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with his eyes, &c. A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them, &c. Mercy and truth preserve the king, and his throne is upholden by mercy.-Prov. xx. 8. 26. 28.

To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice. Prov. xxi. 3. Isa. i. 17, 18. It is the honour of kings to search out a matter, &c. Take away the wicked from before the king, and his throne shall be established in righteousness.-Prov. xxv. 2. 5.

As a roaring lion, &c. so is a wicked ruler over the poor people: a prince that wanteth understanding, &c.— Prov. xxviii. 15, 16.

When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice: but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn, &c. The king by judgment establisheth the land: but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it, &c. If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked. The king that faithfully judgeth the poor, his throne shall be established for ever, &c. Many seek the ruler's favour, but every man's judgment cometh from the Lord. Prov. xxix. 2—4. 12. 14.26.

It is not for kings to drink wine : nor for princes strong drink: lest they drink and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted.-Prov. xxxi. 4, 5.

I saw under the sun the place of judgment, that wickedness was there, &c. God shall judge the righteous.

Eccles. iii. 16, 17.

Better is a poor and a wise child, than an old and foolish king, who will no more be admonished.-Eccles. iv. 13.

If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of judgment and justice, &c. he that is higher than the highest regardeth.— Eccles. v. 8.

Oppression maketh a wise man mad, and a gift destroyeth the heart. -Eccles. vii. 7.

Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the morning; blessed art thou, O land, when thy king is the son of nobles, and thy princes eat in due season, for strength, and not for drunkenness. -Eccles. x. 16, 17.


Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them, &c. Ah! I will ease me of mine adversaries, &c. -Isa. i. 23, 24. Jer. v. 28.

I will give children to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them and the people shall be oppressed every one by another. What mean ye, that ye beat my people to pieces, and grind the faces of the poor? &c.-Isa. iii. 4, 5. 15.

Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, &c. to turn aside the needy from judgment, &c. what will ye do in the day of visitation? &c.İsa. x. 1-3.

In that day shall the Lord of hosts, &c. for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment. Hear the word of the Lord, ye scornful men, that rule this people, &c. because ye have said, &c.—Īsa. xxviii. 5, 6. 14,

15. 18.

He that despiseth the gain of oppressions, who shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, &c. he shall dwell on high.-Isa. xxxiii. 15, 16.

Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?-Isa. Iviii. 6-8. Zech. vii. 5, &c.

Judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off: for truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter.-Isa. lix. 14.

no wrong, do no violence to the stran ger, &c. neither shed innocent blood in this place, &c. Shalt thou reign, because thou closest thyself in cedar? Did not thy father eat, and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him? he judged the cause of the poor and needy, then it was well with him, &c. but thine eyes, and thine heart are not but for thy covetousness, and for to shed innocent blood, and for oppression, and for violence to do it.-Jer. xxii. 1-3. 15-17. Ezek. xxii. 27.

Hear the word of the Lord, O king of Judah, &c. Thus saith the Lord, Execute ye judgment, and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor: and do

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implead one another.-Acts xix. 36. 38-40.


Paul said, For sittest thou to judge me after the law; and commandest me to be smitten, contrary to law?Acts xxiii, 3.

It is not the manner of the Romans to deliver any man to die, before that he which is accused have the accusers face to face, and have license to answer for himself, &c. It seemeth to me unreasonable to send a prisoner, and withal not to signify the crimes laid against him.-Acts xxv. 16. 27.

Rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil, &c. for he is the minister of God to thee for good, &c. a revenger, to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil, &c. They are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.-Rom. xiii. 3, 4.6. Governors, &c. for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.-1 Pet. ii. 14.

The great whore, with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication. The ten horns shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate, and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire; for God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will. Rev. xvii. 1, 2. 16, 17.

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When the council charged them with preaching contrary to their commands, &c. Peter, &c. said, We ought to obey God rather than man.-Acts v. 27-29.

Moses was hidden three months of afraid of the king's commandment, his parents, &c. and they were not &c. He feared not the wrath of the king.-Heb. xi. 23. 27.

FIRST. What they may not do: when, and wherein they may not obey them. ISRAEL sinned, &c. in walking in the statutes of the heathen, &c. and of the kings of Israel, which they had made, &c.-2 Kings xvii. 7, 8. 19.

Render to Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's; and unto God, the things that are God's.-Matt. xxii. 21,


The king of Egypt commanded the midwives to kill the men children of the Hebrews. But they feared God, and obeyed not the king: and God took it well of them.-Exod. i, 15-17. 20, 21.

Saul said, Jonathan, thou shalt

SECONDLY. What they ought to do, or wherein they should acknowledge and obey them.

Submit to, and obey them in all lawful things.

Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses, and God smote Miriam with a leprosy.-Numb. xii. 1. 9-11.

The Lord destroyed Korah and his company, for their rebellion against Moses, &c.-Numb. xvi. 1, &c.

Keep the king's commandment; and that in regard of the oath of God. Eccles. viii. 2-4.

If the spirit of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place; for yielding pacifieth great offences. Eccles. x. 4.

God threatened the Jews for revolting from the king of Babylon, and breaking their oath and covenant with him.-Ezek. xvii. 12-20.

Though there was no tribute due from Christ, yet he said to Peter, Lest we should offend them, go thou, &c. give unto them for me and thee. Matt. xvii. 24-27.

Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's.-Matt. xxii. 21.

Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers, &c. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist, shall receive to themselves damnation, &c. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, &c. Ye must needs be subject; not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake: for, for this cause pay you tribute, &c. Render therefore to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour.-Rom. xiii. 1-7.

Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, &c.-Titus iii. 1.

Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man, for the Lord's sake; whether it be to the king, as supreme, or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him, for the punishment of evildoers, &c. For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men.-1 Pet. ii. 13-15.

II. To give them Honour and Respect: not contemn their Persons, or speak evil of them.

David said to Saul, My Lord the king! and when Saul looked behind him, David stooped with his face to the earth, and bowed himself, &c. He said, I will not put forth my hand against the Lord's anointed.—I Sam. xxiv. 6. 8. 10. xxvi. 9. 11.

Thou shalt not revile the gods (or judges), nor curse the ruler of thy people.-Exod. xxii. 28.

Nathan the prophet, when he was come in before the king, bowed himself before the king with his face to the ground, and said, My lord, O king! &c.-1 Kings i. 23, 24.

Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art wicked? and to princes, Ye are un-godly?-Job xxxiv. 18.

The king's wrath is as the roaring of a lion, &c.-Prov. xix. 12.


The fear of a king is as the roaring of a lion whoso provoketh him to anger sinneth against his own soul. -Prov. xx. 2. xvi. 14, 15.

Put not forth thyself in the presence of the king, &c.—Prov. xxv. 6, 7.

Where the word of a king is, there is power: and who may say unto him, What doest thou?- Eccles. viii. 4.

Curse not the king; no not in thy thoughts.-Eccles. x. 20.

Daniel said to Darius the king, O king, live for ever!-Dan. vi. 21.

When the apostle had spoken sharply to the high priest, and some who stood by had said, Revilest thou God's high priest? Then said Paul, I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest: for it is written, Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy people.-Acts xxiii. 2-5.

Paul said, I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee, &c. Festus said with a loud voice, Paul, Thou art beside thyself; much learning doth make thee mad. But he said, I am not mad, most noble Festus; but speak forth the words of truth and soberness, &c.-Acts xxvi. 1-3. 24, 25. xxiv. 10.

Render therefore to all their dues; &c. fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour.-Rom. xiii. 7.

Honour the king.--1 Pet. ii. 17. But chiefly them that walk in the lust of uncleanness, and despise government, &c. and dominion, &c. They are not afraid to speak evil of dignities whereas angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not railing accusation against them before the Lord.-2 Pet. ii. 10, 11. Jude 8, 9.


III. To pray for them.

Exhort therefore, that first of all supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men; for kings, and for all that are in authority (or eminent place), that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life, in all godliness and honesty: for this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour.-1 Tim. ii. 1-3.

IV. To endeavour to get good Magistrates.

V. To discover Treasons.

Mordecai discovered the design of two of the king's chamberlains against him.-Esth. ii. 21-23.

all the nations, &c. This greatly displeased God; and he said to Samuel, They have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them, &c. And they said, Nay, but we will have a king over us.-1 Sam. viii, 1-7. 19, 20.

Ye have this day rejected your God who himself saved you, &c. Ye have said, But set a king over us.-1 Sam. x. 19.

When Adonijah exalted himself, saying, I will be king; and prepara- magistrates.-Judges xxi. 25. tion was made for it; then Bathsheba the queen, and Nathan the prophet, made application to David, to set up


Solomon to be king; and accordingly OF AN OATH FOR TESTIMONY, CONprevailed.-1 Kings i.




ABRAHAM said to the king of Sodom,
I have lift up my hand unto the Lord;
the most high God, &c. that I will
not take, &c. any thing that is thine;
lest thou shouldest say, I have made
Abraham rich.-Gen. xiv. 22, 23.

VI. To submit to lawful Magistrates, which God hath set over us; even though they be not such as they should be.

When Samuel was old, he made his sons judges over Israel, &c. and his sons walked not in (or followed not) his ways, but turned aside after lucre, and took bribes, and perverted judgment. Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto Ramah, and said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us, like

Samuel afterward tells them their wickedness was great in the sight of the Lord in asking a king. Which sin the people acknowledged, when God had sent thunder and rain in wheat harvest.-1 Sam. xii. 16-19.

They have set up kings, but not by me: they have made princes, and Ï knew it not.-Hosea viii. 4.

And thy judges, of whom thou saidst, Give me a king, and princes : I

took him away in my wrath.-Hosea gave thee a king in mine anger, and xiii. 10, 11.

It is a severe misfortune to want

Abimelech, &c. spake unto Abraham, saying, God is with thee in all that thou doest: now therefore swear unto me here by God, that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, &c. And Abraham said, I will swear, &c. They swore both of them.

Gen. xxi. 22-24. 31. Josh. ii. 12-14.

Abraham said unto his servant, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh, and I will make thee swear by

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