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So Latin, yet so English all the while,
As, tho' the Pride of Middleton1 and Bland 2,
All Boys may read, and Girls may understand!
Then might I sing, without the least offence,
And all I sung should be the Nation's Senses;
Or teach the melancholy Muse to mourn,
Hang the sad Verse on CAROLINA'S
And hail her passage to the Realms of Rest,
All Parts perform'd, and all her Children blest!
So-Satire is no more-I feel it die-

No Gazetteer more innocent than I5—


And let, a' God's name, ev'ry Fool and Knave
Be grac'd thro' Life, and flatter'd in his Grave.

F. Why so? if Satire knows its Time and Place,
You still may lash the greatest-in Disgrace:
For Merit will by turns forsake them all;
Would you know when? exactly when they fall.
But let all Satire in all Changes spare
Immortal S-k, and grave De-re R.

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Silent and soft, as Saints remove to Heav'n,
All Ties dissolv'd and ev'ry Sin forgiv'n,

These may some gentle ministerial Wing


Receive, and place for ever near a King!

There, where no Passion, Pride, or Shame transport,
Lull'd with the sweet Nepenthe of a Court;

There, where no Father's, Brother's, Friend's disgrace
Once break their rest, or stir them from their Place:
But past the Sense of human Miseries,
All Tears are wip'd for ever from all eyes7;
No cheek is known to blush, no heart to throb,
Save when they lose a Question, or a Job.


P. Good Heav'n forbid, that I should blast their glory,
Who know how like Whig Ministers to Tory,
And, when three Sov'reigns died, could scarce be vext,
Consid'ring what a gracious Prince was next.
Have I, in silent wonder, seen such things
As Pride in Slaves, and Avarice in Kings;
And at a Peer, or Peeress, shall I fret,



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Secretary of State's office, to write the government's newspaper, published by authority. Richard Steele had once this post. Warburton.


6 Immortal S-k, and grave De-re!] A title given that Lord by King James II. He was of the Bedchamber to King William; he was so to King George I.; he was so to King George II. This Lord was very skilful in all the forms of the House, in which he discharged himself with great gravity. P. Pope alludes to Charles Hamilton, third son of the Duke of Hamilton, who was created Earl of Selkirk in 1667. Bowles. [Is Lord Delaware the other?] request.]

[Cf. Messiah, v. 46—a line altered at Steele's

Who starves a Sister, or forswears a Debt1?
Virtue, I grant you, is an empty boast *;
But shall the Dignity of Vice be lost?

Ye Gods! shall Čibber's Son, without rebuke,


Swear like a Lord, or Rich3 out-whore a Duke?

A Fav'rite's Porter with his Master vie,

Be brib'd as often, and as often lie?

Shall Ward 5 draw Contracts with a Statesman's skill?


Or Japhet pocket, like his Grace, a Will?

Is it for Bond 7, or

Peter, (paltry things)

To pay their Debts, or keep their Faith, like Kings?
If Blount despatch'd himself, he play'd the man,
And so may'st thou, illustrious Passeran?!


But shall a Printer, weary of his life,


Learn, from their Books, to hang himself and Wife 10?

This, this, my friend, I cannot, must not bear;

Vice thus abus'd, demands a Nation's care;
This calls the Church to deprecate our Sin 11,

And hurls the Thunder of the Laws on Gin 12.


Let modest FOSTER, if he will, excel

Ten Metropolitans in preaching well 13;
A simple Quaker, or a Quaker's Wife 14,
Out-do Llandaff 15 in Doctrine,-yea in Life:

1 In some editions,

Who starves a Mother, Warburton.

I have been informed that these verses related to Lady M. W. Montagu and her sister the Countess of Mar. Bowles. [This charge against Lady M. W. M. rests on the scandal of Horace Walpole, in one of his letters to Sir H. Mann. She is there accused of having treated her sister hardly, while the latter was out of her senses, and of having frightened a Frenchman of the name of Ruzemonde (who had entrusted her with a large sum of money to buy stock for him) out of England by threats of betraying her intrigue with him, first to her husband, then to her brother-in-law. Lord Wharncliffe, in the Appendix to Vol. III. of his Letters and Works of Lady M. W M., states that the former accusation is utterly unfounded, and shews that the latter rests on a perversion of facts.]

Virtue, I grant you, is an empty boast;] A satirical ambiguity-either that those starve who have it, or that those who boast of it, have it not: and both together (he insinuates) make up the present state of modern virtue. War


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6 [Cf. 16. v. 86.]

7 [Cf. Dunciad, III. v. 126.]

8 If Blount] Author of an impious and foolish book called the Oracles of Reason, who being in love with a near kinswoman of his, and rejected, gave himself a stab in the arm, as pretending to kill himself, of the consequence of which he really died. P.

9 Passeran!] Author of another book of the same stamp, called A philosophical discourse on death, being a defence of suicide He was a nobleman of Piedmont, banished from his country for his impieties, and lived in the utmost misery, yet feared to practise his own precepts; and at last died a penitent. Warburton.

10 But shall a Printer, &c.] A Fact that happened in London a few years past. The unhappy man left behind him a paper justifying his action by the reasonings of some of these authors. P.

11 This calls the Church to deprecate our Sin,] Alluding to the forms of prayer, composed in the times of public calamity; where the fault is generally laid upon the People. Warburton.

12 Gin.] A spirituous liquor, the exorbitant use of which had almost destroyed the lowest rank of the People till it was restrained by an act of Parliament in 1736. P.

13 An eloquent and persuasive preacher, who wrote an excellent Defence of Christianity against Tindal. Warton.

14 Mrs Drummond, celebrated in her time. Warton.

15 Llandaff] A poor Bishoprick in Wales, as poorly supplied. P. By Dr John Harris. Car ruthers.

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Let humble ALLEN', with an awkward Shame,
Do good by stealth, and blush to find it Fame.


Virtue may choose the high or low Degree,
'Tis just alike to Virtue, and to me;
Dwell in a Monk, or light upon a King,
She's still the same, belov'd, contented thing.
Vice is undone, if she forgets her Birth,


And stoops from Angels to the Dregs of Earth:
But 'tis the Fall degrades her to a Whore;
Let Greatness own her, and she's mean no more2;
Her Birth, her Beauty, Crowds and Courts confess;
Chaste Matrons praise her, and grave Bishops bless;
In golden Chains the willing World she draws,
And hers the Gospel is, and hers the Laws,
Mounts the Tribunal, lifts her scarlet head,
And sees pale Virtue carted in her stead.
Lo! at the wheels of her Triumphal Car,



Old England's Genius, rough with many a Scar,
Dragg'd in the dust! his arms hang idly round,
His Flag inverted trails along the ground!
Our Youth, all livery'd o'er with foreign Gold,
Before her dance: behind her crawl the Old!
See thronging Millions to the Pagod run,
And offer Country, Parent, Wife, or Son!


Hear her black Trumpet thro' the Land proclaim,


In Soldier, Churchman, Patriot, Man in Pow'r,
'Tis Av'rice all, Ambition is no more!
See, all our Nobles begging to be Slaves!

See, all our Fools aspiring to be Knaves!

The Wit of Cheats, the Courage of a Whore,
Are what ten thousand envy and adore;
All, all look up, with reverential Awe,


At Crimes that 'scape, or triumph o'er the Law;
While Truth, Worth, Wisdom, daily they decry-
"Nothing is Sacred now but Villainy."

Yet may this Verse (if such a Verse remain)
Shew, there was one who held it in disdain.


FR. "


IS all a Libel-Paxton 3 (Sir) will say.

'TIS P. Not yet, my Friend! to-morrow 'faith it may;

And for that very cause I print to-day.

[Ralph Allen, of Prior Park, an intimate friend and constant correspondent of Pope's, to whom he performed many kind services. He was afterwards a munificent patron to Fielding. Of his charitable habits there is evidence in Pope's Will.]

2 [Said by Warburton to refer to the Empress


Theodora, the wife of Justinian, though Gibbon is sceptical as to the intended allusion.]

3 Paxton] Late solicitor to the Treasury. Warburton. [Cf. infra, v. 141. He was, according to Carruthers, deeply involved in the charges against Sir R. Walpole; and temporarily imprisoned.]

How should I fret to mangle ev'ry line,
In rev'rence to the Sins of Thirty nine1!
Vice with such Giant strides comes on amain,
Invention strives to be before in vain;

Feign what I will, and paint it e'er so strong,
Some rising Genius sins up to my Song.

F. Yet none but you by Name the guilty lash;
Ev'n Guthry saves half Newgate by a Dash.


Spare then the Person, and expose the Vice.

P. How, Sir? not damn the Sharper, but the Dice?

Come on then, Satire! gen'ral, unconfin'd,

Spread thy broad wing, and souse on all the kind.
Ye Statesmen, Priests, of one Religion all!

Ye Tradesmen vile, in Army, Court, or Hall,

Ye Rev'rend Atheists- F. Scandal! name them! Who?
P. Why that's the thing you bid me not to do.

Who starv'd a Sister, who forswore a Debt 4,

I never nam'd; the Town's enquiring yet.
The pois'ning Dame- F. You mean- P, I don't.

P. See, now I keep the Secret, and not you!
The bribing Statesman- F. Hold, too high you go.

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F. You do!

P. The brib'd Elector- F. There you stoop too low.
P. I fain would please you, if I knew with what;
Tell me, which Knave is lawful Game, which not?
Must great Offenders, once escap'd the Crown 5,
Like royal Harts, be never more run down"?
Admit your Law to spare the Knight requires,
As Beasts of Nature may we hunt. the Squires?
Suppose I censure-you know what I mean-
To save a Bishop, may I name a Dean?

F. A Dean, Sir? no: his Fortune is not made
You hurt a man that's rising in the Trade.





P. If not the Tradesman who set up to-day,
Much less the 'Prentice who to-morrow may.
Down, down, proud Satire! tho' a Realm be spoil'd,
Arraign no mightier Thief than wretched Wild";

Or, if a Court or Country's made a job,
Go drench a Pick-pocket, and join the Mob.
But, Sir, I beg you (for the Love of Vice!)
The matter's weighty, pray consider twice;

1 [i. e. of next year.]

2 Feign what I will, etc.] The Poet has here introduced an oblique apology for himself with great art. You attack personal characters, say his enemies. No, replies he, so far from that, I paint from my invention; and to prevent a likeness I exaggerate every feature. But alas! the growth of vice is so monstrous quick, that it rises up to a resemblance before I can get from the press.

3 Ev'n Guthry] The Ordinary of Newgate, who publishes the memoirs of the Malefactors, and is often prevailed upon to be so tender of their reputation, as to set down no more than

the initials of their name. P.

4 Cf. ante, Dial. I. v. 112.]


5 Must great Offenders, etc.] The case is Those who escape public justice archly put, being the particular property of the Satirist. 6 Like royal Harts, etc.] Alluding to the Warburton. old Game Laws.

7 wretched Wild,] Jonathan Wild, a famous Thief, and Thief-Impeacher, who was at last caught in his own train and hanged. P. [Fielding's Jonathan Wild appeared in 1743, nearly a quarter of a century after the death of its hero. But highwaymen flourished till a considerably later date.]

Have you less pity for the needy Cheat,

The poor and friendless Villain, than the Great?
Alas! the small Discredit of a Bribe

Scarce hurts the Lawyer, but undoes the Scribe.
Then better sure it Charity becomes

To tax Directors, who (thank God) have Plums;
Still better, Ministers; or, if the thing

May pinch ev'n there- why lay it on a King.
F. Stop! stop!

P. Must Satire, then, nor rise nor fall?
Speak out, and bid me blame no Rogues at all.
F. Yes, strike that Wild, I'll justify the blow.
P. Strike? why the man was hang'd ten years ago:
Who now that obsolete Example fears?
Ev'n Peter trembles only for his Ears1.

F. What? always Peter? Peter thinks you mad;
You make men desp'rate if they once are bad:
Else might he take to Virtue some years hence-
P. As S-k2, if he lives, will love the PRINCE.
F. Strange spleen to S-k!





P. Do I wrong the Man?
God knows, I praise a Courtier where I can.
When I confess, there is who feels for Fame,
And melts to Goodness, need I SCARB'ROW3 name?
Pleas'd let me own, in Esher's peaceful Grove
(Where Kent5 and Nature vie for PELHAM'S 6 Love)
The Scene, the Master, opening to my view,



I sit and dream I see my CRAGGS anew!
Ev'n in a Bishop I can spy Desert;
Secker is decent, Rundels has a Heart,
Manners with Candour are to Benson giv'n,
To Berkeley 10, ev'ry Virtue under Heav'n.

But does the Court a worthy Man remove?
That instant, I declare, he has my Love:

Ev'n Peter trembles only for his ears,] Peter had, the year before this, narrowly escaped the Pillory for forgery: and got off with a severe rebuke only from the bench. P.

2 [V. ante, Dial. 1. v. 92.]

3 Scarb'row] Earl of, and Knight of the Garter, whose personal attachments to the king appeared from his steady adherence to the royal interest, after his resignation of his great employment of Master of the Horse; and whose known honour and virtue made him esteemed by all parties. P. [He committed suicide in a fit of melancholy in 1740; and was mourned by Lord Chesterfield as 'the best man he ever knew, and the dearest friend he ever had.']

4 Esher's peaceful Grove,] The house and gardens of Esher in Surrey, belonging to the Honourable Mr Pelham, Brother of the Duke of Newcastle. The author could not have given a more amiable idea of his Character than in comparing him to Mr Craggs. P.

5 [The architect and friend of Lord Burling



6 [Henry Pelham became First Lord of the treasury in 1743, through Walpole's influence; and died in 1754, the King exclaiming on his death: 'Now I shall have no more peace.']

7 [Thos. Secker (1693-1768), successively bishop of Bristol and of Oxford, and archbishop of Canterbury. His career is accounted for by his personal reputation for liberality and moderation.]

9 [Dr Rundel, bishop of Derry, esteemed equally by Pope and Swift. See their letters of Sept. 3, 1735 and foll.] 9 [Bishop of Gloucester. He ordained Whitfield.]

10 [Dr Berkeley, bishop of Cloyne (born 1684, died 1707), the illustrious author of Alciphron. A very different bishop (Atterbury) said of him that 'so much understanding, so much knowledge, so much innocence, and such humility, I did not think had been the portion of any but angels, till I saw this gentleman.']

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