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sdom by the Romans;" yet some have reckoned the commencement of the
2300 years from the time Alexander invaded Asia, B. C. 334, and which will terminate in the year 1966. “The time in which the four decrees were issued stands thus :
Edict of Cyrus ...........
“ Two thousand three hundred years, calculated from each of these dates will respectively bring us to A.D. 1764, 1782, 1843, and 1856. From these calculations it will be perceived that the two former have already passed ; and the accomplishment of the prophecy not having yet taken place, our inquiry will therefore be limited to the last two; viz., the two edicts given by Artaxerxes, the one to Ezra, and the other to Nehemiah.
“ The former of these two edicts of Artaxerxes has a very great importance attached to it; it is the point of time that marks the commencement of the
seventy weeks,' the prophecy relating to the first coming and death of Christ; and consequently to the first cleansing of the sanctuary, which He effected in his own person, when he drove the buyers and sellers out of the temple, and publicly ministered within its walls. It was in virtue of this edict that the Jewish church and polity were fixed upon a settled basis, and fully restored from the disorders and confusion of the Babylonish captivity; that the templeservice and all that related to the worship of the sanctuary, was regulated; and that Ezra, like Abraham, Moses, and David, stood at the head of one of the four great divisions of the Jewish history. As the intrinsic importance of the work which Nehemiah performed in consequence of this favour from Artaxerxes, appears rather for the greater perfecting of Ezra's commission, which was to restore and build the walls of Jerusalem,' than for any original or new privileges which it conferred, as well as from consideration of the date of the latter having already been employed in a similar way in a chronological period relating to the same sanctuary; and also from being connected with the memorable preservation of the Jews under Esther and Mordecai,-I have no hesitation in giving it the preference on this occasion ; and, therefore, consider the edict given to Ezra, as that from which the commencement of these 2300 years ought to be dated ;” viz. B.C. 457, and terminating 1843.
The emperor Justinian “in a marked and special manner contributed towards the full establishment of the awful apostacy” of the churches of Christ “ There are in this case, as in the former period of 2300 years, four edicts from which the commencement of the period of 1260 years might be supposed to be reckoned. The first was issued by the emperors Gratian and Valentinian, in the year 379, and was 'chiefly for the purpose of regulating appeals to the Roman Pontiff, and giving him jurisdiction over the whole western empire, which was all comprehended within the prefectures of Italy and Gaul' “ The second was issued by the emperor Valentinian ini. in 445, and confers upon the Pope the most extensive authority,' and declares that whatsoever the authority of the apostolic see shall enact, shall be for a law to all.'
“ The third edict is that of the emperor Justinian, issued in 533. And the fourth and last was from the tyrant Phocas, the murderer of the emperor Maurice and his family, and was given A.D. 606; adjudging the palm of ecclesiastical supremacy to the Pope, rather than to the primate of Constantinople; merely, however, confirming, as far as it went, the preceding edict issued by Justinian ... The time for the accomplishment of the two former passed without any particular events transpiring (reckoning 1260 years) in 1638 and 1705. And in choosing between these two I feel no hesitation, with the great majority of modern commentators, in giving the preference to the one of the Emperor Justinian, rather than that of Phocas; and assigning the date of his edict which was March, 533, as the true and proper commencement of this period, and the time when the saints were delivered or given’ into the hands of the Pope.
“ Mr. Cunningham observes, in giving the quotations which constitute what is called the edict of Phocas, “there is no appearance in them of any new title having been conferred by this emperor, but merely a confirmation of the one previously given by Justinian'. .... On the contrary, by the mandates and edicts of Justinian, the supremacy of the Pope, as head of all the churches, received the fullest sanction that could be given to it by the hand of man.
“ Although by this edict the saints were delivered into the hands of the Pope, yet it was not until fifty years subsequently that the ten papal kingdoms were finally established, nor that popery assumed its most awful and distinguishing characteristic,—the Divine attribute of infallibility.... As all the other kingdoms, with regard to their territorial limits, which is what is contemplated in the prophecy, were confessedly founded before this time .... we appear to be sufficiently warranted in considering that this year is the proper date from which to calculate the assigned duration of the Western Roman Empire in its divided state. It appears, likewise, from Bowyer's History of the Popes, that it was about the year 583 that the then Pope, Pelagius, first assumed the Divine attribute of infallibility. And perhaps no consideration has tended to keep its members so fast bound to its communion, and so completely to depress the true church, as the universal recognition, throughout the papal world, of this daring pretension. It has been the charm which has retained all ranks of persons for so many centuries within its magic circle; the magnet which has attracted the desultory and unstable within its sphere, the foundation of its whole superstructure, the cement of all its parts, and its fence and fortress against all inroads and attacks.”
We now present our readers with a chronological view of the great unfulfilled events. Either the epoch 583 or that of 606 may be conjectured to be the commencement of the 1260 years :
The first epoch above-mentioned,
The second epoch proposed is, is fifty years subsequent to the
when the emperor Phocas constiedict of Justinian in the year 533,
tuted the bishop of Rome supreme . . .A.D.
head of the church, or universal biTo which add the "Time, times and
. . . A.D. 606 a half” of Daniel, or, the 42 months,
Which together with the prophetic or, 1260 days of the Revelation · · 1260 period of 1260 days . . . 1260 Terminates in the year · · · ·
Terminates in . . A.D. 1866 We further find in Dan. XII. 11, that from the time in which the daily sacrifice should be taken away and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, or, to set up the abomination that astonisheth) there should be 1290 days or years, thus :
Or, · · · · 606
606 Ada the above : : 1290 Terminates in . . . A.D. 1873
· 1290 A.D. 1896 During this additional period of 30 years, what is termed the battle of Armageddon will probably take place, if these chronological calculations be correct, and the utter extinction of the Roman power, civil and ecclesiastical, must ensue.
It is added in ver. 12, "Blessed is he that waiteth and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days,” i. e., 45 years later 1873
. ..., 1896 . . . . . . . 45
. . . . . . . 45 This brings us to the year . . 1918 Or, . . . . . . . 1941
The termination of this period of 45 years probably marks the final restoration of the Jews to their own land and the blessed effects of their missionary labours.
It is then said to Daniel, “But go thou thy way till the end be.' This last period of 45 years not being positively specified as the end, it will reasonably be inferred that there will be a further or subsequent period of increasing importance. From Dan. viii. 14, we learn that the sanctuary' is not to be cleansed' (Heb., justified) till • 2300 days, or years :' this according to the year adopted by Mr. Habershon, for its commencement, as above, viz., B.C. 457, brings us down to the year 1843,
The year 334 B.C. has been
2300 Thus : : : : : B.C. 457 also adopted, thus : : :
334 1843 Terminating at · · · · 1966 This year 1843 leaves a period of 157, (or, 153) years to complete the year of Christ 2000, or A.M. 6000; the year in which many have supposed the Second Advent will ensue. During this interval, or whatever fewer number of years it may occupy,—the Restoration of the Jews,—the Erection of a Temple at Jerusalem, the Battle of Armageddon,--the Invasion of Gog, the Destruction and Burial of his armies,-the Ministry of Elijah and the solemn events which are so closely connected with the coming of our Lord will it is supposed, take place.
“ If we take the second period, A.D. 1866, as the termination of the 1260 years, there would remain 130 or 134 years to complete these great events before the arrival of the year 2000. But as we are assured by Christ that none
ean know the day nor hour of his coming, it is necessary that we should consider as wholly uncertain at what periods the great events will be fulfilled, which are to take place subsequent to the expiration of the 1335 years, or, (in accordance with the above period of 1843,) A. D. 1918. Because, beyond this period, no data are furnished which can afford ground for conjecture, the idea of the Second Advent taking place, A. D. 2000, being founded on nothing more than Jewish tradition.”
stops opo 91.2 No. XI. - Page 108.
- Den ON THE RESTORATION OF JUDAH AND THE TEN TRIBES. 133 39 it
ON 11, 213
BY THE REV. MR. FABER AND MR. BEGG. I forget « According to the account given by Esdras, the Israelites in their progress to the unknown land, must have repassed the Euphrates at the upper region or small stream towards Georgia, and thence have bent their course between the Black and Caspian seas, which would bring them to the north-east of the country which he mentions. The voluntary determination of separating themselves from the neighbouring idolatrous nations, who had so often ensnared them, may have been approved by their ever-watchful GUARDIAN, who, it is said, 'held still' or froze the waters, which they crossed to the uninhabited land, or wilderness to which they were providentially directed; and in which, at the eve of the Restoration, they are to be discovered and identified."
"Now,suppose an extensive continent, a new world, should have been recently discovered, north-east of Media, and at the distance of a year and half's journey from thence, inhabitated by a people no inconsiderable portion of whom are in religion pure Theists; (the heathen nations being invariably idolaters); -suppose them divided into tribes, and heads of tribes; with symbols; destitute indeed of letters, and in a benighted state, yet possessing all the marks of a people who had not only been civilized, but favoured by a revelation from God, (the former evident from their tumuli, the mathematical accuracy of their fortresses, and the clay, silver, copper, and other vessels, and relics found in the neighbourhood of Mexico, Peru, and the great rivers where their ancient and populous towns had been situated; the latter from the ceremonial observances of their worship and civil government :) superadded to these circumstances, suppose amongst the tribes a variety of traditional fragments of the sacred history of the creation, and of the people of Israel :--suppose the name by which they designate the 'Great SPIRIT,' whom they believe the head of their tribes, is YEHOWA, whom they acknowledge as the Omnipotent, Omnipresent, and Omniscient CREATOR, and Sustainer, on whom they are dependent from day to day for life and all things; who shall reward the just and punish the unjust, after death :-suppose you find in some of the more intelligent, and in all their prophets, a national feeling of prerogative, as if they were conscious of being a peculiarly beloved people, who shall at a future time be repossessed of many privileges of which they are now destitute :-suppose that amongst these their return to their own land, where the sun rises, and from which their remote ancestors came, is cherished with a fond faith, together with
the repossession of the great good Book which once belonged to their people:
t-suppose you find them observing certain appointed festivals and religious dances, in which the words HALLELUJAH and Yehowa are constantly repeated; counting their time by moons, and observing the first sight of the new moon with rejoicing; celebrating anniversary feasts of a religious nature, one in gratitude for the green corn, and another for the ingathering :--suppose you find among them an evening feast, corresponding to the Passover, in which the bone” of the animal may not be broken, and, if the provision is too much for one family, deeming it necessary to call in neighbours to eat it, burying before morning dawn the remainder, and eating bitter herbs to cleanse them from sin :-suppose they have places of refuge, into which the man-slayer may flee, and whither the avenger of blood dare not intrude :---suppose they have a sacred place, where the priest must officiate in a certain dress, making an atonement, but from which other persons are excluded; the High Priest, when addressing the people, using what he terms 'the ancient divine Speech,' calling his hearers the beloved peculiar people:'-suppose they have a tradition that they had prophets, who could perform miracles, and foretell future events:suppose they have an ark of the covenant imitated, which is not permitted to touch the ground, and which no one except the officiating priest may presume to touch, or look into, upon pain of death :-suppose that they have convocations at which all their males must appear annually; and that they are traditionally acquainted with the history of the deluge, the building of Babel, the predicted baptism of the earth by fire, and of the longevity of the ancients, who lived till their feet were worn out with walking, and their throats with swallowing:'-suppose you find some of the tribes making an altar of twelve stones, on which no iron tool may pass, whereon they offer sacrifice; with the custom of washing, anointing, and making loud lamentation for the dead; when in deep affliction, 'putting their hand on their mouth and their mouth in the dust ;'-suppose you find in South and North America all these gleanings of revelation, and many more, amongst a newly discovered people of Asiatic genius and manners, and Hebrew physiognomy, would you feel justified in refusing to acknowledge in this interesting people, the outcasts of Israel, who, when the times of the Gentiles are ending, must be brought to light, identified, and instructed by the daughter of the dispersed, preparatory to their repossession of their own land? With this idea before us, without preconceived opinion, let us listen to their traditions,* broken and desultory, it is true, nevertheless derived from a revelation which they are conscious of having lost, but yet hope to regain; and you find in this people their own witness, perishing for lack of knowledge, under the predicted grievous famine of the WORD.'
“The various prophecies which speak of the restoration of the ten tribes, certainly cannot relate to the restoration of those detached individuals out of them who returned with Judah from the Babylonian captivity. This is manifest; both because their restoration is represented as perfectly distinct from the restoration of Judah, and because it is placed at once subsequent to that event,
* "Many of these traditions and other forms of evidence are given by the Authoress in her Hope of Israel,' from which the above extract is taken."