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in the likeness of sinful flesh, even of sin, con-livered from the servitude of corruption, into the demned sin in the flesh, liberty of the glory of the children of God. 22 For we know that every creature groaneth, and is in labour even till now.
23 And not only it, but ourselves also, who harr the first fruits of the spirit, even we ourselves groen within ourselves, waiting for the adoption of the sons of God, the redemption of our body.
24 For we are saved by hope. But hope that is seen, is not hope: For what a man seeth, why dota he hope for?
25 But if we hope for that which we see not: we wait for it with patience.
26 Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmity for, we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit himself asketh for us with unspeakable groanings.
4 That the justification of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the spirit.
5 For they who are according to the flesh, relish the things that are of the flesh: but they who are according to the spirit, mind the things which are of the spirit.
6 For the wisdom of the flesh is death: but the wisdom of the spirit is life and peace.
7 Because the wisdom of the flesh is an enemy to God: For it is not subject to the law of God,
neither can it be.
8 And they who are in the flesh, cannot please God.
9 But you are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
27 And he that searcheth the hearts, knoweth what the Spirit desireth: because he asketh for the saints according to God.
10 And if Christ be in you: the body indeed is dead because of sin, but the spirit liveth because of justification.
28 And we know that to them that love God, all things work together unto good to such as according to his purpose are called to be saints.
11 And if the Spirit of him, who raised up Jesus 29 For whom he foreknew, he also predestina from the dead, dwell in you: he that raised up ted to be made conformable to the image of his Jesus Christ from the dead, shall quicken also Son: that he might be the first-born amongst many your mortal bodies, because of his Spirit dwelling brethren. in you.
30 And whom he predestinated, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also st fied: and whom he justified, them he also glorified
31 What shall we then say to these things? li God be for us, who is against us?
12 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.
13 For if you live according to the flesh, you shall die: but if by the spirit you mortify the deeds of the flesh, you shall live.
14 For whosoever are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.
15 For you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear: but you have received the spirit of adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba, (Father.)
16 For the Spirit himself giveth testimony to our spirit, that we are the sons of God.
19 For the expectation of the creature waiteth for the revelation of the sons of God.
32 He that spared not even his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how hath he not alst, with him, given us all things?
33 Who shall lay any thing to the charge of the elect of God? God who justifieth.
34 Who is he that shall condemn? Christ Jesus who died, yea, who rose also again, who is at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.
17 And if sons, heirs also: heirs indeed of God, and joint-heirs with Christ: yet so if we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified with him.
18 For I reckon, that the sufferings of this pre-sword? sent time are not worthy to be compared with the glory to come, that shall be revealed in us.
20 For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him that made it subject in hope:
21 Because the creature also itself shall be de
35 Who then shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation? or distress? or famine or nakedness? or danger? or persecution? or the
36 (As it is written: For thy sake we are put to death, all the day long: we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.)
37 But in all these things we overcome, because of him that hath loved us.
38 For I am sure that neither death, nor life, nor Angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nar might,
39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature shall be able to separate us from the love of God,
The Spirit himself, &c. By the inward motions
of divine love, and the peace of conscience, which which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
the children of God experience, they have a kind of testimony of God's favour; by which they are
much strengthened in their hope of their justifica- The apostle's concern for the Jews. God's election
tion and salvation: but yet not so as to pretend to an absolute assurance: which is not usually grant
is free, and not confined to their nation.
ed in this mortal life: during which we are taught
SPEAK the truth in Christ, I lie not, my can
science bearing me the Holy Ghost:
to work out our salvation with fear and trembling, Phil. ii. 12. And that he who thinketh himself to stand, must take heed lest he fall, 1 Cor. x. 12. See also Rom. xi. 20, 21, 22.
2 That I have great sadness, and continual sor row in my heart.
Asketh for us. The Spirit is said to ask, and
+ The expectation of the creature, &c. He speaks desire for the saints, and to pray in us; inasmuch of the corporeal creation made for the use and ser- as he inspireth prayer, and teacheth us to pray. vice of man; and, by occasion of his sin, made He also predestinated, &c. That is, God bath subject to vanity, that is, to a perpetual instability, pre-ordained that all his elect should be conformatending to corruption, and other defects; so that ble to the image of his Son. We must not bere by a figure of speech it is here said to groan and be offer to dive into the secrets of God's eternal elec in labour, and to long for its deliverance, which is tion: only firmly believe that all our good, o then to come, when sin shall reign no more; and time, and eternity, flows originally from God's free God shall raise the bodies and unite them to their goodness; and all our evil from man's free will. souls never more to separate, and to be in everlast- I am sure. That is, I am persuaded: as it is ing happiness in heaven. in the Greek, πέπεισμαι. 112
3 For I wished myself to be an anathema* from|| Christ, for my brethren, who are my kinsmen according to the flesh,
4 Who are Israelites, to whom belongeth the adoption of children, and the glory, and the covenant, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises:
5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom is Christ according to the flesh, who is over all things, God blessed for ever. Amen.
6 Not as though the word of God hath failed. For, all are not Israelitest that are of Israel:
7 Neither are all they, who are the seed of Abraham, children: but in Isaac shall thy seed be called:
*Anathema; a curse. The apostle's concern and love for his countrymen the Jews, was so great, that he was willing to suffer even an anathema, or curse, for their sake; or any evil that could come upon him, without his offending God.
18 Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will; and whom he will he hardeneth. T
To this purpose, &c. Not that God made him on purpose that he should sin, and so be damned but foreseeing his obstinacy in sin, and the abuse of
19 Thou wilt say therefore to me: Why doth he then find fault? For who resisteth his will?
20 Oman, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it: Why hast thou made me thus?
21 Or hath not the potter** power over the clay, of the same lump, to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?
22 And if God willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath, fitted to destruction,
23 That he might show the riches of his glory upon the vessels of mercy, which he hath prepared unto glory.
24 Even us, whom also he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles,
25 As he saith in Osee: I will call them my people, that were not my people: and her beloved, that was not beloved: and her, that had not obtained mercy, one that hath obtained mercy.
26 And it shall be, in the place where it was said to them: you are not my people: there they shall be called the children of the living God.
27 And Isaias crieth out concerning Israel: If the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant++ shall be saved.
28 For he shall finish his word, and cut it short in justice: because a short word shall the Lord make upon the earth.
29 And as Isaias foretold: Unless the Lord of sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been made as Sodom, and we had been like unto Gomorrha.
30 What then shall we say? That the Gentiles, who sought not after justice, have attained to justice: even the justice that is of faith.
31 But Israel, in pursuing the law of justice, is not come to the law of justice.
32 Why so? because they sought it not of faith, but as it were of works: for they stumbled at the stumbling-stone;
33 As it is written: Behold, I lay in Sion a stumbling-stone and a rock of scandal: and whosoever believeth in him, shall not be confounded.
The end of the law is faith in Christ; which the
All are not Israelites, &c. Not all, who are the carnal seed of Israel, are true Israelites in God's account who, as by his free grace he heretofore preferred Isaac before Ismael, and Jacob before Esau, so he could, and did by the like free grace, election and mercy, raise up spiritual children by faith to Abraham and Israel, from among the Gentiles, and prefer them before the carnal Jews.
Not yet born, &c. By this example of these twins, and the preference of the younger to the elder, the drift of the apostle is, to show that God, in his election, mercy, and grace, is not tied to any particular nation, as the Jews imagined, nor to any He hardeneth. Not by being the cause, or prerogative of birth, or any foregoing merits. For author of his sin, but by withholding his grace, and as, antecedently to his grace, he sees no merits in so leaving him in his sin, in punishment of his past any, but finds all involved in sin, in the common mass of condemnation; and all children of wrath; **The potter. This similitude is used, only to there is no one whom he might not justly leave in show that we are not to dispute with our Maker: that mass; so that whomsoever he delivers from it, nor to reason with him why he does not give as he delivers in his mercy: and whomsoever he leaves much grace to one as to another: for since the in it, he leaves in his justice. As when, of two whole lump of our clay is vitiated by sin, it is owing equally criminal, the king pleased out of pure to his goodness and mercy, that he makes out of it mercy to pardon one, whilst he suffers justice to take so many vessels of honour; and it is no more than place in the execution of the other. just that others, in punishment of their unrepented of sins, should be given up to be vessels of dishonour. tt A remnant. That is, a small number only of the children of Israel shall be converted and saved. How perversely is this text quoted for the salvation of men of all religions, when it speaks only of the converts of the children of Israel?
Not of him that willeth, &c. That is by any power or strength of his own, abstracting from the grace of God.
BRETHREN, the will of my heart, indeed, and
my prayer to God, is for them unto salvation. 2 For I bear them witness, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.
his own free-will, he raised him up to be a mighty king, to make a more remarkable example of him: and that his power might be better known: and his justice, in punishing him, published throughout the earth.
3 For they not knowing the justice of God, and seeking to establish their own, have not submitted themselves to the justice of God.
4 For the end of the law is Christ, unto justice to every one that believeth.
5 For Moses wrote, that the justice which is of the law, the man that shall do it, shall live by it.
6 But the justice which is of faith, speaketh thus: Say not in thy heart: Who shall ascend into heaven? that is, to bring Christ down :
7 Or who shall descend into the deep? that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.
8 But what saith the Scripture? The word is near thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: this is the word of faith, which we preach:
9 That if thou confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in thy heart that God hath raised him up from the dead, thou shalt be saved.†
10 For, with the heart, we believe unto justice but, with the mouth, confession is made unto salvation.
11 For the Scripture saith: Whosoever believeth in him, shall not be confounded.
12 For there is no distinction of the Jew and the Greek for the same is Lord over all, rich to all that call upon him.
13 For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord, shall be saved.
14 How then shall they call on him, in whom they have not believed? Or how shall they believe him, of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear, without a preacher?
15 And how can they preach unless they be sent? as it is written: How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, of them that bring glad tidings of good things!
16 But all do not obey the gospel. For Isaias saith: Lord, who hath believed our report?
17 Faith then cometh by hearing: and hearing by the word of Christ.
18 But I say: Have they not heard? Yes verily their sound went over all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the whole world.
2 God hath not cast away his people, which he foreknew. Know you not what the Scripture sath of Elias; how he calleth on God against Israel?
3 Lord, they have slain thy prophets, and have dug down thy altars: and I am lett alone, and they seek my life.
4 But what saith the divine answer to him? 1 have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed their knees to Baal.
5 Even so then at this present time also, there is a remnant saved according to the election of grace. 6 And if by grace, it is not now by works:/ otherwise grace is no more grace.
7 What then? that which Israel sought, he hath not obtained: but the election hath obtained it, and the rest have been blinded :
8 As it is written: God hath given them the spirit of insensibility: eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, until this present day.
9 And David saith: Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling-block, and a recompense to them.
10 Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see: and bow down their back always.
11 I say then: Have they so stumbled, that they should fall?** God forbid. But by their offence, salvation is come to the Gentiles, that they may be emulous of them.
12 Now if the offence of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them, the riches of the Gentiles: how much more the fulness of them?
13 For I say to you Gentiles: As long indeed as am the apostle of the Gentiles, I will honour my ministry,
14 If by any means I may provoke to emulation those who are my flesh, and may save some of them
15 For if the loss of them be the reconciliation of the world: what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?
16 For if the first-fruit be holy, so is the mag also: and if the root be holy, so are the branches
17 And if some of the branches be broken, and thou being a wild olive tree, art ingrafted in them, and art made partaker of the root and of the fatness of the olive tree,
18 Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast: thou bearest not the root, but the root the
Christ said, John xx. 21. As my Father hath sent me, I also send you.
Seven thousand, &c. This is very ill alleged by some against the perpetual visibility of the church of Christ: the more because however the number of the faithful might be abridged by the persecution of Jezabel in the kingdom of the ten tribes; the church was at the same time in a most flourishing condition (under Asa and Josaphat) in the kingdom
It is not now by works, &c. If salvation were to come by works, done by nature, without fash and grace, salvation would not be a grace or favour, but a debt; but such dead works are indeed of no value in the sight of God towards salvation. It is not the same with regard to works done with and by God's grace; for to such works as these be bas
+ Thou shalt be saved. To confess the Lord promised eternal salvation. Jesus, and to call upon the name of the Lord, ¶ God hath given them, &c. Not by his working v. 13.) is not barely the professing a belief in the or acting in them; but by his permission, and by person of Christ; but, moreover, implies a belief of withdrawing his grace in punishment of their obstihis whole doctrine, and an obedience to his law; nacy. without which the calling him Lord will save no man. St. Matt. vii. 21.
Unless they be sent. Here is an evident proof against all new teachers, who have all usurped to themselves the ministry without any lawful mission, which fall of theirs God has been pleased to turn to derived by succession from the apostles, to whom the good of the Gentiles.
** That they should fall. The nation of the Jews is not absolutely and without remedy cast off for ever; but in part only (many thousands of thems having been at first converted) and for a time,
CHAP. XII, XII.
19 Thou wilt say then: The branches were
20 Well: because of unbelief they were broken
21 For if God hath not spared the natural
22 See therefore the goodness, and the severity of God: towards them indeed that are fallen, the severity: but towards thee the goodness of God, if thou continue in goodness, otherwise thou also shalt be cut off+
23 And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be ingrafted: for God is able to ingraft them again.
24 For if thou wert cut out of the wild olive tree
25 For I would not have you ignorant, brethren,
27 And this is to them my covenant, when I shall take away their sins.
34 For who hath known the mind of the Lord? Or who hath been his counsellor?
35 Or who hath first given to him, and recompense shall be made him?
36 For of him, and by him, and in him are all things: to him be glory for ever. Amen.
Thou standest by faith: be not high-minded, but fear. We see here that he who standeth by faith may fall from it; and therefore must live in fear, and not in the vain presumption and security of modern sectaries.
Lessons of christian virtues.
living sacrifice, holy, pleasing to God, your reasonBESEECH you therefore, brethren, by the mercy of God, that you present your bodies a able service.
reformed in the newness of your mind; that you
to all that are among you, not to be more wise than
+ Otherwise thou also shall be cut off. The Gentiles are here admonished not to be proud, nor to glory against the Jews; but to take occasion rather from their fall to fear, and to be humble, lest they
be cast off. Not that the whole church of Christ
can ever fall from him; having been secured by so many divine promises in holy writ; but that each one in particular may fall; and therefore all in general are to be admonished to beware of that, which may happen to any one in particular.
For the gifts and the calling of God are without his repenting himself of them; for the promises of God are unchangeable, nor can he repent of conferring his gifts.
Concluded all in unbelief. He hath found all nations, both Jews and Gentiles, in unbelief and sin; not by his causing, but by the abuse of their own free-will; so that their calling and election is purely owing to his mercy.
but all the members have not the same office :
5 So we being many, are one body in Christ, and each one, members one of another.
grace that is given us, whether prophecy, accord6 And having gifts different, according to the
28 According to the gospel, indeed, they are enemies for your sake: but according to election, they are most dear for the sake of the fathers.
29 For the gifts and the calling of God are withoutt repentance.
30 For as you also in times past did not believe God, but now have obtained mercy, through their unbelief;
31 So these also now have not believed, for your mercy, that they also may obtain mercy.
32 For God hath concluded all in unbelief, that he may have mercy on all.
33 O the depth of the riches, of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God! How incomprehensi-minded, but condescending to the humble. Be not ble are his judgments, and how unsearchable his wise in your own conceits:
good not only in the sight of God, but also in the 17 Render to no man evil for evil: provide things sight of all men.
18 If it be possible, as much as is in you, have peace with all men.
eth, in teaching;
with simplicity; he that ruleth with solicitude; he 8 He that exhorteth in exhorting; he that giveth that showeth mercy with cheerfulness.
9 Love without dissimulation. Hating that which is evil, adhering to that which is good:
honour preventing one another:
serving the Lord:
instant in prayer:
13 Communicating to the necessities of the saints: pursuing hospitality.
14 Bless them that persecute you: bless, and
15 Rejoice with them that rejoice; weep with them that weep:
16 Being of one mind one to another: not high
19 Revenge not yourselves, my dearly beloved,
if he thirst, give him drink: for doing this, thou
21 Be not overcome by evil, but overcome evil by
Lessons of obedience to superiors, and mutual
or there is no power but from God: and those
eth the ordinance of God. And they that resist,
but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the
But if thou do that which is evil, fear: for he
3 Wherefore be subject of necessity, not only for whether we live, or whether we die, we are the wrath, but also for conscience sake. Lord's.
6 For therefore also you pay tribute for they are the ministers of God, serving unto this purpose.
7 Render therefore to all their dues: tribute, to whom tribute is due: custom, to whom custom fear, to whom fear: honour, to whom honour.
8 Owe no man any thing, but that you love one another: for he that loveth his neighbour, hath ful
filled the law.
9 For thou shalt not commit adultery: Thou 12 So, then, every one of us shall render account shalt not kill: Thou shalt not steal: Thou shalt for himself to God. not bear false witness: Thou shalt not covet: and 13 Let us not, therefore, judge one another any if there be any other commandment, it is compri-more: but judge this rather, that you put not sed in this word: Thou shalt love thy neighbour a stumbling-block or a scandal in your brother's as thyself.
10 The love of the neighbour worketh no evil. 14 I know, and am confident, in the Lord Jesus, Love therefore is the fulfilling of the law. that nothing is unclean of itself; but to him that esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean.
15 But if, because of thy meat, thy brother be grieved; thou walkest not now according to charity. Destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died.
11 And that knowing the time; that it is now the hour for us to rise from sleep for now our salvation is nearer than when we believed.
12 The night is passed, and the day is at hand. Let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and put on the armour of light.
13 Let us walk honestly as in the day: not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and impurities, not in contention and envy.
14 But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh in its concupis
The strong must bear with the weak. Cautions
2 For one believeth that he may eat all things:* but he that is weak, let him eat herbs.
4 Who art thou that judgest another man's servant? To his own master he standeth or falleth; and he shall stand: for God is able to make him stand.
3 Let not him that eateth despise him that eat-ed, or scandalized, or made weak.
eth not: and he that eateth not, let him not judge || 22 Hast thou faith? Have it to thyself before him that eateth: for God hath taken him to him. God. Happy is he that condemneth not himself in that which he alloweth.
23 But he that discerneth, if he eat, is con demned: because not of faith. For all that is not of faith, is sin.
5 For one judgeth between day+ and day: and another judgeth every day: let every man abound in his own sense.
9 For to this end Christ died, and rose again: that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living
10 But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou despise thy brother? For we shall al stand before the judgment-seat of Christ.
11 For it is written: As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me: and every tongue shall confess to God.
8 For, whether we live, we live to the Lord; or whether we die, we die to the Lord. Therefore,
16 Let not, then, our good be evil spoken of 17 For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but justice, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.
18 For he, that in this serveth Christ, pleaseth God, and is approved of men.
19 Therefore, let us follow after the things that are of peace and keep the things that are of edfication one towards another.
20 Destroy not the work of God for meat. All things, indeed, are clean: but it is evil for that man who eateth with giving offence.
21 It is good not to eat flesh, and not to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother is offend
3 For Christ did not please himself, but as it is written: The reproaches of them that reproached thee, fell upon me.
4 For what things soever were written, were written for our instruction: that, through patience and the comfort of the Scriptures, we might have hope.
5 Now, the God of patience and of comfort grant you to be of one mind, one towards another, according to Jesus Christ:
Eat all things, viz. without observing the distinction of clean and unclean meats, prescribed by the law of Moses: which was now no longer obligatory. Some weak Christians, converted from among the Jews, as we here gather from the apostle, made a scruple of eating such meats as were deemed unclean by the law; such as swine's flesh, &c. which 6 That with one mind, and with one mouth, you the stronger sort of Christians did eat without scru-may glorify God, and the Father of our Lord Jesus ple. Now the apostle, to reconcile them together, exhorts the former not to judge or condemn the latter, using their Christian liberty; and the latter to take care not to despise, or scandalize their weaker brethren, either by bringing them to eat what in their conscience they think they should not or by giving them such offence as to endanger the driving them thereby from the Christian religion.
Discerneth. That is, distinguisheth between meats, and eateth against his conscience, what he deems unclean.
Of faith. By faith is here understood judg + Between day, &c. Still observing the sabbaths ment and conscience: to act against which is always and festivals of the law.
7 Wherefore receive one another: as Christ also hath received you to the honour of God.