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we die.'

When the disciples had forgotten to take bread, he told them to beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. It was at the well of Samaria that he made that beautiful allusion to his own divine doctrines, in comparing them to living waters—a well of water within us springing up into everlasting life. And let us hope that our present reflection, at this suitable period of the year,

our mortal part” must also fade, as we see the leaves nom fading, -may not be entirely without its use. And we may fairly maintain, that this reflection will not be a melancholy one to him who entertains it in its proper light. If, indeed, as I have before observed, death should terminate the existence both of body and spirit, then the case would be widely different; and there might be some show of argument in the exclamation used by St. Paul ; “Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow

But death is not annihilation ; it is the gate of that which may really be termed life; it is the ordeal which all the sons of Adam must undergo, preparatory to that spiritual state of our existence, which will then begin, but never end. And to the Christian, this may be a wonderful, and indeed it is an awful change, but it is not one which ought to make him sad. He knows that there is a rest appointed "for the people of God." He knows that every hour brings him nearer to it, and believing in the promises of Him who in all things is steadfast and sure, his joy will increase in the prospect of so glorious a termination of his earthly career.

So far from any reflections upon our mortality producing sadness in the soul of the Christian, he will be filled with all holy joy and peace in believing; a joy with which the stranger intermeddleth not- -a joy which the world cannot give nor take away-a peace of God which passeth all understanding. And, my brethren, from whence does this joy arise ? It arises from that conviction which flashed on the soul of the Roman centurion, who conducted the crucifixion of our blessed Redeemer-that conviction which forced him to exclaim, “ Truly this was the Son of God.” If we wish to derive solid and lasting comfort from the profession of religion—that profession must be sincere, it must rest on firm grounds, it must not be a sound, but a substance which may be felt ; felt in the real satisfaction it will always be ready to administer to the soul of that man who entertains it in sincerity and truth. And how can this conviction be substantially fixed in our minds, unless we frequently peruse those sacred oracles which contain the last revelation of a holy God to sinful man—unless we give serious attention to those who expound it for the confirmation and strengthening of faith ; and pray for the grace of God, the dew of his blessing, without which the seed sown cannot bring forth fruit to perfection ? Prayer, indeed, is one of the means pointed out by our blessed Saviour, by which we may not only obtain the things necessary for the support of the body, but also a supply of spiritual nutriment for the sustenance of the soul; but here we must be on our guard-we must pray with the heart as well as with the lips, for with the heart it is that man believeth unto salvation. We should recollect, that saying our prayers, and praying, may be made two very distinct things ;-saying our prayers is one thing, praying is another. If while the lips are uttering

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the Greeks and Romanş, ancient in itself, and on that account objectionable, and not less so, because admired and cultivated by generations whose errors we have renounced, and whose impertinent assistance we disclaim, has been especially assailed in these liberal days : and it is indignantly inquired how, in the present advanced state of refinement, we can persist in subjecting the ingenuous youth of Britain to a probation worthy the barbarous days of Lycurgus — the painful palæstra of conjugations and declensions. If the classic authors are no longer regarded as a necessary appendage of liberal education, but rather, on the contrary, indications of an illiberal system, it is nothing surprising that classical criticism, being concerned with the words and phrases of the languages, should incur the sovereign contempt of our intellectual generation.

But “ the spirit of inquiry," of which we hear much as the peculiar distinction of our enlightened times, assist us in explaining this phenomenon ? May it not be true, after all, that there are some things unadmired because not understood ? May it not be true that those periods of history, which were equally distinguished by cultivation and humility, may have some lessons even for the nineteenth century? Is it not possible that the studies of the man who was the steady and confidential friend of Newton may be entitled to some respect ? May not an aversion to classical literature be readily traced to the unquestionable difficulty of attaining classical excellence, while every ignorant scribbler, with a French dictionary, and without English grammar, may, by the aid of Mr. Colburn and the Morning Post, procure a host of readers ?

quis jam Magna coronari contemnit Olympia, cui spes,

Cui sit conditio dulcis sine pulvere palmæ ?”. Whence this irritable propensity to comparison which is perpetually manifesting itself as often as the merits of the age are discussed ? Why, unless our predicament be similar, do we imitate the belle of some rustic village, who, entering on some more enlarged sphere of society, thinks every commendation of a fair face and form derogatory to the supremacy of her charms, and will tolerate no praise without a due proportion of censure on her “friends”?

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In short, are the modern prejudices against classical education indi. cative, so far as they extend, of intellectual advancement or retrocession? Allowing that the present generation has, in some departments of knowledge, achieved evident and important improvements; allowing that the territories of science are enlarged; that education, though

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It is scarcely necessary to remind the reader, that Dr. Martin Luther, an Augustine monk and professor of divinity at Wittenberg, having inveighed against the malpractices which were resorted to in the sale of indulgences, embroiled himself by this means in a violent controversy, during which his bold assertions were productive of results which were not only far from being contemplated at its commencement, but excited so much alarm on the part of the Roman conclave, that he was summoned to appear before it. His sovereign, Frederic the Wise, found means, however, to elude this proceeding, and convert the hazard of a personal investigation before the conclave, into discussions before a native tribunal, where Luther underwent interrogatories and examinations, conducted by papal representatives. These failed of their object; and the accused party seeking to have his errors laid open, his priestly adversaries, instead of breaking ground in such a field, insisted that he should retract his words, or, at least, abstain from all further controversy.

The struggle soon assumed a more ominous aspect; Luther urged his attacks upon the groundless dogmas and pretensions of the Church with still greater effect, particularly in his treatise “On the Liberty of a Christian;" and the apprehensions of his opponents at Rome now impelled them to obtain a bull of excommunication against him. This is the document which he had the courage publicly to commit to the flames, at Wittenberg, on the 10th of December, 1520 : thus affording a precedent for that renunciation of undivided allegiance to the Roman See, which afterwards shook its authority to its foundations.

The dispute had lasted above three years : a host of publications had been exchanged between the combatants, and great interest was excited as to the issue throughout Christendom, as well as Germany itself. As far back as the year 1518, Miltitz, the pope's chamberlain, whilst travelling through Germany, had had the mortification to observe, that there existed, in almost every quarter, three advocates of the new order of things for one who was attached to the cause of his master. If it be asked, why the court of Rome did not adopt more efficacious measures to crush this inroad in its earliest stage, it may be answered, that its arm was arrested by the political state of Europe. The emperor Maximilian had just quitted the stage, and the election of his successor engaged the attention of every cabinet. So important an event as this, threw the squabble with an isolated monk into the back-ground; all parties courted the powerful influence of Frederic the Wise ; and there was no other temporal sword which could be unsheathed with effect.

Such was the state of things when Maximilian's grandson, Charles, the youthful sovereign of Spain and the Netherlands, was raised to

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The original of the above translation is one of a host of publications and reprints which have issued from the German press, on occasion of the general celebration of the Third Centenary of the Confession of Augsburg, to which we alluded in our last Number.

the imperial dignity. Upon him, and upon the first proceedings of his court, rested the attention of Europe. It was a matter of doubt with many, whether he would be induced to oppose or to embrace the cause of the Reformation, and,' on this account, deep importance was attached to the first diet, which the new Emperor had summoned to meet at Worms, on the 6th of January, 1521. The assemblage on this occasion was extremely numerous.

It was attended in person by sixty-six sovereign princes, both temporal and spiritual, for few of them chose to appear by proxy ;-by nearly one hundred counts, and sixty deputies from the free towns.

Deans of chapters, many of whom were of princely extraction, prelates, barons, knights, and foreign envoys swelled the meeting. To these must be added, a number of the most eminent doctors of divinity and canon law, who had arrived either in the suite of princes, or had come under an expectation that something beyond the common routine of business would be transacted. It was remarkable also for the appearance

of the first native of America who had been seen on European soil; he was attired in the dress of his own country, and had been sent by Cortez from three empoalla in Mexico, to do homage to his sovereign.

The town and its environs were full of life; merchants and traders of all kinds flocked to the spot from the furthest corners of Spain and Italy, France and Germany; and if every diet resembled a fair, this presented a far more animated scene than any of its predecessors. The throng of nobles and their knightly retinues came forth in their most splendid array, and endeavoured to outvie one another in the magnificence of their habiliments and the beauty of their chargers. Among the most youthful and the gayest of the crowd was Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, who drew every eye after him : and the Emperor himself, who was but little his superior in years, though of a more sedate turn than is common to his age, lent himself to the general impulse, and repeatedly displayed his equestrian prowess on the tilting course, as he had done shortly before at the tournament held in Valladolid.

One festival followed upon the heels of another; for the investiture of such princes as had not done homage at Aix-la-Chapelle, was always succeeded by rejoicings; and the wild extent to which they were carried may be inferred from a picture of their results, as drawn by an eye-witness :-"Scarcely a night passes here, at Worms, without the assassination of three or four individuals. The Emperor has a provost (profos) who has already drowned, hung, or made away with more than one hundred persons. The thefts and murders here are as bad as at Rome."*

Amidst all these carousals and atrocities, more serious matters were not lost sight of; and independently of regulations affecting the empire, the matter of the Lutheran controversy, as was expected, came under discussion. So far as we are informed of the propositions brought forward by Glapion, the Emperor's confessor, Fabri, the prior of the Dominicans, and others, it would appear that several of the clergy recommended lenient measures, with a view to divert the storm; inasmuch as they expressed a desire that the decision should be intrusted to chosen arbitrators. Others insisted upon

* Dietrich Butzbach's Letters.

the necessity of a council, for the purpose of purifying Christianity of its glaring corruptions : whilst some, on the contrary, supported the papal legate, Alexander, who laid the bull of excommunication before the great assembly of the states of the empire, on the 13th of February, and accompanied its presentation with an appeal to this effect-That it appeared to him, it was the wish of many to institute an inquiry into the affair with Luther ; but he begged it might be borne in mind, that there was nothing left to investigate; inasmuch as the Pope had already decided in the matter, of which the bull itself was the most undeniable evidence; that Luther had given currency to such errors, as rendered a hundred thousand heretics deserving of the stake; for he had injured the dignity of the saints in heaven, had even thrown doubts on purgatory, and explained the Scripture in a different sense to that which the Church enjoined. The matter was, therefore, no longer within the competency of the diet ; and as far as the clergy were concerned, they were not warranted in taking up the dispute with that heretic, without a special commission from the Pope.

The princes, however, were not disposed to bow to this mandate, and a very large majority of the states required, that Luther should appear


person. They alleged, there were so many and such serious objections existing against the administration of the Pope, that it was at length become necessary to adopt measures for removing them. It was right, therefore, to hear what the monk of Wittenberg had brought against them, and then to determine on the course fitting to be pursued. In other respects, it was incumbent upon them to convince him of his errors, and insist upon his retracting them, in those points where he had really impugned the Christian faith.

The Emperor's council, in which papal influence and the spirit of the Spanish inquisitor assorted ill with the political cunning of the Netherlands, wavered in its decisions ; until every other consideration gave way to a feeling, that it might enhance the influence of the new Emperor if it were made to appear, that the Roman chair could not trample even upon a monk, without the sanction of the German sovereign. On the 6th of March, therefore, a citation was issued, in the name of his imperial majesty, inviting Dr. Martin Luther, under a promise of safe escort, to come and put in his answer personally. But no mention was made of any recantation ; Luther having already replied, in confidential communication with Spalatin, his sovereign's chaplain and private secretary, that recantation was wholly out of the question. The passage of his letter which contains this declaration, runs thus :—“Do not imagine that I shall retract; but I will come, even though my life may be the forfeit. I have no thoughts of flight, nor of suffering the word of God to be endangered ; on the contrary, I will maintain it unto death, Christ being my helper."

Upon receiving the summons, which was brought to him by Caspar Sturm on the 24th of March, he made himself ready for the journey. The magistrate of Wittenberg presented him with a conveyance, and

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