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the reasons are assigned. But as the same prophetic language often embraces various events fulfilled in different ages of the world, so many of those accomplished at comparatively early periods of history are rendered types of still more important future events, from the resemblance of their character and circumstances ;—thence Edom becomes an appropriate type of that portion of the Gentile world which is opposed to the church of God, because the Edomites were ever at enmity with their brethren the Jews, under the old dispensation. Have not “ the kings of the earth set themselves ...... against the Lord, and against his anointed ?" Have they not “ crucified the Lord of glory?" and have they not caused the Jewish nation to drink the bitter cup of wrath at the destruction of Jerusalem ? So they themselves, though afterwards become professedly Christian nations, have been continually dismembering or destroying each other; and they shall drink the dregs of this cup of wrath, till “they shall be as though they had not been.”

Under these awful threatenings the preservation of the righteous is calculated to afford consolation to the Christian.

Isaiah LXVI. 16. By fire and by his sword will the LORD plead with all flesh : and the slain of the LORD shall be many.

Isaiah 11. 11--19. a The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of men shall be bowed down, and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day. For the day of the Lord of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud and lofty, and upon every one that is lifted up; and he shall be brought low : and bupon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan, and upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up, and upon every high tower, and upon every fenced wall, and upon all c the ships of

a Jer. L. 31, 32. b Is. X. 33, 34. Is. XXIII. 1.

Tarshish, and upon all pleasant pictures. And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made low : and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day. And the idols he shall utterly abolish. And they shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the Bearth, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth.

Isaiah xxvi. 21. Behold, the Lord cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity : d the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.

Zephaniah 11. 8. Wait ye upon me, saith the LORD, until the day that I rise up to the prey : for my determination is to gather the nations, that I may assemble the kingdoms, to pour upon them mine indignation, even all my fierce anger : for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of my jealousy.

Isaiah xxxiv. 1–8 eCome near, ye nations, to hear; and hearken, ye people: let the earth hear, and all that is therein; the world, and all things that come forth of it. For the indignation of the Lord is upon all nations, and his fury upon all their armies : he hath utterly destroyed them, he hath delivered them to the slaughter. Their slain also shall be cast out, and their stink shall come up out of their carcases, and the mountains shall be melted with their blood. And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig from the fig-tree.*

The warrior boasts of his military prowess, often of the characteristic bravery of his soldiers, and of “ the glorious results of their valour.” We are apprised, however, that “ there is no king saved by the multitude of a host: neither is a mighty man delivered by much strength. A horse is a vain thing for safety: neither shall he deliver any by his great strength.” Ps. xxxIII. 16, 17.

& Heb.“ dust.

4 Ezek. xxiv. 7,8; Luke xi. 50; Rev. vi. 9—11. God scorns the angry nations “rage,'

e Rev. 11. 7.

f Isaiah xiv. 12; Rev. vi. 12, 13. * See Supplement, No. II.

And breaks their vain designs ;
His counsel stands through ev'ry age,

And in full glory shines.” Little do such men imagine, while indulging these vanities, that the principles of war, so exclusively at variance with the doctrines of the Prince of peace, can never produce happy and permanent results. Such declarations as that “the Lord hath a controversy with the nations,"_"will plead with all flesh, &c.," clearly evince the vanity and inutility, as well as cruelty and recklessness of all war; and intimate that as nations will not forbear, there must be a continuous conflict between the powers of light and darkness, until at length it terminate in “ a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation, even to that same time.”

Those who imagine that war is consistent with the revealed will of God, are not likely to become advocates of the doctrines which actuate the “ meek and lowly ;" and yet the meek are they who shall inherit the earth. There is a confined sense, in which the generality of Christian professors admit as essential, brotherly love and forbearance, that is, in their individual capacity, and even so far as in social and public circles; but they exclude all such considerations when nationally applied, by which they, in reality, exclude “ peace on earth," and the universal “ good-will” of nation towards nation, of man towards man.

“ When the wickedness of man was great on the earth no doubt war and bloodshed abounded; for the earth was filled with violence.' In after times men were trained up to war, and then came the sling, and the bow and arrow, the sword and the spear, to attack with ; and the helmet, and

the breastplate, and the coat of mail, to defend the body from injury. Strongholds and fortresses and walled cities were built. Battering-rams and powerful engines of destruction were used. It is enough to make the heart sick to go through an armory, and see the improvements, as they are called, in warlike weapons. The sharp arrow was not fatal enough, it must be poisoned ! The edged blade was not deadly enough, it must be formed so as to give an incurable wound! The dagger, the two-handed sword, the iron mace, the battle-axe, the pike, and the halberd were but a part of the weapons that were used. But deadly as these were, they could not keep pace with the desire for human destruction. Some swifter, some more wholesale destroyer was required, and gunpowder was invented. The matchlock, the gun, the eulverin, the cannon, and the mortar followed each other; and thousands and tens of thousands were added to the slain. When war once became a trade, no wonder that it should increase in the earth. Nations rivalled each other in their armies and navies. Infantry and cavalry, engineers and artillerymen, soldiers and sailors, generals and admirals became abundant. Oh, what blood has been shed, and what unnumbered millions of money have been spent, scattered, wasted, worse than wasted, in ungodly warfare !

“When I read of forts and castles, with their parallels and parapets, their outworks, their bastions, their angles, their ramparts, and their citadels ; when I read of bomb-boats, and fire-ships, and rockets, and red-hot shot, I am amazed that any thing like this world possesses can be thought so desirable as to be purchased at so dear, so dreadful a price as that of war. Even gunpowder, wide wasting as it is, has not satisfied the insatiable desires of war. A still more devastating power has been invented. By the use of steam, a complete stream of bullets and of cannon-balls can be poured forth on errands of destruction.". ,.

How significant is the language which foretells the humiliation and punishment of worldly potentates, and of the high, lofty, and arrogant of every description! They are compared, for their grandeur and prosperity, to “ the cedars of Lebanon;" or, for their established strength and power, to “ the oaks of Bashan;" and as states and governments, to“ mountains and hills;" but they shall “be brought low," and their fortresses and defences shall not avail. Idolatry, also, will be wholly exterminated by fearful judgments, such as shall force its deluded votaries to acknowledge the sovereign majesty and glory of “ Him who rideth upon the heavens,” who “ alone shall be exalted in that day.” :

Every serious reader must be affected by the terrible comprehensiveness of these prophecies ; for “the indignation of the Lord is upon all nations," none are exempt; dea voting themselves to the destruction incident to war, they cannot merit exemption; and in the figurative sense of the passage, “ The mountains," the ruling powers, must finally “ melt” away, for the “ blood” of “ all their armies” shall be poured out. « The heavens” themselves, the highest and loftiest governments on earth,“ shall be rolled together as a scroll;" their laws and mandates, mingled with error, injustice, and oppression, can no longer be sustained ; in fine, they shall “fall down" from the height of their power and dignity “ as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig from the fig-tree.”

Thus, though “ the Lord will be jealous for Zion with a great jealousy, which shall devour the adversaries,” yet we

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