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play the wisdom and goodness of Providence. But what at present I have chiefly in view, is to observe, that government among brute animals, however simple, appears to be perfect in its kind ; and adapted with great propriety to their nature. Factions in the state are unknown: no enmity between individuals, no treachery, no deceit, nor any other of those horrid vices that torment the human race. In a word, they appear to be perfectly well qualified for that kind of society to which they are prompted by their nature, and well fitted for being happy in it.

Storing up the foregoing' obfervations tilll there be occasion for them, we proceed to the social nature of man. That men are endued with an appetite for society, will be vouched by the concurring testiinony of all men, each vouching for himfelf. There is accordingly no instance of people living in a solitary state, where the appetite is not obstructed by some potent obstacle. The inhabitants of that part of New Holland which Dampier saw, live in society, though less advanced above brutes than any other known savages ; and so intimate is their society, that they gather their food and eat in common. The inhabitants of the Canary Illands lived in the same manner, when first seen by Europeans, which was in the fourteenth century; and the savages mentioned by Condamine, drawn by a Jesuit from the woods to settle on the banks of the Oroonoko, must originally have been united in some kind of society, as they had a common language. In a word, that man hath an appetite for food, is not more certain, than that he hath an appetite for society. And here I have occasion to apply one of the observations made above. Abstracting altogether from the pleasure we have in fociety, similar to what we have in eating, evident it is, that to no animal is fociety more necessary than to man, whether for food or for defence. In society, he is chief of the terrestrial creation ; in a solitary state, the most helpless and forlorn. Thus, the first question suggested above, viz. To what end was a social appetite bestowed on man, has received an answer, which I flatter myself will be satisfactory.

The next question is, Whether the appetite embrace the whole species, or be limited, as among other animals, to a soci


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ety of moderate extent. That the appe-
tite is limited, will be evident from history.
Men, as far back as they can be traced,
have been divided into small tribes or so-
cieties. Most of these, it is true, have in
later times, been united into large states :
such revolutions, however, have been
brought about, not by an appetite for a
more extensive society, but by conqueft, or
by the junction of small tribes for defence
against the more powerful. A society may
indeed be too small for complete gratifica-
tion of the appetite ; and the appetite thus
cramped welcomes every person into the
society till it have sufficient scope ; che Ro-
mans, a diminutive tribe originally, were
fond to associate even with their enemies
after a victory. But, on the other hand,
a society may be too large for perfect gra-
tification. An extensive empire is an ob-
ject too bulky; national affection is too
much diffused ; and the mind is not at ease
till it find a more contracted society, cor-
responding to the moderation of its appe-
tite. Hence the numerous orders, associa-
tions, fraternities, and divisions, that spring
up in every great state. The ever-during
Blues and Greens in the Roman
• Vol. II.


moure, VIP


and Guelphs and Gibelines in Italy, could not have long subsisted after the cause of their enmity was at an end, but for a tendency in the members of a great state to contract their social connections *. Initiations among the ancients were probably owing to the same cause ; as also associations of artisans among the moderns, pretending mystery and secrecy, and excluding all strangers. Of such associations or brotherhoods, the free masons excepted, there is scarce now a veftige remaining.

We find now, after an accurate scrutiny, that the social appetite in man comprehends not the whole species, but a part only; and commonly a small part, precisely as among other animals. Here another final cause starts up, no less remarkable than that explained above. An appetite to associate with the whole species, would form states so unwieldy by numbers, as to be incapable of any government. Our appetite is wisely confined within such limirs, as to form fta:es of moderate extent, which of all are the best fitted for good government : and, as we shall see afterward, are also the best fitted for improving the human powers, and for invigorating every manly virtue. Hence an instructive lesson, That a great empire is ill suited to human nature ; and that a great conqueror is; in more respects than one, an enemy to mankind.

* The never ceasing factions in Britain proceed, not from a society too much extended, but from love of power or of wealth, to restrain which there is no sufficient authority in a free government.


The limiting our social appetite within moderate bounds, suggests another final cause. An appetite to associate with the whole species, would collect into one society all who are not separated from each other by wide seas and inaccessible mountains : and consequently would distribute mankind into a very few societies, consisting of such multitudes as to reduce national affection to a mere fhadow. Nature hath wisely limited the appetite in proportion to our mental capacity. Our relations, our friends, and our other connections, open an extensive field for the exercise of affection: nay, our country in general, if not too extensive, would alone be sufficient to engross our affection. But that beautiful speculation falls more properly under the principles of morality : and there it shall not be overlooked. What comes next in order, is to exa

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