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mountains like chaff; while he shall arise and
Mede, that the threshing is considered as a part of the harvest ; and that they both alike typify God's vengeance upon Babylon But, however this may be, there is another passage, in which both the reaping and the in-gathering of the harvest are der cidedly used to symbolize an act, not of mercy, but of judgment, Speaking of the dispersion of the whole house of Israel, and of the very small remnant that should be left in the land, Isaiah uses the allegory both of the harvest, and of the conclusion of the vintage and olive-season. “ In that day it shall come to " pass, that the glory of Jacob shall be made thin, and the " fatness of his filesh shall wax lean : and it shall be, as when “ the harvest man gathereth the corn, and his arm reapeth “ the ears; and it shall be, as he that gathereth ears in the " valley of Rephaim. Yet gleaning grapes shall be left in it, " as the shaking of an olive-tree, two or three berries in the top
of the uppermost bough, four or five in the outmost branches "* of its fruitfulness" (Isaiah xvij. 4, 5, 6). In what his Lord, ship says respecting the hardest mentioned by. Joel, I believe him to be perfectly right: that harvest is plainly a harvest of grapes, not of corn; and the vintage of Joel undoubtedly relates to the same period as the vintage of the Apocalypse : they both equally typify the overthrow of the Antichristian confederacy. ;
Thus, I think, it appears, that a harvest symbolizes the two opposites of judgment and mercy. How we are to understand it in any particular passage, must be determined by the context. Now the context of the apocalyptic harvest seems to me most definitely to teach us, that a harvest of judgment is intended. Throughout the whole book of Revelation, with the exception of a few places which sufficiently explain themselves (such as Rev. XX. 8,9,11-and xxi, 1, 24.) the earth is used as a symbol of the Roman empire pagun and papal. Upon this earth all the vials of God's wrath are poured out, whatever subsequent disfinction may be made in their effusion (Rev, xyi, 1.), Įt is the
thresh the enemies of the Lord with a horn of iron,
sine of this earth that is to be gathered, when her grapes are fully ripe : and it is the ripe harvest of this self-same earth that is to be reaped, when the time for reaping is come (Read atten, tively Rev, xiv. 14--20). Here we may note, that it is not, as in our Lord's parable (Matt. xiii, 24, 38), said to be the harvest of a feld, which is afterwards formally explained to mean the world: but, as the sickle is thrust into the earth to gather the vine of the earth, so is the sickle likewise thrust into the earth to reap the harvest of the earth. If then the earth mean the Roman: empire in the case of the vintage, which cannot reasonably be doubted, since those that are cast into the wine-press are the Roman bedst, the false prophet, and the kings of that same earth, and since (according to the acknowledged principles of symbolical imagery) the vine of the earth must denote the corrupt church of the mystic Babylon, whose abominations, whose ripe clusters of iniquity, will eventually occasion, the ruin of its supporter the secular beast (Dan. vii. 11.) if, I say, the earth mean. the Roman empire in the case of the vintage, must we not con: clude, from the almost studied similarity of phraseology used by the prophet, that the earth means likewise. the Roman-empire in the case of the harvest ? And, if this be allowed, what idea can we annex to a reaping of the harvest of the Roman empire, which, like the grapes of that same empire, is declared to be ripe, except an idea of some tremendous judgment that should precede the vintage and more or less affect the whole empire ? In such an opinion also we shall be the more confirmed by finding, that a judgment about to befall Babylon, the constant apocalyptic type of the Roman church and empire, is by Jeremiah expressly termed a harvest. This difference indeed there is between the two prophets, that Jeremiah dwells upon the third part of the harvest, the threshing ; while St. John selects the imagery of the first part, the reaping : yet I cannot but think, that the context of both passages sufficiently shews, that a harvest of judgment,
and with hoofs of brass * : he shall, on the other hand, become in an eminent manner the seed of
not of mercy, is intended. The apocalyptic harvest, by being
To return from this not unnecessary digression : the harvestwork, appointed for Judah, may be either of mercy or of judgment, perliaps of both. At least we find, that, as Judah will probably be made an instrument of turning many to righteousness, so he will likewise be made a sharp threshing instrument to thresh all the enemies of God. His harvest-work will be double and op•posite. It will consist both of an in-gathering of the good, and of a threshing of the wicked even with hoofs of brass. **
* Isaiah xli. 45-Micah iv, 13---See also Zechar. xii. 2-6
the Church, and shall be peculiarly instrumental in gathering the great harvest of God's elect into the granary of the millennian church.
PROPHECY XXIX. The successive restoration of Judah and Israel. ;
Hosea xi. 8. How shall I give thee up, O Ephraim; abandon thee, O Israel? How shall I make thee as Admah; place thee in the condition of Zeboim? My heart is turned upon me; my bowels yearn altogether. 9. I will not exo ecute the fury of mine anger; I will not return * to make destruction of Ephraim. For God I am, and not man; the Holy One in the midst of thee, although I am no frequenter of cities t. 10. They shall walk after the Lord.
* I will not return.] « When I come a second time, it will “ not be to destroy. An indirect promise of coming again, not: " for judgment, but for mercy." Bp. Horsley in loc. one
+ I am no frequenter of cities.] “ Dwelling with thee, but " in a peculiar and extraordinary manner, not after the man* ner of men. I am no frequenter of cities in general.”. Bpe Horsley in loc.
Like a lion he shall roar*: verily he himself shall roar; and children shall hurry t from the
When Hosend advent and is and the otime of our Lord
* Like a lion he shall roar.) I fully agree with Bp: Horsley, that the prophet speaks of two distinct successive roarings of the Lord : and that, as the first roaring brings, children from the West, so the second brings them from Egypt and Assyria. But I cannot think, that the one relates to the first advent of our Lord and the condersion of the Gentiles; and the other, contradise tinctively to his second advent and the conversion of the natural Israel. When Hosea is predicting that the whole house of Israel shall walk with the Lord, it seems both undatural and unnecessary to suppose that he suddenly digresses to the con version of the Gentiles at the first advent. And, when we find it sepeatedly declared by the propbets, that the house of Israel shall be restored in two grand divisions, first the house of Judat from the west, and afterwards the house of Joseph from the east and the north ; I cannot but think it most natural, and most consonant with the tenor of the present prediction, to apply the two roarings with their respective effects to the two-fold and suc cessive restoration of the whole house of Israel. ,' .
# Children shall hurry.] Bp. Horsley argues, that, since the expression is neither their children por my children, but simply children, the natural Israel is thereby excluded, and the Gentile converts at the first advent are pointed out, as those that hurried from the west. This argument seems to me to destroy itself by proving too much. Some children of the same family, that hurry from the west, hurry likewise from Egypt and Assyria : for to whom can the they, which is the subject to the second
verb shall hurry, relate, except the children, which is the subject . to the first verb shall hurry? Children then equally hurry from
the west at the first roaring, and from Egypt and Assyria at the second roaring. But, if children simply cannot mean the naa tural Israel in one case, neither can they mean the natural Israel in the other case. His Lordship however maintains, that they