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that circumspection and tenderness which probity and pru dence require.
SECTION VI. On conversation between masters and servants. 1 It is lamentable enough that the greater part of mankind is forced by weakness, poverty, tyranny and other causes, to be subservient to the smaller number, and that the honest man frequently must obey the nod of the villain. What, therefore, can be more just than that those whom Providence has entrusted with the power to sweeten the life of their fellow men, and to render its burdens easier, should make the best use of that fortunate situation ?
2 It is, however, also true, that the majority seem to have been born to be dependent on others for guardianship and employment, and noble and truly magnanimous sentiments to be the inheritance of a small number only. But let us consider that the ground of this truth is founded rather on the defective education which the rising generation generally receive than on their natural disposition.
3 Luxury, and its concomitant train, the despoilers of every age in which they are fostered, create an enormous number of wants, which render the majority of mankind dependant on a few. The insatiable thirst for gain and gratification produces mean passions, and forces us to beg, as it were, for those things which we imagine to be necessary for our existence; whereas temperance and moderation are the source of all virtues, and the precursors of true happiness.
4 Although most people should be callous against more refined sentiments, yet are they not all ungrateful towards those that treat them with generosity, nor are they entirely blind to all intrinsic worth.
5 A benevolent, serious, firm, and consistent conduct, which must not be confounded with stiff and overbearing solemnity ; good and prompt payment, which is proportionate to the importance of their services; rigorous punctuality in enforcing the regularity to which they have bound themselves; kindness and affection, when they make a modest and reasonable request; moderation in the exercise of our authority.
6 A just regard to their abilities in the distribution of labor; a proper allowance of time for innocent recreations, and the improvement of their abilities ; attention to their wants; rigorous injunction of cleanliness in their dress and propriety in their conduct; readiness to sacrifice our own interest,
when we can contribute to the improvement of their situa tion; paternal care for their health and morals; these are the only means of obtaining good and faithful servants, and of insuring their affection.
7 A father of a family has a just right to demand of his servants to perform all their duties with care and sidelity; but he ought never to suffer himself to be impelled by the fervor of passion to vent his indignation at his domestics by swearing at them, calling them names, or even striking them. A generous mind will never demean itself so low as to illtreat those that have not the power to defend themselves.
8 All those that serve, are bound to execute the duties they have engaged to perform with the greatest and most strict fidelity ; I would consequently advise their doing too much rather than too little, promoting the interest of their masters as diligently as their own, acting always with such candor, and being so regular and exact in the execution of their task, as to be enabled, at all times, to give a cheerful and satisfactory account of their conduct to their employers; never to make an improper use of the confidence of their master; not to disclose the errors and defects of those whose bread they eat, nor to suffer themselves to be tempted by their passions to violate the respect which they owe those to whom Providence has subjected them.
SECTION. VII. On the relations between benefactors and the objects of
their kindness, as well as between instructors and pupils, creditors and debtors.
1 Gratitude is a sacred duty; therefore honor the man who has been kind to you. Thank him, not only in terms which express the warmth of your gratitude, but avail yourself also of every opportunity to serve and to be useful to him in return.
2 The manner in which we dispense benefactions is frequently worth more than the action itself. It can enhance the value of every gift, as, on the other hand, it can also deprive it of all merit.
3 Do not repel the distressed from your door! When you are requested by any person to give advice or assistance, you ought to listen kindly, attentively, and with fellow-feeling to his tale. Let him speak without being interrupted ; and if you cannot comply with his request, inform him frankly and without bitterness, of the cause which prevents you from re
alizing his expectation.' Take great care to avoid all ambiguous subterfuges and deceitful promises !
4 No benefaction is superior to that of instructing and cultivating the mind of others. Every person who has contributed any thing towards making us wiser, better and happier, has the strongest claim to our everlasting and warmest gratitude. Although he should not have exerted himself to the best of his abilities, yet we ought not to be ungrateful for the little improvement which we owe to him.
5 People who have devoted themselves zealously to the important occupation of educating the rising generation, generally deserve being treated with peculiar regard. To form and cultivate the mind of man is indeed a most difficult and arduous task, the accomplishment of which cannot be rewarded with money:
6 The schoolmaster of even the most insignificant village, who executes the duties of his calling with faithful diligence, is unquestionably one of the most useful and important persons in the state ; and as his income generally is scanty enough, it is but just we should endeavor to sweeten the laborious life of such a useful member of society, by treating him at least with due respect.
7 Humanity and prudence require we should be civil, just and kind to our debtors. It is a very reprehensible principle to think that a person who owes us money, has thereby become our slave, that he must take up with all sorts of humiliation, that he is not at liberty to decline complying with any demand which we may think proper to make, and, in general, that the pecuniary assistance we afford to our fellow creatures can authorize us, at any time, to look contemptuously down upon them, and to treat them as our inferiors.
8 Pay your creditors punctually, and be faithful to your promises ; confound not the honest man who lends on moderate interest to gain a livelihood by it, with the extorting usurer, and you will always find people who are ready to assist you in pecuniary matters.
SECTION VIII. On our conduct towards others in various and peculiar
situations and relations. 1 It is not always in our power to render ourselves beloved, but it depends at all times on ourselves not to be despised. General applause and praise are not necessary to render us happy. Even the knave cannot help respecting a really wise
and virtuous man, and two or three sincere friends are sufficient to cheer our path through life.
2 People who groan under the heavy pressure of adverse fate, who are persecuted by the malice of men, reduced to poverty, neglected, or have strayed from the path of truth and virtue, have a just claim to our compassion, and ought to be treated with kind forbearance and humanity.
3 Assist the poor, if Providence have granted you the power to afford him relief in his distress.
Send not the penurious from your door while you can give him a small gift without being unjust to your family. Dispense your charity with a cheerful heart and with a good grace. Do not inquire whether the man whom you can relieve, has been the cause of his own misfortunes. Who would be found entirely innocent of the sufferings under which he groans, were we always to inquire minutely after their causes ?
4 Shun not the scenes of human misery, nor flee from the abode of distress and poverty; for if we desire to be capable of having compassion for the sufferings of an unfortunate brother, we must be acquainted with the various scenes of misery which this world exhibits.
5 Where humble poverty groans and dares not to step forth from its gloomy retirement to implore assistance; where adverse fate persecutes the diligent man who has seen better days; where a virtuous and numerous family strive in vain to procure, by the most indefatigable diligence, and the daily labor of their hands, as much as is sufficient to protect them against hunger, nakedness, and disease ; where, upon the hard couch, bashful tears run down the pallid cheek! thither, my charitable and humane readers, bend your steps. There you have the noblest opportunity of laying out your money, the superfluity which Providence has intrusted to you, and to gain that interest which no bank in the world can give you.
6 Of all the unfortunate sufferers whom this vain world contains, none are more to be pitied than such as have involved themselves in a long train of guilty actions by a single wrong step, suppressed all sense for virtue, acquired a bane. ful habitude in doing wrong, lost all confidence in God and men, and all courage to return again to the path of virtue, or are, at least, on the point of sinking so low.
7 They have the strongest claim upon our compassion, because they are deprived of the only consolation that can support us in the greatest misfortunes, namely, of the conscious
ness of not having wantonly brought upon themselves the evils under which they groan.
8 Nothing, moreover, is so apt to render a man mean as public contempt, and the marks of growing mistrust for his amendment. Let us finally believe, for the honor of mankind, that no person can sink so low, or be corrupted so completely, as to render it impossible for us to save him by a judicious and zealous application of proper means.
9 An honest, industrious, and skilful tradesman and mechanic, is one of the most useful persons in the state, and the little deference which we pay to that class of people is very disgraceful to our moral character and understanding. What preference has an idle courtier, or an overgrown merchant, to an honest citizen who gains his bread in a lawful manner by the work of his hands?
10 This class of people work to satisfy our principal and most natural wants; if it were not for their assistance, we should be obliged to prepare all the necessaries of life with our own hand; therefore, if a tradesman or a mechanic (as frequently is the case) raise himself above the rest by his ingenuity, and shows that he spares no labor to improve his art, he has an additional claim to our regard.
il I must also observe, that we frequently meet amongst this class of people with men of the brightest understanding, who are less given to prejudices than many of a superior rank, who have perverted their sound reason by study and slavish devotion to systems. Therefore honor a worthy and diligent tradesman and mechanic, and treat him with civility.
SECTION IX. Principal causes of the want of domestic pleasures.
1 Amongst all the numerous sources of human happiness, domestic life undoubtedly is the richest and most productive; but to which unhappily too many of the higher and middling classes rarely resort. This source of pleasure and happiness is accessible at all times to every man; its use is not confined to time, and the enjoyment of it requires not the least laborious preparations.
2 The more pleasures the wise draw from this source, the richer and more copious it grows; the more frequently he resorts to it, the more he will relish the blessings which it affords. If we really wish to enjoy domestic pleasure and happiness, mutual love and regard must be the foundation ;