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and Magog, if we place it at the end rather than at the beginning of the Millennium ? “ Thus saith “ the Lord : Art not thou he, of whom I have

spoken in old time by iny servants the prophets “ of Israel, which prophesied in those days many os

years, that I would bring thee against them?" Mr. Mede is of opinion, that Ezekiel alludes in this passage to Isaiah xxvii. 1. with the two last verses of the foregoing chapter; to Jeremiah xxx. 23, 24; to Joel iii. 1. and the following verses; and to Micah v. 5, 6, 9, 15. In all these references I certainly think Mr. Mede mistaken, because I believe that the war of Gog and Magog will take place at the close of the Millennium, whereas the events predicted in the passages to which he refers will come to pass immediately before the commencement of the Millennium. Isaiah xxvii. 1. relates to the subversion of the Egyptian government, at the period of the restoration of Judah, and during the time of unerampled trouble mentioned by Daniel *. Jeremiah xxx. 23, 24. relates to the overthrow of the Antichristian confederacy at the same era, that is to say, at the end of the 1260 years : and, after it is thus overthrown, the prophet foretells, in perfect accordance with Isaiaht, the restoration of Ephraim or the kingdom of the


Compare Isaiah xi. 10-16. xvii. xviii. xix. xxvi. 19, 20, 21, xxvii. 1, 6, 7, 12, 13. Dan. xi. 42, 43, xii. 1, 2, 7.

# Isaiah lxvi. 7-24.


ten tribes. Joel iii. ). likewise relates to the overthrow of the Antichristian confederacy. And Micah v. 5, 6, 9, 15, equally relates to the same event, describing the chief of the Roman Babylon, as he is elsewhere described by Isaiah *, under the mystic name of the Assyrian. On the whole, since we undoubtedly find nothing in our present Hebrew Scriptures that at all resembles the remarkable prophecy of Ezekiel respecting Gog and Magog; whence Eichhorn naturally observed, that, as far as we can discern, this great piece is entirely new and peculiarly his ownt: on the whole, I say, Abp. Newcome's opinion seems to me the most probable, that the prophets of Israel, alluded to by Ezekiel, are those, “ whose predictions on this

subject were never committed to writing, or are

now lost I." Yet I think we may discover a remote hint of the war of Gogi and Magog in Daniel vii. 12, 13, 14. The prophet, having foretold the destruction of the great Roman beast in all his members and of his tyrannical little horn, in other words, of the Antichristian confederacy of the beast, the false prophet, and the kings of the Latin earth, informs us concerning the rest of the beasts, namely the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, and the Macedonian, that, although their dominion should be taken away, yet their lives should be prolonged for a season and a time; and he afterwards declares, that he beheld in the night visions the son of man coming in the clouds of heaven. How then can we understand the prolongation of the lives of these three beasts after the overthrow of the Roman confederacy by the Ancient of days, and to the period of a certain subsequent revelation of the Son of man, except that the future inhabitants of those three empires should be preserved after the destruction of Antichrist, and during the millennian reign of the saints, and that they should at length make their appearance upon the stage as a second grand Antichristian confederacy termed by Ezekiel and St. John Gog and Magog?


* Isaiah xiv. 4, 25. + " In many poems, as far as we can discern, he is really

The great piece of Gog and Magog is his own." Eichhorn's Introduct, to the Old Testament, cited by Abp. Newcome, Pref. to Ezekiel, p. xxvii. Translation of Ezekiel in loc.

Still on a subject, so confessedly difficult and mysterious as that respecting which we are treating, the reader may continue to have his doubts, and may be disposed to ask; Why may not Ezekiel's Gog and Magog be, not indeed the Turks, for that is plainly impossible, but the great Antichristian confederacy which will be destroyed at the era of the restoration of Judah? They have certainly many points of resemblance in common : they both indade Palestine from the north; they both attack the Jews; and they both perish partly superna

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turallyand partly by internal discord *. Why then may we not suppose them to be the same : and consequently that Mr. Mede is at least right in that part of his scheme, which makes the Gog and Magog of Ezekiel to be entirely different from the Gog and Magog of St. John?

To this I answer, that the two expeditions of Ezekiel's Gog and Magog and the Antichristian confederacy certainly resemble each other in these points, although even in these the resemblance is far from being perfect; for Gog and Magog invade Palestine, not merely from the north, but (as it appears from the description of their allies) from the east, the south, and the west, that is in the language of St. John) from the four quarters of the earth; whereas the Antichristian confederacy invades Palestine solely from the north, and, after passing through it in the full tide of success, subjugates Egypt, Libya, and Ethiopia t. But, whatever partial resemblance there may be between the two expeditions, since they differ in the three grand points of time, of persons, and of circumstances, it is not easy to conceive how they can be identified --Their difference in time has already been shewn. The Antichristian expedition takes place during the restoration of Judah, and prior

* Compare Ezek, sxxviii. 21, 22. with Zechar, xii. 4. xiv. 3, 4, 12, 13. + Dan. xi. 43.


to the restoration of Israel : the Magogian erpedition takes place after the restoration both of Judah and Israel, after they have coalesced into one people, after they have been long securely dwelling in their own land under David their prince—Their difference in the persons, respectively engaged in "each, is even yet more remarkable. The Jews begin to be restored at the close of the 1260 years"; the power of the Roman beast and his little horn begins to be broken at the same period; the confederacy of the Roman beast, the false prophet, and the kings of the Latin earth, begins to be overthrown under the seventh vial, likewise at the same period; the infidel king, or the atheistical Antichrist of the last days, comes to his end also at the same period; the Jews themselves, as we have seen, understand the mystic Edom, which the Lord destroys at the time of their restoration, to mean the Roman empire : from all which we must unavoidably conclude, that the great confederacy, which is destined to be overthrown at the close of the 1260 years, and which is noticed more or less explicitly by almost every prophet who foretells the return of Judah, will be composed of powers situated within the limits of the ancient Roman empire. If then Ezekiel's Gog and Magog be the same as the Antichristian confederacy, we may expect to find both them and their allies described as being Roman powers, and as answering exactly to the ten-horned beast, the litțle horn or false prophet,


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