would strike an observer, who was unacquainted with the canons of a foreign church, is the anomaly of rank amongst certain of the priests. Thus in this Code we read that formerly Archdeacons could not be ordained without losing their dignity. When, however, Archdeacons entered into orders, they were obliged to be priests, lest the curés should be subjected to a person of inferior rank. * Primates also of France are of lower rank than Archbishops. The Pope is considered simply as chief Bishop, the successor of St. Peter; he is not allowed to judge causes of faith; he is not permitted to exercise authority over other Bishops, except in cases where

om has permitted him to interfere. The Inquisition, although established in Languedoc, does not exercise any authority in France—it is altogether abolished; and even the " Index Expurgatorius” is prohibited from being printed, by the laws. The Bishops are sole judges in such matters. The Pope, however, occasionally issues bulls and briefs on particular occasions, as chief Bishop.*

The situation of the King is somewhat strange. The Gallican Church, which he swears to maintain, by an oath at his coronation, in all its liberties, considers him as most appropriately " a very Christian Majesty," on account of his favours done to the Church; nevertheless, history informs us that several of the Kings of France have been excommunicated for marriages contracted against the rules of

been spared her three days of blood, and Charles X. have remained the monarch of a free, a glorious, and a Protestant land. The evils of unchristian France must now lie heavy on his conscience; and if the future, pregnant as it is with mischief and misrule, rise in the eyes of our children as a monster of iniquity, it is to the weak-minded slave of a soul-destroying hierarchy that they may point as the author of such diabolical wicked

But we hope for the best. Protestantism has an existence in now non-catholic France. May she prosper! May the Spirit of God go with her, exalting her standard, and increasing her glory, honouring her in the eyes of the people, and leading her on as the forerunner of that King, whose dominion is " to cover the earth, as the waters cover the sea !” For England, however, let us also pray, that, guided by that gospel which she does possess, her way may be safe, and her rulers righteous. Woe to her, if she repent not! The foot of Romanism has trod within her courts ; her senate has wrung with the war-whoop of her enemy; and, like France, unless she be wiser in the knowledge of events, she may be left to an hour of affliction, and see her glory trampled on, her palaces dishonoured, her battlements dismantled, and her name employed as the password of an infidel and licentious worid.

ness.

* Perhaps some of our readers do not know the exact meaning of these formidable words. The brief is granted for unimportant favours; the bull is of a more authoritative description, sometimes of justice, sometimes of voluntary dispensations. The one concerns matters of faith ; the other ecclesiastical discipline and morality. There is a dandyism about these affairs which is rather remarkable. The brief is a short letter, written on paper, sealed with red wax; and if it be an indulgence, the seal is placed under the name of the sinner, and signed by the secretary of briefs. The bull is sealed with lead, attached by threads of silk, if it be une bulle de grace ;" but by threads of hemp, if it be "une bulle de justice !The briefs also are written in a neater and more beautiful hand than the bulls.

the Church, in spite of writers who maintain that kings cannot be excommunicated.

The authority of the Priests, and the apostolical institutions of the three orders, is maintained inviolate by the Gallican canons, and defended by arguments which cannot be gainsaid. The Priests are liable to a severity of discipline little known on this side the Channel, for the particulars of which see the Code, 291—871. For the present we must quit our argument, intending to resume it in the following number.

COMMEMORATION OF THE THIRD CENTENARY OF THE CON

FESSION OF AUGSBURG, IN THE NORTH OF EUROPE. Throughout the Protestant states of the north of Europe, the third centenary of the Confession of Augsburg has been celebrated this

year, and indeed principally in the month of June last, with much solemnity. In Hanover, and the Prussian dominions, the 27th of that month was set apart as a day for the offering up of public thanksgivings, and the observance of special rites, in commemoration of an event so propitious to the cause of sound religion. The enthusiasm spread even into the heart of Russia, and the Protestant congregations of the university of Dorpat, and the town of Kasan were not behindhand in the display of their ardent and grateful feeling. A letter of the 25th of June, from the last-mentioned spot, speaks of the manner in which the event was celebrated, in the following terms:

“ It was a day which every member of the congregation will account amongst the most memorable of his life ; its remembrance, indeed, can never be effaced from his heart. The rites with which it was hallowed, were distinguished by their dignity and simplicity; but no part of them was so delightfully prominent as the vocal performances of the archiepiscopal choir, who raised our hearts to heaven by the sublime and impressive manner in which they gave the · Te Deum laudamus,' and other appropriate pieces. The erection of a school, towards which the members of the German Lutheran congregation contributed one hundred pounds, will perpetuate the inciting recollections of this scene to our latest posterity."

ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURAL FACTS AND CUSTOMS,
By analogous Reference to the Practice of other Nations.

RANK, THE EFFECT OF SLAVERY. The name of Mamaluke (signifying purchase or property) is given to children, who, carried off by merchants or robbers from Georgia, Circassia, or Anatolia, are afterwards sold in Constantinople, or at Grand Cairo. The great personages of Egypt, who are of similar origin, bring them up in their houses, intending them for their successors. This custom is perhaps of far higher antiquity than the time of the patriarch Joseph, (Gen. xxxvii

. 28.), who, having been sold this manner to Potiphar, became prime minister of Egypt.Letters from the Caucasus, p. 152.

CHIEF BUTLER, —CUPBEARER, &c. In Gen. xli. we read of these persons evidently holding high stations, as in the following account of the Abyssinian royal establishment.

Mr. Salt says, to give an idea of the dependance of the chiefs of the Ras, in Abyssinia, it is necessary to observe that some of those who were clothed most richly, and were followed by the most numerous suites, held the offices of chief butler, chief cupbearer, &c. The splendid suite and attire of the king's cook,—the master of the band, -the golden horn-blower, and others are in a similar manner alluded to by Mr. Bowdich, as most striking on their entrée into Coomassie, the capital of the recently visited kingdom of Ashantee.-Bowdich's Essay, p. 19.

DIVINATION.

It would far exceed our limits to enter fully upon so extensive a subject as that included under the term Divination. Suffice it to say, that the Jews at all periods of their history resorted to every mode adopted by their idolatrous neighbours of penetrating into futurity. With respect to the first of these alluded to in Genesis xliv. 5, we know that one of the most celebrated monarchs of the Persians—the great Giamschid, together with Alexander and others, referred to prophetic cups, and Pliny alludes to a similar practice in his time. That wands and staffs were used for similar purposes is also known to us on the authority of Strabo, who speaks of the rods held by the Magi during their religious ceremonies.

Gen. xliv. 5.-" Is this the cup whereby he divineth ?” Ezekiel xxi. 21.-" For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the

head of the two ways, to use divination: he made his arrows bright, he consulted with

images, he looked in the liver." Hosea iv. 12.-" My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto

them." Tacitus (de moribus Germanorum, ch. x.) thus explains their mode of divination by twigs or wands.— The branch of a fruit tree is cut into small pieces, which being all distinctly marked, are thrown at random on a white garment. With frequent prayers the priest raising his eyes to heaven three times, holds up each segment of the twig, and as the marks rise in succession, interprets the decrees of fate.

The method taken by the Noaaids, or Lapland priests, to recover stolen goods is this.He comes into the tent where he has reason to suspect the thief is to be found, and pouring a quantity of brandy into a dish, which then reflects the features of any person looking into it, he makes a number of grimaces over it; and appears to consider it with very great attention. After some length of time employed in this way, he takes the suspected Laplander aside, charges him with the fact, declares that he saw his face plainly figured to him in the dish, and threatens to let loose a swarm of ganic-flies upon him, who shall torment him until he makes restitution.—Acerbis's Travels, Vol. II. p. 312.

The king, who was one of our company, this day, at dinner I observed, took particular notice of the plates; this occasioned me to make him an offer of one, either of pewter or of earthenware. He chose the first, and then began to tell us the several uses to which he intended to apply it. Two of them were so extraordinary, that I cannot omit mentioning them. He said, that whenever he should have occasion to visit any of the other islands, he would leave this plate behind him, at Tongataboo, as a sort of representative in his absence, that the people might pay it the same obeisance they do to himself in person. He was asked, what had been usually employed for this purpose, before he got this plate? and we had the satisfaction of learning from him that this singular honour had been hitherto conferred on a wooden bowl, in which he washed his hands. The other extraordinary use to which he intended to apply it, in the room of his wooden bowl, was, to discover a thief; he said that when anything was stolen and the thief could not be found out, the people were all assembled together before him, when he washed his hands in water in this vessel, after which it was cleaned, and then the whole multitude advanced, one after another, and touched it in the same manner as they touch his foot, when they pay him obeisance. If the guilty person touched it, he died immediately upon the spot, not by violence but by the hand of Providence; and if any one refused to touch it, his refusal was a clear proof that he was the man.- -Cook's Third Voyage, Book II. c. 8.

In the temple Kurumado, in a corner to the left, within a large wooden grate, we took notice of a sexangular lanthorn covered with black gauze, which could be turned round like a wheel, and is said to be of great service in discovering unknown and future things. We were told likewise that a large book of their gods and religion lay in the same lanthorn, of the contents whereof they would, or could, give us no particulars, and only would make us believe that it was a very strange and miraculous thing.Kampher's Japan, Vol. II.

p.

600. The conjuror fills a pewter basin or a brass pan, full of water, then sets up a stick on each side; from the tops of the sticks he stretches a small cord, and from the centre of that cord suspends a grain of pepper by a thread, just to touch, but not in the water; he then dips his fingers in the water and flirts them in the culprit's face; if he is guilty, a white film immediately covers his eyes, which deprives him of sight, and causes most excruciating pain, but if he is innocent, it has no effect. After the guilty person has made his confession, the conjuror dips his.--History of Sierra Leone.

Before the Sumatrans go to war, they kill a buffalo, or a fowl that is perfectly white, and by observing the motion of the intestines, they judge of the good or ill-fortune that will attend them. The priest who performs this ceremony, had need to be infallible, for if he predicts contrary to the event, he is sometimes put to death for his want of skill.-Marsden's Sumatra, p. 310.

In the Rudhiradhyaya, or sanguinary chapter, translated from the Calica Puran, there are a variety of curious omens explained according to the direction in which the head of a human victim, buffalo, &c. falls when severed from the body.- Asiatic Researches, Vol. V.

The Scythians have amongst them a great number who practise the art of divination ; for this purpose they use a number of willow twigs in this manner : They bring large bundles of these together, and having united them, dispose them one by one on the ground, each bundle at a distance from the rest. This done, they pretend to foretel the future, during which they take up the bundles separately, and tie them again together. They take also the leaves of the limetree, which dividing into three parts, they twine round their fingers; they then unbind it, and exercise the art to which they pretend.-Herodotus Book IV.

The inhabitants of the Pelew Islands entertained so strong an idea of divination, that whenever any matter of moment was going to be undertaken, they conceived they could, by splitting the leaves of a particular plant, that was not unlike our bulrush, and measuring the strips of this long narrow leaf on the back of their middle finger, form a judgment whether it would or would not turn out prosperous. It was noticed by several of our people that the king recurred to this supposed oracle on different occasions, particularly at the time they went on the second expedition against Artingall, when he appeared to be very unwilling to go aboard his canoe, and kept all his attendants waiting till he had tumbled and twisted his leaves into a form that satisfied his mind, and predicted

Our people never observed any person but the king apply to this divination.- Wilson's Pelew Islands.

The Afghauns (see p. 66, this book) pry into futurity by astrological and geomantic calculations, and by all sorts of divination and sortilege. Amongst other modes, they form presages from drawing lots, from the position assumed by arrows poured carelessly out of a quiver. I remember a conversation which I had (immediately before Shauh Shooja's great struggle with his competitor in

success.

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