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one the upper stone, the other the lower stone. In the lower stone is a centre fixed, which passes through a hole in the centre of the upper stone. In the upper stone, near the outside, is fixed a handle. By this the stone is turned about. The corn is put into the hole in the centre of the upper stone, and the corn passes between the stones, and by the friction, made by turning about the upper stone, the corn is broken and ground into flour, which comes out all round from between the stones.
Dr. E. D. Clarke, in his book of Travels, makes the following remarks on the use of such mills. He says, “Scarcely had we reached the apartment prepared for our reception, when, looking from the window into the courtyard belonging to the house, we beheld two women grinding at the mill, in a manner most forcibly illustrating the saying of our Saviour: Two women shall be grinding at the mill, the one shall be taken and the other left.' They were preparing flour to make our bread; as is always customary in the country when strangers arrive. The two women, seated upon the ground opposite each other, held between them two round flat stones, such as are seen in Lapland, and such as in Scotland are called querns. In the centre of the upper stone was a cavity for pouring in the corn, and there was an upright handle for moving the stone. As this operation began one of the women received the handle from her companion who pushed it towards her, who again pushed it back, thus giving & rotatory motion to the upper stone, their left hands being all the while employed in supplying fresh corn, as fast as the bran and flour escaped from the sides of the machine."
It is usual in countries where mills of this kind are used to grind the corn early in the morning. The noise of the mills is then so great as to rouse persons from their sleep. They generally grind their corn and bake their bread every day. The prophet Isaiah refers to the practice, of women servants grinding corn, in the following words : “ Come down and sit in the dust, О virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground; there is no throne, o daughter of the Chaldeans; for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate. Take the millstones, and grind meal.” Isaiah xlvii. 1, 2. The Lord, when describing the evils which He would bring upon the Jews, said, “Moreover, I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the candle. And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years." Jeremiah xxv. 10, 11.
When Abimelech, one of the wicked kings of the Jews, after having destroyed the men of Shechem, was making an attack upon the tower of Thebaz, a woman cast a piece of a millstone upon the head of Abimelech, and he was so wounded that he knew he should die, and that it might not be said he was killed by a woman, he, at his own command, was put to death, by the sword of his armourbearer. When Samson was taken captive by the Philistines, they put him into the prison at Gaza, and made him grind corn in the prison.
In the time of Moses, it appears that the possession of a mill to grind corn, was deemed absolutely needful to every family. Hence it was declared by the law, “No man shall take the nether (that is the under) or the upper mill-stone to pledge; for he taketh a man's life to pledge.” Deuteronomy xxiv. 6. Dr. Adam Clarke says, “Small handmills, which can be worked by a single person, were formerly in use among the Jews, and are still used in many parts of the East. As, therefore, the day's meal was generally ground for each day, they keeping no stock beforehand, hence they were forbidden to take either of the stones to pledge, because in such a case the family must be without bread. On this account the text terms the mill-stone the man's-life."
OLD WINSFORD'S VISIT TO THE GREAT
(Concluded from page 263.) I now proceed to give my young friends, the readers of the “Juvenile Companion," some further account of my visit to the Great Exhibition, as I have every reason to believe, that what I wrote last month has given satisfaction. Many persons, I fear, have but an imperfect notion of the character of the Exhibition. I may here observe, that it was an exhibition of the Industry of All Nations. It was an attempt to bring specimens of the productions and manufacturers of all nations under one roof. The idea originated with His Royal Highness Prince Albert; and by the generous assistance of the Public, it has been satisfactorily carried out. The objects exhibited were of a very miscellaneous character ; but it was thought that the whole of the products, at least of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, might be classed under a few sections, embracing altogether about thirty different classes. This was attempted, and I shall now give my young friends the result; and as they will probably meet with words that they are not at all familiar with, and of which they know not the meaning, I would urge upon them to consult the Dictionary, until the words are as familiar to them as household words. The articles then of Great Britain were comprised under four sections, and thirty classes, of which the following are the names
Section I.-Raw Materials. Class 1. Mining and Mineral Products.
2. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products. ... 3. Substances used as food. , 4. Vegetable and Animal Substances used in Manu
Section 11.—MACHINERY. , 5. Machines for direct use, including Carriages,
Railway, and Marine Mechanism. , 6. Manufacturing Machines and Tools.
Class 7. Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Building
Contrivances. „ 8. Naval Architecture, Military Engineering, Guns,
Weapons, &c. , 9. Agricultural, and Horticultural Machines and Im
plements. , 10. Philosophical, Musical, Horological, and Surgical
Section III.-MANUFACTURES. 11. Cotton. 12. Woollen and Worsted, 13. Silk and Velvet. 14. Flax and Hemp. 15. Mixed Fabrics, including Shawls. 16. Leather, Saddlery, Boots and Shoes, Skins, Fur,
and Hair. 17. Paper, Printing, and Bookbinding. 18. Woven, Felted, and Laid Fabrics, Dyed and
Printed. , 19. Tapestry, Floor Cloths, Lace, and Embroidery. 20. Articles of Clothing, for immediate, personal, or
domestic use. 21. Cutlery, Edge, and Hand Tools. 22. General Hardware, including Locks and Grates. 23. Works in Precious Metals, Jewellery, &c. 24. Glass. 25. China, Porcelain, Earthenware, &c. 26. Furniture, Upholstery, Paper Hangings, Papier
mache, and Japanned Goods. 27. Manufactures in Mineral Substances for Building
or Decorations. 28. Manufactures from Animal and Vegetable Sub
stances, not being woven or felted. 29. Miscellaneous Manufactures and Small Wares.
Section IV.–Fine ARTS. , 30. Sculpture, Models, and Plastic Art, Mosaics,
Enamels, &c. It is almost impossible to convey an idea of the articles exhibited under the above thirty classes. The number might be said to be legion, while the construction and workmanship of many of the articles was most elaborate. The prizes which were offered formed a stimulant which led to the production of articles of immense value, for ornament' or use. My young friends will thus perceive that it was something more than a mere show. The ornamental was combined with the useful; but the useful predominated, and might be said to be the prevailing characteristic of the Exhibition, considering that many things which at one time were regarded as luxuries, are now regarded as necessaries of life.
That my young friends may form some idea of one of these classes, they will perhaps allow me to take them into the Sculpture Court, for this was one of the great centres of attraction, and, like the Main Avenue and Transept, never wanted a crowd of admirers. It would be difficult to find anywhere, in an equal space, so many objects of interest of the same kind as are here. Blocks of stone and marble, and plaster casts, by the ingenious hand of man, have been made to appear to smile, to weep, to joy, or sorrow; in fact, to do almost all but move. What cannot man do? The Exhibition, and the Sculpture Court in particular, proves man to be possessed of wonderful powers. But let me try to give you some idea of the beautiful figures in this ever to be remembered spot. Here we have David before Saul, a statue in plaster; also a plaster figure of Eve, “The Serpent beguiled me, and I did eat;” The Wanderer, Belisarius; The Spirit of Science unveiling Ignorance and Prejudice; The Baptism of Christ ; The Original Model of Dick Whittington, as he was listening to Bow Bells, when he imagined they said —
"Turn again Whittington,
Lord Mayor of London." Statues or models of Prometheus; Sabrina; Childhood; Early Sorrow, sculptured in marble; Purity, or Una and the Lion; Pastoral Age, an original Group in plaster; Christ's Charge to Peter, a model in plaster; Mother and Child, by a deaf and dumb artist; Eve offering to Adam the Forbidden Fruit; the Expulsion from Paradise; the Curse; the Death of Abel; Life-sized figure of our Saviour bearing his Cross;