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jects. It was the opinions of the court only that were indulged: all others were condemned, and decrees issued to exterminate such as did not profess the established creed. The consequence of this was the total destruction of all morality. Men became hypocrites to preserve their lives and their estates, and he who was possessed of the greatest cunning, was always sure to supplant his opponents. The bistory of most European nations is a history of craft and intrigue, devised by hypocrites, whose power and existence de pended solely on the ignorance of the multitude, whose minds they had previously enslaved by real and imaginary terrors. Good citizens can only be formed by equal laws. 'Legislation cannot reach beyoud civil society. When it is attempted to carry it farther, it destroys the equality of right; it confounds the honest man with the hypocrite, and, instead of forming good citizens, it every where creates tyrants and slares.

In no way is hypocrisy better fostered than in compelling men to submit to religious tests before they can be eligible to fill public offices. No one will pretend that the truly virtuous require the obligation of an oath, or religious tests, to re. strain them from violating public or private trusts. tests are only for the wicked, whom, however, they never control. Wbat advantages then can morality derive from, or what confidence can be placed in men, to whom the administering of an oath implies a suspicion of their integrity? Are we certain, that ambitious knaves will relinquish their iniquitous projects, merely because it is required of them to swear that they believe the doctrines, wbich they have been taught from their infancy to believe? Can power and emo. lument be obtained on easier terms? Is it possible to conceive a greater inducement to the unprincipled, to become candidates for the highest honours in the state? And what more powerful stimulant to their ambition, than to see the man of talent and of character, kept back from being useful to society, for no other reason than that he does not profess to believe what he cannot understand, or believing it, does not think that it would add greater weight to the trutb, to appeal to that Being, who already knows the inmost secrets of his beart, and who, whether he swears truly or not, bas not enabled man to judge as to his sincerity. How often do we find the most flaming professions of religion intimately connected with the most depraved hearts. The man w bo is bent only on promoting his own selfisb views, will not hesitate at the means of obtaining his object. Aware that it is

pecessary to disguise his sentiments, in his intercourse with bis fellow-citizens, he will readily conform to their religious observances, without which he knows he cannot succeed. With such a man, the genuine ties of religion are of no account. He either disregards them altogether, or calculates on availing himself of their efficacy at some future period of his life. Where theu is the advantage, either religious or political, of continuing tests? The good do uot require them, and the wicked easily contrive to evade the purpose for which they are introduced.

It is constantly objected against our nation, that they are an abject, degraded race; actuated by no other principle than that of self; disposed to overreach others in their commercial transactions, and, at all times, bent on acquiring wealth, without regard to the means employed to obtain it. These charges have been so often reiterated, that most men credit them, without allowing themselves to reflect for a inoment upon their truth or probability. It is in this, as it is in most other cases; men generally sit down contented with believing what has been taught them in their infancy, and which they have seldom, or never, heard contradicted. It is from this state of indolence that error is perpetuated, and that the odium, wbich has been attached to our nation, still exists. We are looked upon, even by many in this country, as a people undeserving the rights of citizens, and who ought to be debarred all social intercourse.

I have already shewn, that if the matter was candidly investigated, it would be found that the Jews, in almost every country, are as moral and correct in their general deportment as any other people. But admitting, that in some places of the world, they may be deserving of censure, can this be a matter of surprise, when it is notorious, that they are there deprived of all the privileges of citizens, despised, iusulted, reviled, debased, and totally unacquainted with any thing but want and misery?-_Can virtue and honour be expected to spring from such a soil? Can any seuse of shame exist where guilt is preceded by treatment calculated to destroy every moral feeling? To cover the innocent with ignominy, is to pave the way to it. “So many laws (observes tbe Abbe Grégoire *) made against the Jews, always suppose in them a natural worthlessness; but these laws, which are the fruit of hatred or prejudice, have no other foundation but the motive which gives rise to them. We see talents and virtues

* Physical, Moral and Political Reformation of the Jews, p. 135,

shine forth in them wherever they begin to be treated as men." This enlightened Nazarene, although a priest of the most intolerant of all the Christian sects, was not ashamed to avow that slavery debased human nature; that whenever a man is excluded from participating in the rights and privileges of bis fellow-citizens, he becomes degraded in his own estimation; loses all sense of moral duty; and seeks to revenge himself for the wrongs he suffers; by committing depredations upon society. Notwithstanding the correctness of these principles, the same intelligent writer acquits our nation of having been guilty of aggravated crimes: “We see few of them (says he) commit murder, or other enormous crimes, that call forth public vengeance *.”.

Adieu, dear Isaacs; may the God of our fathers continue to bless and prosper you.

NATHAN JOSEPH.

LETTER XXXI.

The Abbe Grégoire and Benjamin Franklin, Friends of Toleration

Parable against Persecution. DEAR Isaacs, THE Abbe Grégoire, of whom you wish me to give you some farther information, was a member of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences at Metz, and of the National Assembly of France. The learned society of Metz having offered a premium for the best essay on the physical, moral, and political reformation of our nation, the prize was awarded to Grégoire, whose labours can never be too highly appreciated by the descendants of Abraham. They do as much honour, as the English translator of his work remarks, to his head as to his heart, and equally display the warmth of his benevolence, and the extent of his learning. Would to God that the example of this philanthropist and scholar was followed by men of the present day, who, like him, bave it in their power, from the sacred characters which they hold, to inculcate toleration and universal benevolence. After vindicating our nation from the odium wbich has been heaped upon them for upwards of eighteen hundred years, and clearly demonstrating our right to participate in the privileges enjoyed by every citizen or subject under those governments where chance or circumstances may

* Physical, Moral and Political Reformation of the Jews, p. 134.

have placed us, the benevolent Abbe concludes his interesting work with the following eloquent and impressive appeal:

“O! nations; for eighteen centuries ye have been treading under foot the remains of Israel. Divine vengeance hath displayed its severity against them; but have you been commissioned to be the instruments of it?-The fury of your fathers selected their victims from this deserted flock; what treatment do you reserve for the timid lambs who have escaped the slaughter, and taken shelter in your bosoms? Is it enough to leave them life, while you deprive them of every thing that can render it desirable? Will your hatred form a part of the inheritance which you bequeath to your children ? ·No longer judge of this nation except for the future; but if you again review the past crimes, and the present corruption of the Jews, let it be in order to lament your own work. Being the cause of their vices, become that also of their virtues; discharge your debt, and that of your ancestors.

" A new age is about to commence. Let the palms of humanity adorn its front; and let posterity, by anticipation, applaud the junction of your hearts. The Jews are members of that universal family which ought to establish fraternity among all nations; and over tbem, as well as us, revelation extends its majestic veil. Children of the same Father, leave no pretence for the aversion of your brethren, who will one day be united with you in the same sheepfold. Open asylums where they may dry up their tears, and repose their heads in peace. In short, let the Jew, loving the Christian with reciprocal affection, embrace in me bis fellow-citizen and his friend *.”

(To be continued.).

TO CORRESPONDENTS.

More letters with subscriptions have arrived than we shall be able to print this week. Mr. Carlile and his Sister are still detained for their fines! Considering the robberies that have been made upon bis property this single fact stamps the ministers, and the Judges of the Court of King's Bench, as a

* Grégoire's Reformation of the Jews, pp. 239, 240.

COMPLETE BANDITTI. If his property was not fit for them to sell it was not too fit for them to seize. They were legally bound to make sale of it in that manner whicb should have produced the greatest sum of money, and if it had been sold on the premises, at the time of seizure, the first lot seized would have more than covered his fines.

We will accept the kind offer of “A Lover of Truth," and print in "The Republican” “ Boulanger's Critical Examination of the Life of St. Paul," agreeable to bis recommendation, but we wish to begin it with a new volume, the first number of which will appear on the First of January, under the joint title of “The Republican and AntiChrist." We have had a revelation from the real Anti-Christ, and we are assured this new God will make a grand, an imposing, and an astonishing appearance in the ensuing year. The general explanation of the prophecies concerning bim are not correct: he will put down Christ for ever, and establish, not only a millenium, but a perpetual civilization among mankind.

EDITOR,

ERRATA.

Ín Mrs. Wright's Speech page 816 for as a vice, read as advice. Several other trivial errors appeared in it, but as they were such as every reader may detect and correct we forbear to notice them.

The £2 acknowledged last week from Toel Martin, should have been from Tod Norton.

Mrs. S. Wright returns thanks to Mr. Fairbrother for Five Shillings, lest at No.5, Water Lane.

H. Boyle and W. V. Holmes acknowledge the receipt of Five Shillings each from Mr. Grattan.

An Enemy to Persecution. One Sovereign each to the imprisoned Shopmen of Mr. Carlile. Per Mr. J. W. Trust.

Printed and Published by R. CARLILE, 55, Fleet Street, All Communications

(post paid) are requested to be sent to Dorchester Gaol, until a further Ad. dress to some House or Shop be given.--Orders, with remittances, or references for payment, will be punctually attended to. Country Agents will find the most liberal Terms for prompt Payment.

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