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favour for the city of Smyrna, after the earthquake, which is computed to have happened in the year of Christ 177, Aristides published a monody, bewailing their unhappy circumstances; and after that he wrote an oration, or epistle, in 178, congratulating the people of Smyrna upon their restoration. Here he celebrates not only the favour and liberality of the emperors, but likewise the generous compassion of many others : · All d the cities of Asia considered their • affliction as their own, and sent them relief as to their parents or children. And when they
entertained any of them who were destitute in their own houses, who of them did not think ' themselves gainers thereby ? who did not think that they received rather than conferred a • benefit ? Many contributed money, and promised more, if it was needed. All the nations in• habiting Asia contended, who should exceed in regard to them. And in your city alone the • falsehood of that old saying has been shewn, that the unhappy are forgotten even by their • friends. Which occasioned Mr. Tillemont · to say : • Behold the change which the Christian
religion had made in the world! For it cannot be doubted, that the Christians, who were ! numerous in those provinces, had a large share in these works of charity, which are the proper • effects of the faith and of the grace of Jesus Christ, and that their ardour inflamed the heathens to shew the falsehood of that ancient proverb, that all the world forgets and neglects the unhappy: which had been too much the case hitherto.'
So Mr. Tillemont : and his observation may be right, though Aristides does not mention the Christians : but his words, all nations living in Asia,' lead us to think, there was a concurrence of several sorts of men in contributing to the relief of Smyrna under the great calamity that had befallen it.
3. I must add one passage more.
Describing one of his voyages : • We were going to Cephalenia, and again we had a high « sea, and a contrary wind, and we were tossed up and down, to the great detriment of my • health, and beyond what my constitution could bear. Afterwards the like happened in the • straits of Achaia, when truly the good mariners would put out from Patræ, at the very time of • the Equinox, against my will, and very much to my prejudice under my indispositions. The • like things happened again in the Ægæan sea, through the obstinacy of the master of the ship • and the mariners; when they would sail, though the winds were contrary, nor would they
hearken to me. So 8 we were carried about by the tempest over that whole sea, for fourteen $ days and nights, and were oftentimes without food, and at length with difficulty got to Miletus.
Here is such as an agreement with the history of St. Paul's voyage, related in Acts xxvii. that some may be apt to think, he had read the book of the Acts: but. I rather think, that Aristides had not read any of the books of the New Testament.
IV. Dr. Chapman has formed a plausible argument for the expediency of the continuance of spiritual gifts, and miraculous powers in the church, for upholding and propagating the Christian religion, from the influence of the philosophers and sophists of this time; who were in great favour with the Roman emperors, and received from them' handsome stipends for instructing youth, and had a great interest with the people in Greece, and at Alexandria, and in. many cities in Asia.
Ælius Aristides, from whom some extracts have been now made, was a fine writer, and a good speaker. He is credulous and superstitious, a true heathen, and a servant of the gods : but, so far as I have observed, he may be supposed a sober man, and serious. There are in his
a Vid. Basnag. ann. 177. num, ii.
. L'Emp. Marc. Aurele. art. xxiv. • Tom. i. p. 200. al. p. 455.
Sacrorum Sermon. ii. Tom. i. p. 306. al. p. 540. Παλινωδια επι Σμυρνη και τα ταυτης ανοικισμω. Τ. 1, 8 Τετίαρες παλιν αυθαι προς ταις δεκα ημεραι και νυκλες, p. 263. al.
χειμωνος κυκλω δια πανloς το πελατο φερομένων, καν ταυλαις -ωσπερ γαρ κοινά σωματος της Ασιας γείενημενο, ελω ασιλιαι εκ ολιδαι, και.μολις Μιλτιω ωροσηνέχθημεν. p. 306. al. τας γνωμας ειχελε - -- και πασας αφορμας παρασκευαζονίων, , ώσπερ γονευσιν η παισιν αυλωνΤις γαρ εχ' έρμαιον εαυθε " A View of the expediency and Credibility of Miraculous εποιησαίο και τις γαρ εχ' ευρισκεσθαι μαλλον, η τιθεσθαι ταυτην Powers among the primitive Christians, after the Decrease of χαριν ψηθη, δεξασθαι συνοικες, τες τοσελον πρωθευσανίας και the Apostles. 1732. Και τι δει ταυτ' εν μέρει καλαλείειν και Πανία γαρ τα εθνη i The stipends of the philosophers and sophists, at Athens τα πληρυνθ' ημιν την Ασιαν, φιλόλιμιαν κοινην φιλολιμείται and other places, by appointment of Vespasian at first, and προς την πολιν, τα κραλιςα των αρχαιων ανισανία επι μονης then of Antoninus the pions, and Marcus Antoninos, he comδε ταύτης της πολεως το παλαιον ρημα εξηλείχθη ψευδως εχον, , putes to have been ten thousand Attie dr. ms, 01 3201. per το κακως πραξανlων ληθην ειναι παρά τους φίλους. Ιb. P. 268. anoum of our money. See p. 59-61.
orations many fine sentences in favour of truth and virtue. If he says, he had rather be a fine speaker, than be Darius the son of Hystaspes, he joins with it a sober and virtuous life. And again, in another place, where he expresseth his superior value for learning and eloquence above all things, he says : Nor • can he be so stupid as to despise glory if it comes to his share, and • so far as it may flow from fine speaking, and a life of virtue suited to his discourses. For he • he did not desire to obtain it by any other means.'
A character of such eminence must have been an ornament to the popular religion, and its rites: and the charms of eloquence in his hymns to the gods, and in his other orations, cannot but have had powerful attractions.
V. I do not intend to make any distinct chapter of the sophist Dion : but I shall give a general account of him. Suidas says, he was the son of Pisicrates, born at Prusa, a sophist, and a philosopher, and called Chrysostom. Both he and Philostratus say, that he was much favoured by the emperor Trajan, who took him up into his triumphal chariot, and told him, that he loved him as well as himself. Eunapius also says, he was of Bithynia, and was called Chrysostom. We still have remaining his eighty Orations, mentioned by Photius, of which a particular account may be seen in Fabricius. Photius says, he flourished in the time of Trajan. To the like purpose Suidas and Philostratus. I therefore place him in the year 98, the first of that emperor's reign: though he was also in favour with Nerva, as we know from 'himself. Whether he be the same as Cocceianus Dion, mentioned by Pliny in a letter to Trajan, and in Trajan's' rescript, is not quite certain.
I shall take but one passage from him; for which I am indebted to Dr. Chapman : but I shall quote it more at large than he has done. In an oration to the Corinthians he speaks with great vebemence: · Whom” have not these men abused,' says he, who abuse every thing ?
Have they not abused Socrates and Pythagoras, and Plato ? Have they not abused Jupiter • himself, and Neptune, and Apollo, and the other gods ? Nor have they spared the female gods, ' though, as one might reasonably think, they should have more regard for them than the * males. Hear then what they say of Ceres, and Venus, and Aurora : nor do they forbear * Minerva and Diana.'
Dr. Chapman makes no doubt that by these men Dion meant the Christians, who, it seems, had talked contemptuously of the gods of the first rank.' I am also inclined to be of the same opinion. And I think, that this passage of Dion, together with some others which we have seen, may satisfy us, that the Christians were better known in those times than some have imagined. And we cannot help thinking therefore, that the silence of Epictetus about our ancestors, or his disregard of them, was designed and affected, as was also intimated formerly. Indeed the words of St. Paul concerning himself
, and other apostles, were often verified in other followers of Jesus after their times.
“ As deceivers, yet true: as unknown, yet well known -as poor, yet making many rich.” 2 Cor. vi. 8-10. Again : “ Always bearing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus: that the life of Jesus might be made manifest in our body." 2 Cor. iv. io, and see also ver. 11.
Πλην γε τοσελ αν ειπoιμι-ως ενω δεξαιμης αν δυνασθαι λεξειν μεθα χρησε βια και σωφρονος εις όσον οίον τε καλλισα ανθρωπω μαλλον, η μυριακις Δαρειος ο “Υσασπέ γενεσθαι· και μικρα μοι ανθ' ως αληθας προς τατ’ ηδε φαινεθαι. Οr. Platon. 2da. T. ii, p. 135. al. 224.
8 Bib. Gr. T. iii. P.
* Αλλα μην υπερ γε της δοξης εδω διενοήθην, απανlωσαν μεν αυτην δεχεσθαι και περίειν, η γαρ αν στανταπασι βλαξ ειην τις πραματευσθαι δε μηδεν εις αυτην εξω των λοίων αυλων, και περι τον βιον ορθολήθος συμφωνά τείοις. Οr. contr. Proditores Mysterior. Tom. ii. p. 421. al. 724.
c V. Διων. a De Vit. Sophistar. 1. i. cap. vii.
• Και Διων, και εκ Βιθυνιας, ον επεκαλεν Χρυσοσομον. Εunap. De Vit. Sophist. in Pr. p.
11. i Cod. 209 p. 530.
η Τινας γαρ ελοι διαβεβληκασιν οι παντα διαζαλονίες: 8 Σωκρατης ; 8 ΠυθαΓοραν και ο Πλαίωνα και εκ αυτον τον Δια ; και τον Ποσειδω; και τον Απολλω, και τες αλλες θεας; Απloνται δε και των θελειων θεων, ων εικος ην ελι μαλλον, η των αρρενων εντρεπεσθαι. Νυν ακegίε γαρ ά λεψεσι την Δημήθρα, και την Αφροδίτην, και την Εω. Απεχονται δ' εδε της Αθηνας, εδε της Apleidos. Corinthiac. Or. 37. p. 463.
CHA P. XXI.
1. His time. II. Passages concerning Moses, and Christ, and the Christians.
I. CLAUDIUS GALENUS, " or GALEN, the celebrated physician, according to Suidas was a native of Pergamus, and flourished in the times of the Roman emperors, Marcus, Commodus, and Pertinax, and died in the seventieth year of his age. Philip Labbé in his Life, or Elogium Chronologicum of Galen, inserted by Fabriciuso in the third tome of his Bibliotheca Græca, computes, that he was born in the 131st year of the Christian epoch, and in the 14th or 13th year of the emperor Adrian: and that he died in the seventh year of Severus, of Christ 200, when he was seventy years of age.
Some other learned men have been inclined to protract his life to the year of our Lord 210, near the end of the reign of Severus.
I shall place him at the year of our Lord 180, and the last year of the emperor Marcus Antoninus, to whom he was well known, and by whom he was esteemed : at which time he must have been about fifty years of age.
II. This great author has mentioned Moses, Christ, and his followers. 1. He has twice mentioned our Saviour.
. In one place he blames Achigenes for not giving a demonstration, nor so much as a probable reason of some things advanced by him. So that, says he, we seem rather to be in a i school of Moses, or Christ, where we must receive laws with any reason assigned, and that in 'a point where demonstration ought not by any means to be omitted.'
Here is a just description of Christ's delivering his precepts without any long deduction of reasons and arguments: and he allows, that reasons were not there absolutely necessary, or however not so requisite, as in the points treated of by the author whom he censures. I think, we may be hence disposed to think it probable, that Galen was not unacquainted with our gospels.
2. In another place he says: “It is easier to convince the disciples of Moses, and Christ, • than physicians and philosophers, who are addicted to particular sects.'
Here is an acknowledgment of the steadiness of Christians in the profession of their principles: of which he may have seen many instances in the persecuting reign of Antoninus the Philosopher.
3. There is a work concerning Nephritic Disorders, which is ascribed to Galen, in which the author mentions the Christians, and ranks himself with them: but as it is not Galen's, I do not choose to take any thing from it.
* Suid. V. raaqyos. Photius. Cod.* 164. p. 349. Tillem. * Καλλιον γαρ ην πολλω προσθειναι τινα, ει και μη βεβαιαν l'Emp. Sévère, art. 31. Moreri, Dictionnaire, et Supplément. atrodağıx, mapaju bay yey inavy, W 201w, Wepi TWY oxlu Gallien.
ποιοτητων, ίνα μηδις ευθυς κατ' αρχας, ως εις Μωϋσα και Χρισ8 Bib. Gr. I. iv. cap. 17. T. iii. p. 509. &c.
διαίριζην αφιγμενος, νομων αναποδεικίων ακρη, και ταυλα εν οις • Claudius Galenus, omnium medicorum, post Hippocra- xisa xpm. De Differentia Pulsuum. lib. ii. p. 22. Basil. tem, facile princeps, atque optimi Imperatoris judicio, yoyoios 1538. ιαιρος και μονος φιλοσοφος, Niconis eruditissimi- - filius, natus 8 Θαττον γαρ αν τις τες απο Μωύσα και Χρισε μελαδιδαξειν, est Pergami in Asiâ, anno reparatæ per Christum salutis, η της ταις αίρεσεσι προσεληκοΐας ιαιρος τε και φιλοσοφος. Ιd. circiter cxxxi. Hadriani Imperatoris xiv. vel xv. labente. ib. lib. iii. p. 34. Labb. Elog. Chronolog. Galeni. num. i. ap. Fabric. B. G. T. Διαγνωσις των εν νεφροις σαθων, και θεραπεια. Liber iii. p. 510.
Galeno ascriptus. Dignotio morborum in renibus, eorumeam opinor, ex omnibus de obitu Galeni probabilio
Christiani scriptoris est, forte Demetrii Peparem videri sententiam, quæ illum addicit anno Imperii Severi gomeni ad Imperatorem, cujus archiatrum cuydenov suum vii. Christi cc. vitæ illius lxx. Id. ib. num. XX. p. 527. vocat, &c. Fabric. B. G. T. iii. p. 531,
e Basnag. ann. 210. num. v. And see Tillemont, as referred to at note .
4. And in his celebrated work, concerning the use of the parts of the human body,' he has mentioned. Moses. It will be sufficient, that I transcribe below the account which Fabricius has given of the passages of that work relating to Moses: whence it may be argued, that Galen had read the Pentateuch, or at least the book of Genesis.
CHA P. XXII.
CONCLUSION OF THE SECOND CENTURY.
I. Heathen sayings of the Christians. II. Anecdotes concerning divers heather governors of
provinces, who persecuted the Christians or were favourable to them. III. Remarks concerning the number of ancient heathen writers, who have mentioned the Christians.
THINK it not amiss to put down in this place, at the end of the second century, some sayings and observations of heathen people concerning Christians: which may be of use to shew how far the heathens were acquainted with them, their character, their principles, or their sufferings.
Tertullian, who flourished about the year of Christ 200, in his Apology observes to this purpose: Such are your prejudices,' says he, “that though you cannot but acknowledge the ·good character of a Christian, yet you will reproach him for his religion. Truly,” says one, « « Caius Seius is a good man, only he is a Christian.”. Another will say: “I wonder that · Lucius, who is so wise a man, should on a sudden turn Christian.”'
II, I will also put down here some anecdotes concerning divers heathen governors of provinces, who had some concerns with Christians.
1. In his book addressed to Scapula, the proconsul of Africa, Tertullian expresseth himself in this manner: We can set before you,' says he, the deaths of several governors of provinces, · who at the end of their days were sensible that they had done wrong. in persecuting the • Christians. Vigellius Saturninus, who first persecuted us in this country, lost his sight. · Claudius Herminianus, in Cappadocia, being enraged that his wife had embraced this opinion,
treated the Christians with cruel severity: and when he alone in his palace was seized with a · pestilential disease, and worms crawled out of his body yet alive, he said: “Let none know of • this, test the Christians should rejoice.” Afterwards, being convinced of his error, in that he had by torments compelled some to renounce this doctrine, he died almost a Christian. Cæcilius Capella, when he heard of the destruction of the city of Byzantium, cried out : “ Christians, * you have reason to rejoice.” But,' says Tertullian, 'they, who may think they have escaped, will be called to an account in the day of judgment.'
Before I proceed any farther, I must make a few remarks by way of explication.
Tertullus Scapula ' is supposed to have been consul in Rome in the year 195, and proconsul of Africa in 211, or thereabout. Therefore, this work of Tertullian could not be written before that time.
a De Usu Partium Corporis humani.] Möysen melius Epi- dium in nos egit, lumina amisit. Claudius Herminianus in curo scripsisse fatetur. xi. 14. Etsi persuadere sibi homo Cappadociâ, cum indigne ferens nxorem suam ad hanc sectam ethnicus non potuit, Deum facere posse quæcumqüe velit, ex transisse, Christianos crudeliter tractasset, solusque in Prætorio cinere equum et bovem, ex lapide hominem, e nateriâ cor- suo vastatus peste cum vivus vermibus ebullisset; Nemo ruptibili animalia immortalia xiv. 2. Fabric. ib. p. 549, 550. sciat, aiebat, ne spe gaudeant Christiani. Postea, cognito
b Quid? quod ita plerique clausis oculis in odium ejus im- errore suo, quod tormentis quosdam a proposito suo excidere pingunt, ut, bonum alicui testimonium ferentes, admisceant fecisset, pene Christianus decessit. Cæcilius Capella, in illo nominis exprobrationem : Bonus vir Caius Seins, tantum quod exitu Byzantino, Christiani, gaudete, exclamavit." Sed et qui Christianus. Item alius : Ego miror Lucium, sapientem videntur sibi impune tulisse, venient in diem divini judicii. virum, repente factum Christianum. Ap. cap. 3. P: 4. Ad. Scap. cap. 3. p. 86.
• Possumus æque et exitus quorumdam præsidum tibi pro- See Tillem. L'Emp. Sévère. art. vii. Comp. Basnag. ann. ponere,
qui in fine vitæ suæ recordati sunt deliquisse, quod vex- 195. num, i. assent Christianos. Vigellius Saturninus, qui primus hic gla
Vigellius Saturninus' is supposed to have been proconsul of Africa in the year of Christ 200.
Claudius Herminianus governed in Cappadocia in the reign of the emperor Severus : but his exact time is not now known. Fr. Balduinus seems to allow, that he is the same whom Papinian in the Pandects has mentioned with respect.
The city of Byzantium had sided with Niger. After a long and obstinate siege it was taken, and destroyed by the army of Severus in the year 196. The Christians in that city had been persecuted in the time of Marcus Antoninus. Probably · Cæcilius Capella had been then governor of Thrace, in which Byzantium stood, and then persecuted the Christians there with great severity. When he heard of the lamentable fate of that city, he used the expressions mentioned by Tertullian : thinking, that the Christians would rejoice at it, because many of their brethren had there endured very grievous sufferings. But Tillemont says, “That Christians
were wont to weep with those that wept, and not to rejoice at the calamities of their greatest • enemies : though they might at the same time adore the disposals of divine justice.'
2. It follows in the next chapter of the same work of Tertullian : • And how many go(vernors, and those both resolute and cruel, have declined these causes ? as Cincius Severus, • who at Thysdri helped the Christians to an answer that might clear them: as Vespronius Can
didus, who, when a Christian was brought before him, called him “ a troublesome fellow, and • bid him go, and ask pardon of his fellow citizens :” as Asper, who having slightly tortured a
Christian, and thereby overcome him, (so that he renounced his profession,) did not compel • him to sacrifice, but let him gó, openly declaring to those who sat upon the bench with him, «« that he was sorry to be at all concerned in such a cause.” Pudens likewise, when a Christian • was brought before him, and he perceived some unfair dealing in the libel, dismissed him, and « tore the libel to pieces, saying, “ he would not receive an accusation, unless the accuser was present, as the law directed." ;
We have no particular accounts of these things elsewhere: but it is reasonable to believe, that all these magistrates were governors of provinces in the persecution of Severus, or not long before; perhaps in the time of the emperor Marcus Antoninus.
Basnage 6 supposeth, that Pudens, here mentioned by Tertullian, is Servilius Pudens, who was consul in the year 166.
All these things does Tertullian boldly mention in his address to Scapula, proconsul of Africa: I think, it may be concluded, that they were known facts, and that the truth of them may be relied upon. Doubtless Tertullian speaks according to his own knowledge, or accord- , ing to such informations as he judged credible : for he would not presume to tell the proconsul stories, which he had any suspicion might be confuted or contradicted. Indeed, most of these men just mentioned had been proconsuls in Africa, where Tertullian lived, in his own time, in the reign of Severus.
3. I should here have inserted the story of Arrius Antoninus, proconsul of Asia, who after having long exercised great cruelty toward the Christians of his province, when some of them came before his tribunal, expressing great resolution, told them : • If they had a mind to die, • there were halters and precipices enough. But this has been taken notice of already in the chapter of the younger Pliny:
Ill. I have been long ago admonished in a letter, not to forget to make some observations
ut Asper, qui modice vexatum hominem, et statim dejectum, nec sacrificium compulit facere, avite professus inter advocalos et assessores, dolere se incidisse in hanc causam. Pudens etiam missum ad se Christianum, in elogio concussione ejus intellectâ, dimisit, scisso eodem elogio, sine accusatore negans se auditurum hominem, secundum mandatum.. Ibid.
a Tillem. Persécution sous l'Emp. Sévère art. 3. 6 Tillem. as before, art. 4.
c Hunc esse illum Claudium Herminianum, cujus Papinianus in Pandectis mentionem facit, et quem clarissimum appellat, nuper doctissimus Jurisconsultus admonuit. Certe temporibus Severi proconsulem eum fuisse, facile credo. Fr. Balduin. Edicta Princ. Rom. de Christianis. p. 99.
Tillem. L'Emp. Sévère, art. 18. See likewise la Persécution sous l'Emp. Marc. Aurèle art. 6.
i See Tillemont, la persécution de l'Eglise sous L'Emp. Sévère. art. 6.
• Quanti autem præsides, et constantiores et crudeliores, dissimulaverunt ab hujusmodi causis ? ut Cincius Severus, qui Thysdri ipse dedit remedium, quomodo responderent Christiani, ut dimitti possent ; ut Vespronius Candidus, qui Christianum, quasi tumultuosum, civibus suis satisfacere, dimisit;
6 Vid. Basnag. ann. 166. num. i.
h See Tillem. la persécution sous Sévère, art. 6. Basnag. ann. 202. num. ii.
i See p. 32.