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and beasts: and all the cities and villages of Benjamin were consumed with devouring flames. CHAP. XXI.

The tribe of Benjamin is saved from being utterly extinct, by providing wives for the six hundred that remained.


TOW the children of Israel had also sworn in Maspha, saying: None of us shall give of his daughters to the children of Benjamin to wife.

2 And they all came to the house of God in Silo; and abiding before him till the evening, lifted up their voices, and began to lament and weep, saying:

3 O Lord God of Israel, why is so great an evil come to pass in thy people, that this day one tribe should be taken away from among us?

4 And rising early the next day, they built an altar; and offered there holocausts, and victims of peace: and they said:

5 Who is there among all the tribes of Israel that came not up with the army of the Lord? for they had bound themselves with a great oath, when they were in Maspha, that whosoever were wanting should be slain.

6 And the children of Israel being moved 20 And they commanded the children of Benwith repentance for their brother Benjamin, be-jin, and said: Go, and lie hid in the vineyards: gan to say: One tribe is taken away from Israel, 21 And when you shall see the daughters of 7 Whence shall they take wives? For we have Silo come out, as the custom is, to dance, come all in general sworn, not to give our daughters to ye on a sudden out of the vineyards; and catch them. you every man his wife among them, and go into the land of Benjamin.

S Therefore they said: Who is there of all the tribes of Israel, that came not up to the Lord to Maspha? And behold, the inhabitants of Jabes Galaad were found not to have been in that

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13 And they sent messengers to the children of Benjamin, that were in the rock Remmon, and commanded them to receive them in peace.

14 And the children of Benjamin came at that time; and wives were given them of Jabes Galaad: but they found no others, whom they might give in like manner.

15 And all Israel was very sorry, and repented for the destroying of one tribe out of Israel.

16 And the ancients said: What shall we do with the rest, that have not received wives? for all the women in Benjamin are dead.

17 And we must use all care, and provide with great diligence, that one tribe be not destroyed out of Israel.

18 For as to our own daughters we cannot give them, being bound with an oath and a curse, whereby we said: Cursed be he that shall give Benjamin any of his daughters to wife.

19 So they took counsel, and said: Behold, there is a yearly solemnity of the Lord in Silo, which is situate on the north of the city of Bethel, and on the east side of the way, that goeth from Bethel to Sichem, and on the south of the town of Lebona.

12 And there were found of Jabes Galaad four hundred virgins, that had not known the bed of man: and they brought them to the camp in Silo, into the land of Chanaan.


22 And when their fathers and their brethren shall come, and shall begin to complain against you, and to chide, we will say to them: Have pity on them: for they took them not away as by the right of war or conquest; but when they asked to have them, you gave them not, and the fault was committed on your part.

23 And the children of Benjamin did, as they had been commanded: and according to their number, they carried off for themselves every man his wife of them that were dancing: and they went into their possession, and built up their cities, and dwelt in them.

24 The children of Israel also returned by their tribes, and families, to their dwellings. In those days there was no king in Israel: but every one did that which seemed right to himself.


This book is called RUTH, from the name of the||went to sojourn in the land of Moab with his person whose history is here recorded: who, wife and his two sons.

being a gentile, became a convert to the true 2 He was named Elimelech, and his wife, Nofaith, and marrying Booz the great-grand-emi; and his two sons, the one Mahalon, and the father of David, was one of those from whom other Chelion, Ephrathites of Bethlehem Juda. Christ sprung according to the flesh, and an And entering into the country of Moab, they illustrious figure of the gentile church. It is abode there. thought this book was written by the prophet Samuel.

3 And Elimelech the husband of Noemi died: and she remained with her sons.

4 And they took wives of the women of MoRuth. And they dwelt there ten years: ab, of which one was called Orpha, and the other

Chelion: and the woman was left alone, having 5 And they both died, to wit, Mahalon and

CHAP. I. Elimelech of Bethlehem going with his wife Noemi, and two sons, into the land of Moab, dieth there. His sons marry wives of that country, and die without issue. Noemi returneth home lost both her sons and her husband. with her daughter-in-law Ruth, who refuseth to part with her.

6 And she arose to go from the land of Moab to her own country with both her daughters-inIN the days of one of the judges, when the law: for she had heard that the Lord had looked came a famine in the upon his people, and had given them food. land. And a certain man of Bethlehem Juda, 7 Wherefore she went forth out of the place

of her sojournment, with both her daughters-in-1 2 And Ruth the Moabitess said to her motherlaw: and being now in the way to return into in-law: If thou wilt, I will go into the field, and the land of Juda, glean the ears of corn that escape the hands of the reapers, wheresoever I shall find grace with a householder that will be favourable to me. And she answered her: Go, my daughter.

8 She said to them: Go ye home to your mothers: the Lord deal mercifully with you, as you have dealt with the dead and with me.

9 May he grant you to find rest in the houses! of the husbands which you shall take. And she kissed them. And they lifted up their voice, and began to weep, 10 And to say: We will go on with thee to thy people.

4 And behold, he came out of Bethlehem, and said to the reapers: The Lord be with you. And they answered him: The Lord bless thee.

5 And Booz said to the young man that was

11 But she answered them: Return, my daughters; why come ye with me? have I any more sons in my womb, that you may hope for hus-set over the reapers: Whose maid is this? bands of me?

6 And he answered him: This is the Moabitess, who came with Noemi, from the land of Moab, 7 And she desired leave to glean the ears of corn that remain, following the steps of the reapers: and she hath been in the field from morning till now, and hath not gone home for one moment.

S And Booz said to Ruth: Hear me, daughter, do not go to glean in any other field; and do not depart from this place; but keep with my maids,

And follow where they reap. For I have charged my young men, not to molest thee: and if thou art thirsty, go to the vessels, and drink of the waters whereof the servants drink.

15 And Noemi said to her: Behold, thy kinswoman is returned to her people, and to her gods:* go thou with her.

10 She fell on her face, and worshipping upon the ground, said to him: Whence cometh this to me, that I should find grace before thy eyes, and that thou shouldst vouchsafe to take notice of me, a woman of another country?

16 She answered: Be not against me, to desire 11 And he answered her: All hath been told that I should leave thee, and depart: for whither-me, that thou hast done to thy mother-in-law afsoever thou shalt go, I will go: and where thou ter the death of thy husband; and how thou hast shalt dwell, I also will dwell. Thy people shall left thy parents, and the land wherein thou wast be my people, and thy God my God. born, and art come to a people which thou knewest not heretofore.

17 The land that shall receive thee dying, in the same will I die: and there will I be buried. The Lord do so and sot to me, and add more also, if aught but death part me and thee.

18 Then Noemi seeing, that Ruth was stedfastly determined to go with her, would not be against it, nor persuade her any more to return to her friends:

12 Return again, my daughters, and go your ways: for I am now spent with age, and not fit for wedlock. Although I might conceive this night, and bear children,

13 If you would wait till they were grown up, and come to man's estate, you would be old women before you marry. Do not so, my daughters, I beseech you: for I am grieved the more for your distress; and the hand of the Lord is gone out against me.

14 And they lifted up their voice, and began to weep again: Orpha kissed her mother-in-law, and returned: Ruth stuck close to her mother-inlaw.

19 So they went together, and came to Bethlehem. And when they were come into the city, the report was quickly spread among all: and the women said: This is that Noemi.

20 But she said to them: Call me not Noemi (that is, beautiful,) but call me Mara (that is, bitter:) for the Almighty hath quite filled me with bitterness.

21 I went out full; and the Lord hath brought me back empty. Why then do you call me Noemi, whom the Lord hath humbled, and the Almighty bath afflicted?

22 So Noemi came with Ruth the Moabitess her daughter-in-law, from the land of her sojournment; and returned into Bethlehem, in the beginning of the barley harvest..

3 She went therefore, and gleaned the ears of corn after the reapers. And it happened that the owner of that field was Booz, who was of the kindred of Elimelech.


Ruth gleaneth in the field of Booz; who showeth
her favour.
NOW her husband Elimelech had a kinsman,
a powerful man, and very rich, whose name
was Booz.

To her gods, &c. Noemi did not mean to persuade Ruth to return to her false gods she had formerly worshipped: but by this manner of speech, insinuated to her, that if she would go with her, she must renounce her false gods, and return to the Lord the God of Israel.

†The Lord do so and so, &c. A form of swearing usual in the history of the Old Testament, by which the persons wished such and such evils to fall upon them, if they did not do what they said.

12 The Lord render unto thee for thy work; and mayst thou receive a full reward of the Lord the God of Israel, to whom thou art come, and under whose wings thou art fled.

13 And she said: I have found grace in thy eyes, my lord, who hast comforted me, and hast spoken to the heart of thy handmaid, who am not like to one of thy maids.

14 And Booz said to her: At meal-time come thou hither, and eat of the bread, and dip thy morsel in the vinegar. So she sat at the side of the reapers; and she heaped to herself frumenty, and ate and was filled, and took the leavings.

15 And she arose from thence, to glean the ears of corn as before. And Booz commanded his servants, saying: If she would even reap with you, hinder her not:

16 And let fall some of your handfuls of purpose, and leave them, that she may gather them without shame: and let no man rebuke her when she gathereth them.

17 She gleaned therefore in the field till evening: and beating out with a rod, and threshing what she had gleaned, she found about the measure of an ephi of barley, that is, three bushels:

18 Which she took up and returned into the city, and showed it to her mother-in-law: moreover she brought out, and gave her of the remains of her meat, wherewith she had been filled.

19 And her mother-in-law said to her: Where hast thou gleaned to-day, and where hast thou wrought? blessed be he that hath had pity on thee. And she told her with whom she had wrought: and she told the man's name, that he was called Booz.

20 And Noemi answered her: Blessed be he of the Lord: because the same kindness which he showed to the living, he hath kept also to the dead. And again she said: The man is our kinsman.

21 And Ruth said, He also charged me, that I should keep close to his reapers, till all the corn should be reaped.

22 And her mother-in-law said to her: It is bet- 18 And Noemi said: Wait, my daughter, till ter for thee, my daughter, to go out to reap with we see what end the thing will have. For the his maids, lest in another man's field some one man will not rest until he have accomplished may resist thee. what he hath said.

23 So she kept close to the maids of Booz; and continued to glean with them, till all the barley and the wheat were laid up in the barns. CHAP. III.

Ruth instructed by her mother-in-law lieth at Booz's feet, claiming him for her husband by the law of affinity: she receiveth a good answer, and six measures of barley.

FTER she was returned to her mother-inlaw, Noemi said to her: My daughter, will seek rest for thee, and will provide that it may be well with thee.

2 This Booz, with whose maids thou wast joined in the field, is our near kinsman: and behold, this night he winnoweth barley in the threshingfloor.

3 Wash thyself therefore, and anoint thee, and put on thy best garments, and go down to the barn-floor: but let not the man see thee, till he shall have done eating and drinking.

7 And when Booz had eaten, and drunk, and was merry, he went to sleep by the heap of sheaves: and she came softly, and uncovering his feet, laid herself down.

4 I would have thee to understand this, and would tell thee before all that sit here, and before the ancients of my people. If thou wilt take possession of it by the right of kindred, buy it, and 4 And hen he shall go to sleep, mark the possess it. But if it please thee not, tell me so, place wherein he sleepeth: and thou shalt go in, that I may know what I have to do. For there and lift up the clothes wherewith he is covered is no near kinsman besides thee, who art first, and towards his feet, and shalt lay thyself down there:me, who am second. But he answered: I will and he will tell thee what thou must do.

buy the field.

5 She answered: Whatsoever thou shalt command, I will do.

6 And she went down to the barn-floor, and did all that her mother-in-law had bid her.

5 And Booz said to him: When thou shalt buy the field at the woman's hand, thou must take also Ruth the Moabitess, who was the wife of the deceased; to raise up the name of thy kinsman in his inheritance.

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Upon the refusal of the nearer kinsman, Booz marrieth Ruth, who brings forth Obed, the grandfather of David.

14 So she slept at his feet till the night was going off. And she arose before men could know one another; and Booz said: Beware lest any man know that thou camest hither.

HEN Booz went up to the gate, and sat

there. And when he had seen the kinsman going by, of whom he had spoken before, he said to him, calling him by his name: Turn aside for a little while, and sit down here. He turned aside, and sat down.

8 And behold, when it was now midnight the man was afraid, and troubled: and he saw a woman lying at his feet:

9 And he said to her: Who art thou? And she answered: I am Ruth thy handmaid: spread thy Coverlet over thy servant, for thou art a near kinsman. 10 And he said: Blessed art thou of the Lord, 8 So Booz said to his kinsman: Put off thy shoe. my daughter; and thy latter kindness* has sur-And immediately he took it off from his foot. passed the former: because thou hast not follow- 9 And he said to the ancients and to all the ed young men either poor or rich. people: You are witnesses this day, that I have bought all that was Elimelech's, and Chelion's, and Mahalon's, of the hand of Noemi:

Il Fear not therefore, but whatsoever thou shalt say to me I will do to thee. For all the people that dwell within the gates of my city, know that thou art a virtuous woman.

2 And Booz taking ten men of the ancients of the city, said to them: Sit ye down here.

3 They sat down, and he spoke to the kinsman: Noemi, who is returned from the country of Moab, will sell a parcel of land that belonged to our brother Elimelech.

17 And she said: Behold, he hath given me six measures of barley: for he said: I will not have thee return empty to thy mother-in-law.

6 He answered: I yield up my right of next akin: for I must not cut off the posterity of my own family. Do thou make use of my privilege, which I profess I do willingly forego.

7 Now this in former times was the manner in Israel between kinsmen, that if at any time one yielded his right to another; that the grant might be sure, the man put off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour: this was a testimony of cession of right in Israel.

10 And have taken to wife Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahalon, to raise up the name of the deceased in his inheritance, lest his name be cut off from among his family and his brethren and his people. You, I say, are witnesses of this thing.

11 Then all the people that were in the gate, and the ancients answered: We are witnesses: The Lord make this woman who cometh into thy house, like Rachel, and Lia, who built up the house of Israel; that she may be an example of virtue in Ephrata,† and may have a famous name in Bethlehem:

15 And again he said: Spread thy mantle.' 12 And that the house may be, as the house wherewith thou art covered, and hold it with both of Phares, whom Thamar bore unto Juda, of the hands. And when she spread it and held it, he seed which the Lord shall give thee of this young measured six measures of barley, and laid it upon woman. her. And she carried it, and went into the city. 16 And came to her mother-in-law. Who said to her: What hast thou done, daughter? And she told her all that the man had done to her.

13 Booz therefore took Ruth, and married her, and went in unto her: and the Lord gave her to conceive, and to bear a son.

14 And the woman said to Noemi: Blessed be the Lord, who hath not suffered thy family to want a successor; that his name should be preserved in Israel:

15 And thou shouldst have one to comfort thy

*Thy latter kindness, viz. to thy husband de-soul, and cherish thy old age. For he is born of ceased in seeking to keep up his name and family, thy daughter-in-law, who loveth thee; and is by marrying his relation according to the law, and much better to thee, than if thou hadst seven sons. not following after young men. For Booz, it seems, was then in years.

† Ephrata. Another name of Bethlehem.

16 And Noemi taking the child, laid it in her 18 These are the generations of Phares: PhaJosom: and she carried it, and was a nurse un-res begot Esron: o it.

17 And the women her neighbours, congratulating with her, and saying: There is a son born to Noemi; called his name Obed: he is the father of Isai, the father of David.

19 Esron begot Aram: Aram begot Aminadab: 20 Aminadab begot Nahasson: Nahasson begot Salmon:

21 Salmon begot Booz: Booz begot Obed:

22 Obed begot Isai: Isai begot David.




This and the following book are called by the He-of me, and not forget thy handmaid, and wilt give brews the books of Samuel, because they contain to thy servant a man-child: I will give him to the the history of Samuel, and of the two kings, Lord all the days of his life; and no razor shall Saul and David, whom he anointed. They are come upon his head. more commonly named by the Fathers, the first 12 And it came to pass, as she multiplied prayand second book of kings. As to the writer of ers before the Lord, that Heli observed her them, it is the common opinion that Samuel mouth. composed the first book, as far as the twenty- 13 Now Anna spoke in her heart, and only her fifth chapter; and that the prophets Nathan lips moved, but her voice was not heard at all. and Gad finished the first, and wrote the Heli therefore thought her to be drunk, second book. See 1 Paralipomenon, alias 1 Chronicles xix. 19.

14 And said to her: How long wilt thou be drunk? digest a little the wine, of which thou hast taken too much.


Anna the wife of Elcana being barren, by vow
and prayer obtaineth a son; whom she calleth
Samuel and presenteth him to the service of
God in Silo, according to her vow.

HERE was a man of Ramathaimsophim, of

the son of Jeroham, the son of Eliu, the son of Thohu, the son of Suph, an Ephraimite:*

2 And he had two wives; the name of one was Anna, and the name of the other Phenenna. Phenenna had children: but Anna had no children.

3 And this man went up out of his city upon the appointed days, to adore, and to offer sacrifice to the Lord of hosts in Silo. And the two sons of Heli, Ophni and Phinees, were there priests of

the Lord.

4 Now the day came, and Elcana offered sacrifice, and gave to Phenenna his wife, and to all her sons and daughters, portions:

5 But to Anna he gave one portion with sorrow, because he loved Anna. And the Lord had shut up her womb.

6 Her rival also afflicted her, and troubled her

exceedingly, insomuch that she upbraided her, that the Lord had shut up. her womb:

7 And thus she did every year, when the time returned, that they went up to the temple of the Lord: and thus she provoked her: but Anna wept, and did not eat.

Then Elcana her husband said to her: Anna, why weepest thou? And why dost thou not eat? and why dost thou afflict thy heart? Am not better to thee, than ten children?


9 So Anna arose after she had eaten and drunk in Silo: And Heli the priest sitting upon a stool before the door of the temple of the Lord:

10 As Anna had her heart full of grief, she prayed to the Lord, shedding many tears,

11 And she made a vow, saying: O Lord of hosts, if thou wilt look down, and wilt be mindful

An Ephraimite. He was of the tribe of Levi, 1 Paralip. vi. 34. but is called an Ephraimite from dwelling in mount Ephraim.

15 Anna answering, said: Not so, my lord: for I am an exceeding unhappy woman, and have drunk neither wine nor any strong drink; but I have poured out my soul before the Lord.

16 Count not thy handmaid for one of the daughters of Belial: for out of the abundance of

17 Then Heli said to her: Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition, which thou hast asked of him.

18 And she said: Would to God thy handmaid may find grace in thy eyes. So the woman went on her way, and ate; and her countenance was no more changed.

19 And they rose in the morning, and worshipped before the Lord: and they returned, and came into their house at Ramatha. And Elcana knew Anna his wife: And the Lord remembered her.

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† Samuel. This name imports, Asked of God.

thy soul liveth, my lord: I am that woman who the Lord: being a child girded with a linen stood before thee here praying to the Lord.

27 For this child did I pray: and the Lord hath granted me my petition, which I asked of him.

28 Therefore I also have lent him to the Lord, all the days of his life, he shall be lent to the Lord. And they adored the Lord there. And Anna prayed, and said:


The canticle of Anna. The wickedness of the sons of Heli: for which they are not duly cor-ceived, and bore three sons, and two daughters: rected by their father. A prophecy against the and the child Samuel became great before the house of Heli. Lord.

Y rejoiced the Lord, and My bear that red in my tod: my mouth enlarged over my enemies: because I have joyed in thy salvation.


2 There is none holy as the Lord is: for there is no other beside thee, and there is none strong like our God.

3 Do not multiply to speak lofty things, boasting: let old matters depart from your mouth: for the Lord is a God of all knowledge, and to him are thoughts prepared.

4 The bow of the mighty is overcome, and the weak are girt with strength.

5 They that were full before have hired out themselves for bread: and the hungry are filled, so that the barren hath borne many: and she that had many children is weakened.

6 The Lord killeth, and maketh alive: he bringeth down to hell, and bringeth back again.

7 The Lord maketh poor, and maketh rich: he humbleth, and he exalteth.

8 He raiseth up the needy from the dust, and lifteth up the poor from the dunghill: that he may sit with princes, and hold the throne of glory, For the poles of the earth are the Lord's; and upon them he hath set the world.

9 He will keep the feet of his saints: and the wicked shall be silent in darkness, because no man shall prevail by his own strength.

10 The adversaries of the Lord shall fear him: and upon them shall he thunder in the heavens: The Lord shall judge the ends of the earth: and he shall give empire to his king, and shall exalt the horn of his Christ.

11 And Elcana went to Ramatha, to his house: but the child ministered in the sight of the Lord before the face of Heli the priest.

12 Now the sons of Heli were children of Belial, not knowing the Lord,

13 Nor the office of the priests to the people: but whosoever had offered a sacrifice, the servant of the priest came, while the flesh was in boiling, with a flesh-hook of three teeth in his hand,

14 And thrust it into the kettle, or into the cauldron, or into the pot, or into the pan: and all that the flesh-hook brought up, the priest took to himself. Thus did they to all Israel that came to Silo.

15 Also before they burnt the fat, the servant of the priest came, and said to the man that sacrificed: Give me flesh to boil for the priest: for will not take of thee sodden flesh, but raw.


16 And he that sacrificed said to him: Let the fat first be burnt to-day according to the custom; and then take as much as thy soul desireth. But he answered, and said to him: Not so: but thou shalt give me now, or else I will take it by force.

17 Wherefore the sin of the young men was exceeding great before the Lord: because they withdrew men from the sacrifice of the Lord.

18 But Samuel ministered before the face of


19 And his mother made him a little coat, which she brought to him on the appointed days, when she went up with her husband, to offer the solemn sacrifice.

20 And Heli blessed Elcana and his wife: and he said to him: The Lord give thee seed of this woman, for the loan thou hast lent to the Lord. And they went to their own home.

21 And the Lord visited Anna: and she con

* My horn. The horn in the scriptures signifies strength, power, and glory: so the horn is said to be exalted, when a person receives an increase of strength or glory.


was very old;


that his sons did to all Israel, and how they lay with the women that waited at the door of the tabernacle:

23 And he said to them: Why do ye these kind of things, which I hear, very wicked things, from all the people?

24 Do not so, my sons: for it is no good report that I hear, that you make the people of the Lord to transgress.

25 If one man shall sin against another, God may be appeased in his behalf: but if a man shall sin against the Lord, who shall pray for him? And they hearkened not to the voice of their father, because the Lord would slay them.

26 But the child Samuel advanced, and grew on, and pleased both the Lord and men.

27 And there came a man of God to Heli, and said to him: Thus saith the Lord: Did I not plainly appear to thy father's house, when they were in Egypt in the house of Pharao?

28 And I chose him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to go up to my altar, and burn incense to me, and to wear the ephod before me: and I gave to thy father's house of all the sacrifices of the children of Israel:

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Ibid. Because the Lord would slay them. In consequence of their manifold sacrileges, he would not soften their hearts with his efficacious grace, but was determined to destroy them.

Thy rival. A priest of another race. This was partly fulfilled, when Abiathar, of the race of Heli, was removed from the priesthood, and Sadoc, who was of another line, was substituted in his place. But it was more fully accomplished in the New Testament, when the priesthood of Aaron gave place to that of Christ.

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