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P. A knave's a knave, to me, in ev'ry state:
Alike my scorn, if he succeed or fail,
Sporus at court, or Japhet in a jail,
A hireling scribbler, or a hireling peer,
Knight of the post corrupt, or of the shire;
If on a Pillory, or near à Throne,
He gain his Prince's ear, or lose his own.

Yet soft by nature, more a dupe than wit,
Sappho can tell you how this, man was bit;
This dreaded Sat'rist Dennis will confess
Foe to his pride, but friend to his distress3 :
So humble, he has knock'd at Tibbald's door,
Has drunk with Cibber, nay has rhym'd for Moore.
Full ten years slander'd, 'did he once reply"?
Three thousand suns went down on Welsted's lie5.
To please a Mistress one aspers'd his life;
He lash'd him not, but let her be his wife.
Let Budgel charge low Grubstreet on his quillo,
And write whate'er he pleas'd, except his Will?;
Let the two Curlls of Town and Court, abuse
His father, mother, body, soul, and muse8.
Yet why? that Father held it for a rule,
It was a sin to call our neighbour fool:




'['Like Knights o'th' Post, and falsely charge the imagination that he writ some things about Upon themselves what others forge.' the Last Will of Dr Tindal, in the Grub-street

Hudibras, Part 1. Canto 1. Journal; a Paper wherein he never had the The so-called “Knights of the Post' stood about least hand, direction, or supervisal, nor the least the sheriff's pillars near the courts, in readiness knowledge of its Author. P. [He reappears in to swear anything for pay. See R. Bell's note the Dunciad, 11. v. 397.] ad loc.]

except his Will; Alluding to Tindal's Will: · Ver. 368 in the MS.

by which, and other indirect practices, Budgell, 'Once, and but once, his heedless youth was bit. to the exclusion of the next heir, a nephew, got And lik'd that dang rous thing, a female wit:

to himself almost the whole fortune of a man Safe as he thought, tho' all the prudent chid; entirely unrelated to him. P. [Budgel was beHe writ no Libels, but my Lady did:

lieved to have forged a will purporting to be by Great odds in am'rous or poetic game,

Dr Matthew Tindal, the author of Christianity Where Woman's is the sin, and Man's the as old as the Creation.) shame.'

& His father, mother, &c.] In some of Curll's (Again alluding to Lady Mary.]

and other pamphlets, Mr Pope's father was said 3 [V. ante, note to v. 48.]

to be a Mechanic, á Hatter, a Farmer, nay a 4 ten years) It was so long after many libels Bankrupt. But, what is stranger, a Nobleman before the Author of the Dunciad published that if such a Reflection could be thought to come poem, till when, he never writ a word in answer from a Nobleman) had dropt an allusion to that to the many scurrilities and falsehoods concern- pitiful untruth, in a paper called an Epistle to a ing him. P.

Doctor of Divinity: And the following line, 5 Welsted's lie.) This man had the impu- Hard as thy Heart, and as thy Birth obscure, dence to tell in print, that Mr P. had occasioned had fallen from a like Courtly pen, in certain a Lady's death, and to name a person he never Verses to the Imitator of Horace. Mr Pope's heard of, He also publish'd that he libell'd the Father was of a Gentleman's Family in OxfordDuke of Chandos; with whom it was added) shire, the head of which was the Earl of Downe, that he had lived in familiarity, and received whose sole Heiress married th Earl of Lindsey. from him a present of five hundred pounds: the His mother was the daughter of William Turnor, falsehood of both which is known to his Grace. Esq. of York: she had three brothers, one of Mr P. never received any present, farther than whom was killed, another died in the service of the subscription for Homer, from him, or from King Charles; the eldest following his fortunes, Any great Man whatsoever. P. (Compare and becoming a general officer in Spain, left her Duncid, II. vv. 2O7-2o.].

what estate remained after the sequestrations . Let Budgel] Budgel, in a weekly pamphlet and forfeitures of her family–Mr Pope died in called the Bee, bestowed much abuse on him, in 1717, aged 75; she in 1733, aged 93, a very few


That harmless Mother thought no wife a whore:
Hear this, and spare his family, James Moore!

Unspotted names, and memorable long !
If there be force in Virtue, or in Song.

Of gentle blood (part shed in Honour's cause,
While yet in Britain Honour had applause)
Each parent sprung? - A. What fortune, pray?- P. Their own,
And better got, than Bestia's from the throne.

Born to no Pride, inheriting no Strife,
Nor marrying Discord in a noble wife 3,
Stranger to civil and religious rage,
The good man walk'd innoxious thro' his age.

Nor Courts he saw, no suits would ever try,
Nor dar'd an Oath, nor hazarded a Lie“.
Un-learn'd, he knew no schoolman's subtle art,
No language, but the language of the heart.
By Nature honest, by Experience wise,
Healthy by temp'rance, and by exercise;
His life, tho’long, to sickness past unknown,
His death was instant, and without a groan.
O grant me, thus to live, and thus to die !
Who sprung from Kings shall know less joy than 15.

O Friend! may each domestic bliss be thine!
Be no unpleasing Melancholy mine:
Me, let the tender office long engage,
To rock the cradle of reposing Age,
With lenient arts extend a Mother's breath,
Make Languor smile, and smooth the bed of Death,
Explore the thought, explain the asking eye,
And keep a while one parent from the sky !
On cares like these if length of days attend,
May Heav'n, to bless those days, preserve my friend, 415
Preserve him social, cheerful, and serene,
And just as rich as when he serv'd a QUEEN 6.
A. Whether that blessing be deny'd or giv'n,
Thus far was right, the rest belongs to Heav'n.


weeks after this poem was finished. The follow- Countess of Warwick, and Dryden's with Lady ing inscription was placed by their son on their Elizabeth Howard. Carruthers. Monument in the parish of Twickenham, in Mid- 4 He was a nonjuror, and would not take dlesex.

the oath of allegiance or supremacy, or the oath D. O. M.

against the Pope. Bowles. ALEXANDRO. POPE. VIRO. INNOCVO. PROBO. PIO. 5 After v. 405 in the MS.

QVI. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXXV.OB. MDCCXVII. *And of myself, too, something must I say?

Take then this verse, the trifle of a day.
PIENTISSIMAE. QVAE. VIXIT. ANNOS. And if it live, it lives but to commend

The man whose heart has ne'er forgot a Friend,
PARENTIBVS. BENEMERENTIBVS. FILIVS. FECIT. Or head, an Author: Critic, yet polite

And friend to Learning, yet too wise to write.' ? (See Introductory Memoir, p. viii.]

6 And just as rich as when he servd a . [L. Calpurnius Bestia, who here seems to Queen.]. An honest compliment to his Friend's signify the Duke of Marlborough, was a Roman real and unaffected disinterestedness, when he proconsul, bribed by Jugurtha into a dishonour- was the favourite Physician of Queen Anne. able peace.)

Warburton. 3 Alluding to Addison's marriage with the




THE Occasion of publishing these Imitations was the clamour raised on some of my Epistles. Ano Answer from Horace was both more full, and of more Dignity, than any I could have made in my own person; and the Example of much greater Freedom in so eminent a Divine as Dr Donne, seem'da proof with what indignation and contempt a Christian may treat Vice or Folly, in ever so low, or ever so high a Station. Both these Authors were acceptable to the Princes and Ministers under whom they lived. The Satires of Dr Donne I versified, at the desire of the Earl of Oxford while he was Lord Treasurer, and of the Duke of Shrewsbury who had been Secretary of State ; neither of whom look'd upon a Satire on Vicious Courts as any Réflection on those they serv'd in. And indeed there is not in the world a greater error, than that which Fools are so apt to fall into, and Knaves with good reason to encourage, the mistaking a Satirist for a Libeller; whereas to a true Satirist nothing is so odious as a Libeller, for the same reason as to a man truly virtuous nothing is so hateful as a Hypocrite.

Uni aequus Virtuti atque ejus Amicis. P. ['Whoever,' says Warburton, “expects a paraphrase of Horace, or a faithful copy of his genius, or manner of writing in these Imitations, will be much disappointed. Our author uses the Roman poet for little more than his canvas; and if the old design or colouring chance to suit his purpose, it is well; if not, he employs his own, without scruple or ceremony.' 'He deemed it more modest,' felicitously adds the same authority, 'to give the name of Imitations to his Satires, than, like Despreaux' [Boileau), 'to give the name of Satires to Imitations.' 'In two large columns,' wrote a less kindly critic, from whom impartiality could hardly be expected, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (alluding to the juxtaposition of the Latin and English texts),

'In two large columns, on thy motley page
Where Roman wit is strip'd with English rage;
Where ribaldry to satire makes pretence,
And modern scandal rolls with ancient sense :
Whilst on one side we see how Horace thought
And on the other how he never wrote:
Who can believe, who views the bad and good,
That the dull copyist better understood
That spirit he pretends to imitate,

Than heretofore the Greek he did translate;' proceeded, from this pleasant allusion to Pope's Homer, to explain the moral obliquities of her detractor by his defects of person, birth and nature. It was not to be expected that Sappho would sing the praises of these Imitations; and the question remains, to what species of composition they belong, and what rank they hold among efforts of that species.

They are not Translations; neither of the close nor of the loose kind, and are therefore at once removed from comparison even with Dryden's magnificent versions, splendid in their very faults, of Juvenal. Nor do they properly bear the name of Imitations ; for an Imitation of an earlier author is an attempt to produce a poem in his style and manner, though not necessarily on the same subject. Thomson's Castle of Indolence is an Imitation of Spenser ; Johnson's London is an Imitation of Boileau, or, indeed, of Oldham and of Pope himself. But Pope differs quite sufficiently in manner and style from Horace to place his so-called 'Imitations out of the category to which they assume to belong. They are rather Adaptations, or as Warburton has correctly suggested, Parodies; in other words, they take as much of the ancient form as suits the purposes of the modern poet, they occasionally cling closely to its outlines, occasionly desert them altogether. It was the form which came most readily, and originally almost accidentally, to Pope's hands; and which he justly thought himself free to use in his own way. The example of the First Epistle of the Second Book will best illustrate these remarks. In Pope's 'Imitation' the original is here turned upside down, and what in Horace is a panegyric, in the English poem becomes a covert satire. As Pope meant to suggest that George II. was a parody on Augustus, so his Epistle is a parody on, and not an imitation of, the Latin poem.

It is therefore obvious that any comparison or contrast between the Latin and English poets, interesting and suggestive as it doubtless is from other points of view, is idle with reference to the relation between these ‘Imitations’and their originals. Warburton is true to his self-imposed task of vindicating the Christian orthodoxy of Pope, in pointing out, ever and anon, passages where the latter has substituted for the Epicurean heresies of the genial Roman turns of thought more becoming the friend of an embryo bishop. Horace designed his Satires and Epistles as humorous sketches of society, seasoned with such personal allusions as appeared necessary to enliven his pictures, or as suggested themselves to a ready wit which can never teach a lesson without applying it. What with him was ornament, with Pope was purpose. Whatever may have been the philosophical system with which Warburton laboured so hard to credit him, the centre of that system was Pope; nor were his friends and foes so much introduced into these Imitations to point morals, as the morals preached to introduce his friends and foes, and himself.

The ease with which Pope moved in a form which imposed no restraint on his wit, makes these “Imitations' the most enjoyable of all his productions. He closed the last Dialogue of the 'Epilogue' with an announcement of his resolution never to publish any more poems of the kind. Yet it was at the time (1741) when he was meditating a new Dunciad that he informed Lord Marchmont that ‘uneasy desire of fame' and 'keen resentment of injuries' were both asleep together; and even if we regard as spurious the fragment of an unpublished Satire entitled '1740, found among his papers by Bolingbroke, and full of personal allusions to • Bub,' and 'Hervey' and others, we may remain in doubt, whether had he lived he would or could have adhered to his determination. But he had done enough to establish himself as the unapproached master of personal satire in a poetic form; and to damn a multitude of victims, helpless against the strokes of genius, to everlasting fame.]







[First published in 1733 under the title of Dialogue between Alexander Pope, of Twickenham, on the one part, and the learned counsel on the other. In Horace's Satire the interlocutors are the poet and G. Trebatius Testa, the friend of Caesar and of Cicero (among whose correspondents he appears). It forms a kind of introduction to Horace's Second Book of Satires.]

P. CHERE are, (I scarce can think it, but am told,)

There are, to whom my Satire seems too bold :
Scarce to wise Peter complaisant enough,
And something said of Chartres much too rough.
The lines are weak, another's pleas'd to say,

Lord Fannya spins a thousand such a day.
Tim'rous by nature, of the Rich in awe,
I come to Counsel learned in the Law :
You'll give me, like a friend both sage and free,
Advice; and (as you use) without a Fee.
F. I'd write no more.

P. Not write? but then I think,
And for my soul I cannot sleep a wink.
I nod in company, I wake at night,
Fools rush into my head, and so I write.

F. You could not do a worse thing for your life. 15
Why, if the nights seem tedious,—take a Wife :
Or rather truly, if your point be rest,
Lettuce and cowslip-wine ; Probatum est.
But talk with Celsus?, Celsus will advise
Hartshorn“, or something that shall close your eyes.
Or, if you needs must write, write CAESAR's Praise,
You'll gain at least a Knighthood, or the Bays.

P. What? like Sir Richard, rumbling, rough, and fierce 5,
With Arms, and GEORGE, and BRUNSWICK crowd the verse,
Rend with tremendous sound your ears asunder,

With Gun, Drum, Trumpet, Blunderbuss, and Thunder ?
Or nobly wild, with Budgel's fire and force 6,
Paint Angels trembling round his falling Horse??

F. Then all your Muse's softer art display,
Let CAROLINA smooth the tuneful lay 8,



· [The Hon. W. Fortescue, an intimate friend 6 [Budgel; see Epistle to Arbuthnot, v. and a frequent associate and correspondent of the 378;] poet's, and a schoolfellow of Gay's. He after- ? falling Horse ?] The Horse on which his wards became one of the Barons of the Exchequer, Majesty charged at the battle of Oudenarde: and ultimately Master of the Rolls.]

when the Pretender, and the Princes of the blood » [Lord Hervey.)

of France, fled before him. Warburton. [i. e. any physician of note.]

8 (Caroline of Brandenburg-Anspach, the 3 Hartshorn] This was intended as a plea- Queen of George II, She became a frequent santry on the novelty of the prescription. object of Pope's sarcasms, after George II. on his

Warburton. accession had retained Walpole and the Whigs [Sir Richard Blackmore.)

in office.]

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