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years to come. The result of several fine nights' scrutiny, with an excellent 12ft. telescope, was, that, a black division could never be seen ; but a mark, or stripe, of a variable darkish shade was frequently seen on the outer bright ring, closely resembling the stripes, or belts, which so conspicuously cover the balls of Jupiter and Saturn. In the woodcut this mark on the outer ring is too distinct, being shown there quite black, instead of only a darkish stripe.
Besides these two bright rings there is an inner dusky ring, which was discovered only six years ago. It is worthy of mention that this discovery was made at about
the same time, and independently, by Professor Bond, of | the United States and by the Rev. W. R. Dawes, of Water
ingbury. We state these particulars thus minutely because they have been stated erroneously elsewhere. In speaking of this newly-discovered inner ring, we shall not stop to detail all the various conjectures that have been put forth to account for its recent appearance, because there is suffi-| cient evidence to prove that the ring has been nearly the same, both in position and appearance, for the last hundred years, and probably since the creation of the bright rings.
The following patch of information has found its way into a number of magazines and newspapers recently, and is only a type of a number of newspaper paragraphs which have startled the world during the last few years :
SATURN AND HIS Rings.-In a recent work, entitled, “ The New Theory of Creation and Deluge," among other startling predictions, it is stated, that it is probable the rings that surround Saturn are composed of water, snow, or ice, which, in some future time, may descend and deluge the planet, as ours was deluged in the days of Noah. Sir David Brewster writes thus :-"Mr. Otto Struve and Mr. Bond have lately studied with the great Munich telescope, at the observatory of Palkoway, the third ring of Saturn, which Mr. Lassels and Mr. Bond discovered to be fluid. These astronomers are of the opinion, that this fluid ring is not of very recent formation, and that it is not subject to rapid change; and they have come to the extraordinary conclusion, that the inner border of the ring bas, since the time of Huygens, been gradually approaching the body of Saturn, and that we may expect, sooner or later, perhaps in some dozen of years, to see the ring united with the body of the planet."
The new ring of Saturn is now generally believed by astronomers to be “fluid,” in the same sense as we understand the atmosphere which surrounds this Earth to be "fluid air ;" but not liquid like water, as the above writer would wish us to believe. A glance at our woodcut will show that the ball of the planet can be seen through the new inner ring-proving its transparency, and its strong resemblance to our own atmosphere. The bright rings appear to be composed of solid materials, little different from the ball itself; and, moreover, there is nothing very wild in the supposition that it may be adapted for the reception of inhabitants. Considerable surprise was excited a few months ago by the announcement that the bright rings were then much nearer the planet, than when the earliest sketches were made about 150 years ago. Several careful measurements have been made during the last winter, and the result is that no change appears to have taken place in the distance of the rings during the last 50 or 60 years at least.
The following are the dimensions of the Rings in round numbers :
Outside diameter of outer ring . 176,000 miles. Breadth of outer bright ring . . 10,000 , inner ditto
17,000 Interval between the rings .
3,000 , Breadth of inner dusky ring . . 11,000 , Interval between ditto and the ball. 8,000 Diameter of the ball . . . 79,000 , Thickness of the rings, not exceeding 250 m
From these figures it will be seen that our Moon might be dropped through the dark space between the two bright rings.
The ring is too thin to be seen with the most powerful telescope, when its edge is presented to us. In 1848 it was invisible for several evenings, then re-appeared as a very narrow line of light, and has since been gradually opening. In 1863 it will again be invisible; after which the side now turned from us will become visible, and remain so for a period of 15 years.
Satellites of Saturn.--Saturn is accompanied by eight | satellites, or Moons. These moons appear exceedingly small, owing to their great distance from this Earth, the faintest requiring the most powerful telescopes to render them visible. Every improvement of the telescope, since the time of Galileo, has revealed something new about Saturn; i and the following table containing the names of the satel. | lites, as given by Dr. Herschel, and their periods of revolution round Saturn, is also made to show the date of discovery of each and the name of the discoverer. It will be seen that the first satellite, or that nearest the planet ! performs its revolution in a very short space of time. Name and Order Period of Date of Discovery of Satellite. Revolution and Discoverer.
Days. Hours. 1. Mimas
0 22 Dr. Herschel, 1789 2. Euceladus
Ditto, 3. Tethys
Cassini, 1684" 4. Dione
2 18 Ditto, 5. Rhea . 4 12 Ditto, 1672 6. Titan . 15 23 Huyghens, 1655 7. Hyperion
Lassell, 1848 8. Japetus . 79 8 Cassini, 1671
The seventh satellite was discovered on the same erening, and independently, of course, in the United States by Professor Bond, and in England by Mr. Lassell, of Liverpool, with a very fine twenty feet telescope of his own construction. The first and second satellites were discovered by Dr. Herschel with a telescope forty feet long, and forty-eight inches aperture.
Before closing this article, it will perhaps be interesting to our readers to know the telescopic power necessary to make a successful attack on this very pretty planet. At. first sight it appears rather unfortunate, for the young astronomer, that Saturn should be so remote from us-requiring very powerful and expensive instruments to afford even a tolerable glimpse of its complicated scenery. A good pocket telescope, with a magnifying power of 30 or 40, if
kept very steady, will show that Saturn has a small knob on each side, and, if the glass be very superior, may afford a peep at the dark sky between the ball and ring, giving it the appearance of a bundle on each side. The writer has frequently seen that much very distinctly, with a very fine pocket glass of two inches diameter, and twenty-four inches focal length. Another achromatic telescope of 23 inches diameter, and 3} feet long, is capable of showing the black division of the rings, the rings crossing the body of the planet, and one or two little points of light near the planet, which are really the satellites-indeed, we have fancied we could pick out three or four satellites with this instrument, on a very clear evening. A reflecting telescope of eight inches diameter-until lately, our favourite tool -has frequently shown the second satellite, which our readers have been told was only discovered with Dr. Herschel's forty feet telescope. With a telescope of twelve inches diameter, and twelve feet long, we are able to see all the satellites, and all the other details mentioned in this essay-in fact, all that has hitherto been discovered.
We are fully aware of the disadvantages which many young persons, possessed of taste for the study of astronomy, labour under for want of telescopes* capable of revealing the grandeur of Saturn and other heavenly bodies. We advise such persons to make inquiry among their neighbours, who may perhaps be more fortunate, and if possible obtain a personal acquaintance with these interesting objects. A peep at Saturn, particularly at present, is better than reading a dozen pages of descriptive matter, and is well worth a long walk even on a cold and dark evening. Whenever Saturn, or any other heavenly body, is to be examined with a telescope, the object should be allowed to rise as high as possible to clear the mists and vapours which are always thickest near the horizon.
In concluding our notice of Saturn, we might be expected to add a few contemplative remarks which the study
* Our esteemed correspondent constructs his own instruments, in various departments of science, and with very great success. EDITOR.
of so grand an object cannot fail to stir up in the mind of every thinking individual; but as the essay is already considerably longer than we at first intended, we must close.
MORE THAN CONQUEROR. We have just lost by death one of onr Sunday-school monitors, whose end was so like the finale of some of the Old Testainent worthies, that we thought it would be well to send a few particulars for insertion in one of the Magszines... The parents were members of the Conferente body up to the time of separate services being instituted by the Reformers here, when they with others left or were expelled; but not wishing to coerce their children eren in such a matter, the deceased continued a scholar in the Conference school till about six or eight months since, when at his own request he was admitted into the Wesleyan Association school, and a class was committed to his care, the duties of which were soon interrupted by the illness which so soon terminated his earthly career.
His death was so extensively regretted that about three hundred teachers, children and others, followed his remains to the grave, around which the numbers were augmented to more than five hundred. The sight was most affecting and impressive. The warrior's remains have been followed by all the gorgeous show of the comrades left behind; statesmen and poets, by the brilliant geniuses who so lately hung upon their words and breathings—but here we have hundreds of those who are doing all they can to renovate and not destroy, assembling to weep o'er the dust of one of their number gone before, to receive his reward.
On Sunday, June 1st, the Rev. S. Newton preached from the words, “ Blessed are the dead, who die in the Lord." The chapel was very full. The following account was read :
“ Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right.” It is generally believed that this positive command