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he granted one in 1350. Paul II. made it twenty-five years; since Boniface IX., the Popes have granted a jubilee to those who visit Churches named by the Bishops in particular towns. Sixtus V. the first who appointed a jubilee on the commencement of a pontificate: his successors have followed his example.
Extreme Unction is founded on the passage in St. James, v. 14. The matter of the sacrament is oil blessed by the Bishop on Good Friday; the form, in the prayers offered whilst the Priest anoints the eyes, nose, ears, hands and feet of the sick. All Priests cannot administer it, nor can all persons receive it; for example, soldiers mounting to the assault of a town or battery, because they are not infirm. Therefore, though administered to a weak man who may recover, it is denied to a man who will, in all probability, be hurried into eternity with all his sins upon his soul ; not because he is not a sinner, and may be penitent, but because he is not “ sick."!! Extreme unction is only a supplement to penance.
Orders is a sacrament in the Latin Church. Its degrees are Bishops, Priests, Deacons, Subdeacons, Pastors, Readers, Exorcists and Acolytes. The ceremony of ordination is somewhat the same as with us; but to the Pastor, the keys of the church are given ; to the Reader, the Gospel ; to the Exorcist, books of exorcism, and power to lay hands on demoniacs ; to the Acolyte, permission to handle the candles, vessels, &c. These latter are called minor orders, and are derived from tradition. The Church of England finds all her forms in the regulations for other offices. At fourteen years of age the tonsure is taken, by which (the clipping off of the hair by the Bishop) the person is dedicated to the church. But this does not make a Deacon. Qualifications are reading, writing, confirmation, and a knowledge of Latin. Age for the Subdeaconry, 18; Deaconry, 22; Priesthood, 25 years. There are certain jesuitical cases of irregularity in respect of candidates for orders which, to say the least of them, are singular. Thus a man who has been married before baptism and again after it, is irregular! An adulterer is not irregular, but the husband of an adulteress is! A Clerk who has had several concubines, either at one time or successively, before or since his admission amongst the Clergy, is not irregular! A Clerk in holy orders, who consummates a marriage, is considered guilty of bigamy, his first wife being the Church. But the Pope may give dispensations ; and a man who marries a widow, with whom he does not cohabit, may be, in such a case, ordained. A man who cuts off his own finger or ear, is not fit to be ordained, because he is guilty of homicide ; in this respect are regarded cúvoûyou. A one-eyed man is not irregular; but preference is to be given to a man who has his left eye perfect, because a man who has only his right eye cannot read the niass- -book without an indecent turn of the head! If a man wants two fingers and half the palm of his hand, or the whole of his finger-nail, he cannot be ordained, because he cannot properly break the bread! Epilepsy after the age of puberty prohibits ; and Pope Gelasius (Can. 7. 2.) defines epilepsy to be a falling on the earth with violence, with loud cries, and a foaming at the mouth. A Priest who kills another in a duel, or by a champion, is irregular! All are irregular who have
VOL. XII. NO, XI.
professed heresy after ordination ; who have been ordained by heretics; who have not been baptized in the “ Catholic Church ;” but in France the decrees of the Popes are not observed, so as to include " the children of heretics to the second generation." Simoniacal Priests are not irregular, because there are no canons on the point. The Pope has the sole power of dispensation in cases of homicide. The Bishop may dispense les bâtards” for minor orders.
The sacrament of Marriage understands two characters in the Priest: the civil and the spiritual. The Latin Church holds marriage to be a natural and civil contract, which Jesus Christ raised to the rank of a sacrament. There is much misunderstanding on this point : we will explain the matter. It is deemed that, though marriage gives reciprocal right over the bodies of the married, marriage is a spiritual affair. Espousals are necessary; the age for them is that of reason; for marriage, that of puberty. These must be free and unconstrained, and may be dissolved by after infirmity, or irregular habits. Publication must be inade by bans, which word, by the way, in the old language of the Franks and Lombards, signifies a public cry, or advertisement, or a convocation ; sometimes a punish: ment; sometimes a place where justice is administered. Thus, we have in English, a ban of justice, viz. a curse ; and in France, there is a district in Alsace called the.“ Ban de la Roche,” near Strasbourg The application to marriage is, therefore, obvious. The marriageact in France is something like that of England, being full of similar provisions for the prevention of clandestine unions.
The Bishop sometimes dispenses with bans; but in the first volume of the Journal of the Palace, an act of the Paris parliament of the 22d Dec. 1672, declares a marriage between a servant and her master null, because the dispensation to marry qualibet horâ was gained just at the close of the man's life. The laws of France require six months' residence by the parties in the place of marriage; and twelve months if they marry out of their own diocese. The contracting parties are the ministers of the sacrament, of which the form is the promise made in the presence of the Curé of the parish, who must not give the nuptial benediction before having been certified, as to the civil contract, in the presence of the secular magistrate. With respect to Priests, the validity of the civil contract of marriage has been the subject of much controversy before the tribunals. Our readers will find acts for and against it in the “ Gazette des Tribunaux” of 23d and 24th Feb., 2d and 14th March, 230 May and 6th June, 1828; and in the “ Courier des Tribunaux" of 1st March and 11th June, 1828. On 18th May, 1818, the “ Cour Royale” of Paris declared such marriages null; on the 9th Jan. 1821, they were declared legal. But the eighth canon of the twenty-fourth session of the Council of Trent declares them void, because the Priest is under a tacit vow to love his
the Church, and must therefore be guilty of bigamy! Such are the traditions of men! The table of kindred and affinity extends to ties of “ illicit commerce" in the same way as parentage or brotherhood. God-fathers and god-mothers may not marry, because there is a spiritual union between them, and because the Gallican Church requires only one of each for each baptism. Marriages between “ Catholics "
and " heretics” are not null. The Pope often dispenses in such cases to “Catholic" princesses and “heretic" princes. The French law, following the bull of Clement III., provides for a case which öften puzzles ministers in England (and has puzzled ourselves amongst the number); it declares that no absence, however long, of either party, annuls a marriage. There must be a proof of death, by certificate of proper persons. We dare not enter upon the cases and provisions for “ impuissance" of the parties, and other cases. The Latin Church prohibits marriages from Advent Sunday to the Epiphany, and from Ash-Wednesday to the first Sunday after Easter. The grounds for dissolution of marriage are so abominably particularized, and the power of the Church in enforcing, by public censures, certain conjugal duties, is so plainly stated, that we pass them over.
We have entered into the various topics of the work before us thus minutely, because it has appeared to us to throw a light on many interesting points, and because there are various subjects enumerated illustrative of the true character of every Romish communion, however mitigated. Before we conclude, we wish to lay before our readers a few notes on other branches of inquiry into the mysteries of the Romish Church, equally curious, and equally illustrative.
We are taught, that a church may be polluted by the burial of an infidel, of a heretic, or of an excommunicated person denounced for the exercise of a false religion; by violent blood-shedding, or corporal defilement. Blood-shedding does not include bleeding at the nose! and a church is not defiled by any act of impurity done in secret! Such a church is purified by sprinkling with holy water, mixed with salt, wine, and ashes, and by reciting prayers to chase away the devil, and to obtain remission of sins. Burial grounds near to churches undergo the same ceremonies, with the addition of being robbed of the heretical carcase if it can be distinguished. Rousseau and Voltaire, however, yet lie in the vault under the church of St. Généviève in Paris! It is prohibited to walk about, make reports, represent plays,* hold assemblies, to speak of temporal affairs, or do justice, in churches. Divine service is only permitted in Latin. “ Vagabond" Priests must not offer the sacrifice of the mass. The holy vessels, cloths, &c. are to be blessed by a Bishop.
Bells are to be very solemnly blessed, with oil, holy chrism, incense, myrrh, and many prayers.
Robes are made matters of individual care. It is very well known that a Bishop of Amiens, in 1669, once visiting the collegiate Church of Roye, excommunicated the Dean because he would not put off his stole in the presence of the Bishop. It was tried before the courts, and given against the Bishop.
The Worship of Saints is defended on the principle of ancient prescription ; and it is allowed “ to invoke them as intercessors before God, by the merits of Jesus Christ, who is alone our Saviour and Redeemer.” The Pope, since the twelfth century, has had power to place new names in the lists of saints: when prayers are offered in a given spot or district, it is called a beatification ; when this worship extends to the whole Church, a canonization. The Council of Trent
* We intend, before long, to shew how often such things have been represented in churches in France.
declares, that the worship of relics of the saints who live with Jesus Christ has always been approved by the Church, and authorized by the Lord. Therefore they are to be exposed, and new ones allowed after due examination by medical men and bishops. However, it is forbidden to make them sources of profit. There is, it is said, no divinity or actual virtue in images; but they are permitted, because they call Christ to memory, and the honour paid to the images belongs to Jesus and the saints. To sell relics, is simony; but pictures and cups may be sold. When the worship of a saint or relics is attended by miracles, people are allowed to assemble: this is called pilgrimage. We observe (en passant), that the badge of the pilgriin, the scallopshell, is the remains of the worhip of Venus Astarte, who rose from the sea in that shell !
Heretics, being separated from the communion of the Church, according to Pope Innocent III., cannot be buried either in churches or cemeteries. But the National Convention (of the 12th Frimaire, an 2.) declares that no law authorizes burial to be refused to any person. A similar law and proviso extends to the excommunicated. Gregory allows prayers, the sacrifice of the mass, fastings, and alms for the dead who died in the communion of the Church. Vows are permitted ; and one kind, vows of poverty, consist in the dedicated despoiling himself of every kind of property; in having nothing, acquiring nothing of his own; and in using all things which the community may furnish him with for food and clothing! See Eph. iv. 28; Rom. xii. 16, 17; 1 Tim. v. 8.
So much for the mildest of all the Churches which have enlisted
der the banners of the “ Catholịc” superstition. “ Ex unâ disce omnes.” We say nothing of Papacy after this : here we see what simple Romanism is, and that is sufficient not only to teach us how to believe, to trust, and to respect it; but also how to regard and reverence the memory of those good men who have delivered us and our fathers from the vanities and wickednesses of an intolerant priestcraft. Thanks be to God for such a deliverance; and never may an Englishman, who confesses to rest his hopes in the faith taught in the
doctrines of our purified and apostolic Liturgy, ever think himself at liberty to despise, or to underrate, the blessings he enjoys in his emancipation from a thraldom such as that, which yet chains down the spirits of the freest of Romish communions !
The notices which we have thus put together will, we hope, serve the purpose to which we alluded in our introductory observations. They will teach us how to credit the impudent assertions of those political charlatans, who boast of the changes and securities of a Church which is unchangeable in its object, and whose changes in conduct are only the Proteus-like variations of an anomalous monster. How can we trust them, whose principal doctrine is that no faith is to be held with heretics? Perhaps the preceding extracts may not justify quite so bold an assertion. We have before us, however, testimony from another quarter on this point, which cannot be denied; and although we have occupied almost too much room, we cannot dismiss the subject without admitting it in favour of our argument. With respect to refusal of burial to heretics and excommunicated persons, the Priests in France, and elsewhere, are instructed to demand from the friends of the deceased, satisfactory replies founded on the following articles, and commands of Tradition, and ecclesiastical law :
1. Those who are absent from mass two succeeding Sundays are nominally excommunicated. (Conc. Marc. 1337. 4. Trullo. 80.)
2. Those who do not communicate at Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide, are excommunicated. (Agde. 506. 18.)
3. Ditto those who do not confess at Easter. (Con. Latran.) 4. Ditto those who eat meat in Lent. (Con. Valladolid. an 1322. 16.) 5. Ditto those who use art in curling their hair ! (in Trullo. 692.96.)
6. Fortune-tellers, consulters also, those who keep bears, and all kinds of such charlatans, are condemned to six years' penance. (Rome, 721.)
7. Those who paint the " Agnus Dei" of any other colours than those which they have by the whiteness of the wax of which they are made, are excommunicated. (Const. Greg. 13. 1572.)
8. He who says, that marriage is preferable to virginity or celibacy; and that it is not a better and more happy thing to remain in a state of virginity or celibacy than to marry; let him be anathematized ! (Council of Trent, 24. Can. 10.)
All these are denied Christian burial! There are other cases, such as duelling, less objectionable. The Council of Trent (25. Can. 19.) says, the detestable custom of duels, introduced by the artifice of the devil in order to profit by the loss of souls through the bloody death of their bodies, shall be entirely banished from all Christendom. Those who fight, and those who are called seconds (literally Godfathers, Gallicè Parrains), will suffer the penalty of excommunication, of confiscation of all their property, and of perpetual infamy. They will be punished as homicides, and if they die in the combat itself, they will always be deprived of ecclesiastical burial.
The Gallican Church has, we know, very recently hurled its thunders against certain excommunicated persons, such as comedians; which the canons scarcely tolerate. Far be it from us to uphold what is wrong ; but in a future day we will point out the inconsistencies in this respect of the conduct of the French Clergy, in examining a work which has been for some time lying unnoticed (i. e. critically) amongst a multitude of others, whose claims are more imperative.
Having extended to such a length our present observations, we have now no inclination to trouble our readers with any memoranda on the financial affairs of the late Church of France, but this may be summed up in an early number in another way. We cannot, however, take our leave without noticing two curious passages in an authentic work,* published in 1827, at Brussels, which throw some light on the history of the Concordat of 1801, mentioned at page 579, and on the nature of the celibacy still imposed upon the French Clergy.
Pius VI. died at Valentia, 29th August, 1799, during the govern* Mémoires Anecdotiques sur l'Intérieur du Palais et sur quelques Evènemens de l'Empire, depuis 1805 jusqu'au 1er Mai 1814, pour servir à l'Histoire de Napoleon, par L. F. 1. Bausset, ancien Préfet du Palais Imperial : avec gravures et cent vingt facsimile. 2 tom. Bruxelles : H. Tarlier, Rue de la Montagne, 1827.