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to the restoration of Israel : the Magogian erpedition takes place after the restoration both of Judah and Israel, after they have coalesced into one people, after they have been long securely dwelling in their own land under David their prince --Their difference in the persons, respectively engaged in each, is even yet more remarkable. The Jews begin to be restored at the close of the 1960 years, the power of the Roman beast and his little horn begins to be broken at the same period; the confederacy of the Roman beast, the false prophet, and the kings of the Latin earth, begins to be overthrown under the seventh vial, likewise at the same period; the infidel king, or the atheistical - Antichrist of the last days, comes to his end also at the same period; the Jews themselves, as we have seen, understand the mystic Edom, which the Lord destroys at the time of their restoration, to mean the Roman empire : from all which we must unavoidably conclude, that the great confederacy, which is destined to be overthrown at the close of the 1260 years, and which is noticed more or less explicitly by almost every prophet who foretells the return of Judah, will be composed of powers situated within the limits of the ancient Roman empire. If then Ezekiel's Gog and Magog be the same as the Antichristian confederacy, we may expect to : find both them and their allies described as being Roman powers, and as answering exactly to the ten-horned beast, the little horn or false prophet,

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the infidel king, and his associated vassal kings. Not the least similarity however can be discovered between the persons who compose the confederacy of Gog and Magog, and those who compose the confederacy of Antichrist. On the contrary, as the Antichristian confederacy is plainly a Roman one; so the Magogian confederacy does not.comprehend a single Roman power, but is entirely composed of the relics of the three first empires, which Daniel assures us should have their lives preserved after the destruction of the Roman beast, though their dominion or power of injuring the Church should be taken away. According to Eze

kiel, the confederacy of Gog will consist of Magog, - Rosh, Mesech, Tubal, Persia, Cush, Phut, Gomer,

and Togarmah. Now let the reader consult the map which Bochart has prefixed to the first book of his Sacred Geography, and he will find every one of these nations seated within the limits of the three first great empires, although some of their colonies doubtless extended beyond them. In Asia Minor he will perceive Gomer, Tubal, and Togarmah; close to Tubal he will see the Moschic hills ; a small distance further east he will find Rosh or Rhos; due north of Rosh, Mesech, Gog and Magog ; in Syria, another colony of Magog; in the region of Babylon and in Arabia, Chut or Cush*;


*** « Nos asserimus omnes Chusi filios, quos híc nominat 6 Moses habitasse circa mare Persicum, præter Nemrodum,

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and in Africa immediately west of Egypt, Phut, Peres or Persia, which completes Ezekiel's catalogue, was itself the head of the second of the four great empires. Having thus ascertained the situation of these powers, let the reader next fix his eye upon Palestine, and imagine a joint invasion of it to take place from all these countries at once; and he will plainly see how exactly St. John's account tallies with Ezekiel's, that is to say, he will perceive that an invasion of Palestine jointly undertaken by the nations which Ezekiel enumerates would necessarily come from the four quarters of the earth, north, south, east, and west. Since then the Antichristian confederacy is a Ro66 quem Babylonem migrâsse testatur Moses” (Bochart, Geog. Sacr. L. iv. C. 3.). In after ages the posterity of this patriarch astonishingly spread themselves. We find them in Colchis upon the Euxine; in Egypt; in Thrace, in Thessaly, and in Greece, the seat of the third great empire ; in Babylon and in Persia, the two other great empires. (See Bryant's Annal. vol. iii. p. 443—601.). The land of Cush in holy Writ (commonly, but " by mistake, rendered Ethiopia) is properly that district of “ Arabia, where the sons of Cush first settled. But, as this “ race multiplied exceedingly, and spread, not only into other “ parts of Arabia, but eastward, round the head of the Per“ sian gulph, to the confines of Susiana ; and westward, across “ the Arabian gulph, into the region since called Abyssinia, “ which extended along the coast from Ptolemaïs to Arsinoë, “ and inland to the very sources of the Nile : the land of Cush “ is often taken more largely for a great tract of country, not “ only comprehending the whole of Arabia Felix, but having for its eastern boundary the branch of the Tigris below the “ town of Asia, and for its western boundary the Nile," Bp. Horsley's Letter on Isaiah xviii. p. 93. ' G4


man one, and since the Magogian confederacy is. not a Roman one, they certainly cannot be the same. · And, since the Magogian confederacy is composed of the relics of the three first empires, since the lives of those empires are to be preserved after the fall of the Roman empire, and since the confederacy itself is not to be formed till some time after the restoration of Israel; I know not what it can be except the confederacy, which St. John similarly terms Gog and Magog *_The circum

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.* The discussion of this interesting prophecy serves to shew, that I was right in assigning the expedition, foretold in Dan. xi. 40—45, to the infidel king, and not (with Bp. Newton) to the king of the North. Since that expedition is contemporary with the restoration of Judaḥ at the close of the 1260 years (Dan. xii. 1, 7.), it can only be an expedition undertaken by some Roman power, which shall then either be the last hçad of the beast, or at least his most powerful horn. Now the wilful king is allowed on all hands to be a Roman power, whether he be the empire in general, the Pope, or Antichristian France; whereas the northern king seems plainly not to be a Roman power. But the expedition during the restoration of the Jews is to be undertaken by a Roman power; and the wilful king, confessedly a Roman power, is at this very era engaged in hostilities with the northern king : hence it is plain, that, in order to avoid a palpable contradiction, we must ascribe the expedition in question, not to the northern king, but to the wilful, king. Thus, what the concinnity of Daniel's prophecy evidently required, is proved by the instrumentality of another prophecy. The only expedition into Palestine at the era of the restoration of the Jews is the Roman one : the expedition therefore, here predicted by Daniel, must undoubtedly be ascribed to the Antichristịan Romun king, not to his northern antagonist. See my Dissert. on the 1260 yeurs, vol. i. p. 352—356. (2d Edit. p.384-400.)



stantial difference between the Antichristian and the Magogian confederacies will close the argument. The Antichristian confederacy will at first prove successful, will overrun the whole of Palestine, will take Jerusalem, will conquer Egypt, and will reduce the Libyans and Cushim to some kind of subjection*. The Magogian confederacy will not be at all successful : at least Ezekiel does not give us the slightest hint that it will; and St. John, if it be allowed that he speaks of it, explicitly de clares, that, although it will encamp around the beloved city, it shall not be' able to take it, but shall be destroyed by fire from heaven. Of the Antichristian confederacy a third part will be spared and converted, and when scaţtered through all nations will be instrumental in bringing about the restoration of Israelt: Of the Magogian confederacy a sixth part only will be spared; for, al. though God will not even then forget to be mere ciful, yet the superior guilt of this last, as having the fate of its audacious precursor before its eyes, and therefore not being able to plead an equal degree of ignorance, will doubtless deserve a more severe punishment I:


* Isaiah xi, 15. xix. 4. xxvii. 12. Dan. xi. 41-45. Ze.. char. X. 11. xiv. 2. + Compare Zechar. xiii. B. and Isaiah lxvi. 19.

Ezek. xxxix. 2. It is proper however to observe, that the word nww, rendered by our translators to leave a sixth part, is


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