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the still more odious and destructive despotism of ignorance and vice:
3 Wisdom and virtue are the offspring of knowledge. « Take fast hold of instruction; let her not go ; keep her, for she is thy life.” “Human happiness is founded upon wisdom and virtue.” It is an immutable and universal rule, interwoven with your existence, that respectability, self-approbation and happiness, are the natural and invariable consequences of virtue; and disgrace, remorse and misery, of vice.
4 Therefore exert yourselves without delay, to secure the means of enlightening your understandings with instruction, during the season allotted to that purpose by your Creator. Form yourselves into societies in your respective neighborhoods, and establish FREE CIRCULATING LIBRARIES, by means of subscriptions, and contributions of books.
5 I am not inclined to advise you to restrain yourselves from a rational indulgence in innocent amusements, but fail not, if you prefer genuine happiness to misery and repentance, to devote the most of your evenings and leisure hours to mental improvement and reading. Let your choice of books be directed chiefly to works on practical piety, morals, natural philosophy, natural history, geography and astronomy, history and biography.
6 But beware of the syren lure of novels, plays, and romances. Is not a beautiful garden, in a state of living verdure, and native bloom, both more entertaining and useful, than a heap of counterfeit artificial flowers, composed of paper, blackened with ink? The fascinating habit of reading novels, &c. not only injures the health, by incessant, unseasonable night-reading, but, with a very few exceptions, inflames the imagination, and fits the mind for a world of fiction and romance, instead of a world of realities, and impairs the relish for plain solid instruction.
7 If you can first prevail on yourselves to taste the salutary sweets of authentic biography, history, travels, &c. you will ever after, with rare exceptions, view a novel with indifference, if not with disgust.
8 Let your library, and your reading, commence with the following books: The Looking Glass for the mind; the Newtonian System of Philosophy, explained ; Burton's Lectures to young ladies; Mayo's Abridgment of Natural History; Blair's Grammar of Chemistry ; Book of Nature; Blair's Sermons; Stretch's Beauties of History ; History of Sanford and Merton ; Morse's Universal Geography; Blair's
Universal Preceptor; Lord Mayor of London's Advice to Apprentices; Spectator; Tatler; Rambler; V. Knox's Essays;-Rogers' Biographical Dictionary ; Ramsay's History of the American Revolution, of the United States, Universal History, and Life of Washington; Franklin's Works; Bingley's Useful Knowledge; Sampson's Brief Remarker ; Catechism of Health, by Dr. Faust; and Dr. Armstrong's Art of preserving Health.
9 The youth not already trained to depravity, that can read merely these few books, without being fascinated with the pleasures of science, wisdom, virtue, benevolence, and moral rectitude, must be a prodigy of stupidity and worthlessness.
10 And, here, after having endeavored to demonstrate to you the advantages of knowledge and mental improvement, Í should consider it a neglect of duty, to omit cautioning you against excessive reading and study; which are but little less pernicious to health, than other kinds of intemperance.
11 Never more than eight hours, daily, should be, habitually, devoted to study, or any inactive employment; nor less than three to exercise, either at labor, riding, walking, or active, but moderate recreation. It would undoubtedly promote the literary progress, as well as the heaith of students of academies, colleges, &c. to require them to labor two or three hours daily, either on a farm, in a garden, or mechanical work shop.
12 Such a discipline ought to be introduced, not only for the purpose of preserving health and invigorating the constitution, but also of qualifying students, destined for whatever profession, for some kind of productive industry, if their inclination or condition should, in the course of life, require it.*
13 Except for medical purposes, taste not distilled spirits at all. It is a poisonous enemy to human life, in proportion to the quantity drank, whether temperately or intemperately.
14 It is to you, ye young sons and daughters of Columbia, ye who are yet innocent, who are yet free from the snares of
* The studious, the contemplative, the valetudinary and those of weak nerves-if they aim at health and long life, must make exercise in a good air, a part of their religion.–(Cheyne on Long Life.)-The late Dr. Wistar recommended walking at least six miles, every 24 hours, as the most effectual restorative to a debilitated constitution, and the effect is still more certain as a preservative. Having, myself, been severely injured by exoessive study, as well as by excessive exercise, my sentiments are the result of experience, of the pernicious effects of both.
wrong habits, that I direct my hopes of a radical reformation of morals.
15 Accept these counsels of your sincere friend. Obey them with fidelity, and peace, contentment, good will, and gladness, shall be the companions of your lives. J. T.
ESSAYS ON THE USE OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS.
SECTION I Public calamities produced by Intemperance. I THE following Report of the Moral Society of Portland, is a correct miniature of the blackest cloud, probably, that now desolates and threatens ultimate destruction to the only political family on the Globe, which assumes the preeminent rank of being enlightened, virtuous and free.
2 - From a report of an association in Portland, called the Moral Society, it appears that out of 85 persons subject to the public charity in that place, 71 had become so from their intemperance; and that out of 118 supplied at their own houses by the town, more than half are of that description. The expenses of the town in its charities exceed 6000 dollars, and more than two thirds of that sum went to support such persons as were made poor by their vices. Of consequence, 7000 persons are taxed 4000 dollars for the vices of their neighbors.
3 « From these well known facts the report proceeds to calculate almost half a million of dollars paid in the same way in this state only, and if in the same proportion in the United States, the whole amount must be millions. We all inquire what can be done. We cannot take away personal liberty. We cannot prohibit spirituous liquors. We cannot punish persons not convicted of any breach of the laws. We cannot distinguish in the business of life, because the rich are sometimes as blame-worthy as their less wealthy neighbors.
4 “We can say that when any persons are committed to the public charity, they shall be properly guarded against temptations. That their habits shall be considered, and all restraints which can consist with health, shall be laid. We might hope that some laws of education and life might obtain. But as no love of fame, no great talents, or public trust, can
he said to have been sufficient to prevent men and nations from the guilt and the shame of intemperance, we have a right in the administration of charity, to regard not only the health and hopes of the sufferers, but the safety and the economy of civil society.”
5 One of the principal funnels to the insatiable vortex of intemperance, is the generally prevailing popular error, that the temperate use of ardent spirits, is innocent, and even healthful and necessary.
6 It is gratifying and encouraging to see the several agricultural societies, commence their labors with a bold attack upon this noxious deep-rooted weed.
7 Extract from the Anniversary Address of J. Le Ray de Chaumont, Esq. President of the Jefferson county Agricultural Society:
Gentlemen of the Society: "I do not know a more laudable end our society could have in view than that of preventing the use of ardent spirits. I wish I could without tiring the patience of my audience, represent here all their pernicious effects upon the human mind and body. Poverty and ruin, crimes and infamy, diseases and death, would be found the leading features in this woful detail.
8 “Every reflecting man is sensible of the infinite advantages which would result in favor of humanity and of morality, if some efficient plan were devised for preventing the too general use of spirituous liquors. To those who believe, that they increase the strength, and fortify the body against fatigue and hardship, I would oppose the opinion of many observing and experienced men, particularly the celebrated General MOREAU, who asserts, that from long experience in his army, he has found, that those soldiers who abstained entirely from the use of ardent spirits, and used altogether water, beer, or such simple drinks, were not only more healthy, but much stronger, could endure greater fatigue, were much more moral; more obedient to orders; and in a word much better soldiers.
9 “ If, then, spirituous liquors are really so injurious to the health and morals of men, what reason can be alleged for continuing the use of them, and who will be their advocate ?”
10 It is surprising that the Government of our Republic, should annoy the army with a more pitiless enemy than any human foe of the civilized world, by constituting whisky an article of daily distribution to the soldiers.
11 The following extract from the address delivered recently at the meeting for organizing an agricultural society in the county of Saratoga, by Doct. Billy J. Clark, contains several moral and political truths, which deserve the serious consideration of every American citizen :
12 “ For us as Americans, who boast the republican simplicity of our habits and our manners, there is, in the cataIogue of our expenses, a number of items that require the bold and decisive use of the amputating knife: Amongst these, are the extravagant and almost daily use of many luxuries, the epidemic mania of following the fashions of the day, through all their various changes, and those too, so plausibly imposed on us, as the latest importations from the nurseries and hot-beds of monarchy and dissipation.
13 “ The occasional and habitual use of ardent spirits, the unnecessary use of which costs the inhabitants of this county several thousand dollars in a year, imperiously calls for immediate retrenchment. The train of evils that grow out of its habitual use, are too well known to require a description from me at this time.
14 “ The laborer's plea of necessity, the plea of the man of business and of pleasure, of innocence, in its temperate indulgence, are equally futile, and unfounded in truth.
15Let us then reflect on the dire consequences that have resulted to individuals, to families, and to communities, and those of us at least, who can boast exemption from the iron grasp of habitual tyranny, from the organization of this society, firmly resolve to abandon its use, not only from a regard to our own individual benefit, but from a consideration of the advantages that our children will derive from our
16 The following extract of a report of one of the Massachusetts Societies for the suppression of intemperance and other vices, is inserted here, in the hope that their honorable example may be imitated as far as it may circulate, by every agricultural and moral society, and farmer, and manufacturer.
17 “ To abolish the custom of giving stated potations of ardent spirits to hired laborers, which has been a prolific source of intemperate habits, the members of this association have agreed not to furnish to the men they employ, a daily allowance of spirit; nor to give it, except in cases of particular necessity. We have the pleasure to state, that no difficulty, to our knowledge, has arisen on this account in procuring faithful laborers. Some, who are not members of the society,