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The author of the Deaths of Persecutors says, that * though Aurelian was not ignorant of · Valerian's captivity, yet as if he had forgot his guilt and punishment, he provoked the anger

of • God by his cruel proceedings. However, he was not able to finish what he designed, but · perished in the beginnings of his fury. And before his cruel edicts had reached the more • distant provinces, he was slain at a place in Thrace.'

Augustine expressly mentions this among the other heathen persecutions of the Christians, and reckons it the ninth.

Mr. Dodwell supposeth that Aurelian's persecution was only intended, and not put in exe. cution : and indeed Eusebius has so expressed himself about this matter in his Ecclesiastical History, as has occasioned some learned men to hesitate about it. But upon more carefully examining his words, and observing the accounts of other authors, learned men have generally, and, as I think, very judiciously determined, that Aurelian not only intended but did actually persecute; but his persecution was short, he having died soon after the publication of his edicts.

Mr. Mosheim is of opinion, that many Christians did not suffer at this time : but considering Aurelian's cruel temper, and how much he was addicted to the superstitions of Gentilism, he thinks that if he had lived, his persecution would have exceeded all the former persecutions in severity.

The author Of the Deaths of Persécutors before cited, says, that Aurelian provoked God by his cruel proceedings,' and calls his edict cruel, or blood, 'cruenta scripta.'. Possibly that author, who did not live very long after Aurelian, had seen some copies of his edicts: if so, I wish he had inserted in his volume one of them, or only the substance of them ; it would have been esteemed very curious by some in our times. By such neglects, and such want of accuracy, we suffer greatly

CHAP. XXXVII.

PORPHYRY.

I. His time and history, and works. II. A passage, from Eusebius, of Porphyry in his third

book against the Christians, concerning Origen, with Remarks. III. Porphyry's Objections against the book of Daniel, in the twelfth book of his work against the Christians, extracted from Jerom's Commentary upon the book of Daniel. IV. Remarks upon those Objections, and upon the Answers made to them. V. Passages of Porphyry in the fourth book of his works against the Christians, where he acknowledgeth the great Antiquity of Moses. VI. An Objection of Porphyry against the prohibition to eat of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Gen. iii. 5. VII. Passages of Porphyry containing quotations of the books of the N. T. VIII. A Review of his testimony to the Scriptures of the O. and N. T. IX. Passages of Porphyry concerning the Christian religion, and the affairs of Christians. X. Of the work ascribed to Porphyry, and

entitled, The Philosophy from Oracles. I. I

HAVE already observed several things relating to Porphyry in the introduction to the chapter of Celsus; where is a general account of all such heathen authors as had written against the Christians.

nonus a Nerone decerneret, fulmen ante eum magno pavore Intentata enim duntaxat erat ab Aureliano, non item circumstantium ruit ; ac non multo post in itinere occisus executioni mandata. De Paucitate M. sect. Ixiy, in. est. Oros. I. vii. cap. 23.

u Non intentatam modo, sed executioni quoque brevissimo · Aurelianus, qui esset naturâ væsanus et præceps, quamvis tempore mandatam, nobis est infixum in animo, &c. Başnag. captivitatem Valeriani meminisset, tamen, oblitus sceleris ejus ann. 275. n. ii. Et conf. Pagi ann. 272. n. iv-xii

. et 273. ii. et panæ, iram Dei crudelibus factis lacessivit. Verum ille e Aurelianus, qui Claudium excipiebat, A. cclxx. etsi Diis ne perficere quidem quæ cogitaverat licuit; sed protinus inter immodice serviens, et iniqué de Christianis sentiens, nihil initia sui furoris extinctus est. Nondum ad provincias ulte- tamen in eos noxiam per quadriennium moliebatur. Quinto riores cruenta scripta pervenerant; et jam Cænophrurio, qui vero imperii anno, sive propriâ superstitione, sive aliena locus est Thraciæ, cruentus ipse humi jacebat, falsa quadam motus, bellum in eos parabat; quod,' si vixisset, ut crudelis suspicione ab amicis suis interremptus. De M. P. cap. 6. erat, ferocisque ingenii, Deorumque amicis et sacerdotibusque Conf. Eotrop. 1. ix. cap. 15. et Victor. Epit. c. 35.

obnoxius, præteritis atrocius futurum fuisset, &c. Mosh. De Ab Aureliano nonam. De Civ. Dei. I. xviii. cap. 52. Reb. &c. p. 558. VOL. IV.

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Porphyry's history may be collected from his Life written by Eunapius, and from the Life of Plotinus written by himself: however, I refer · also to divers learned moderns, who ought to be consulted by such as are inquisitive.

Porphyry was born at Tyre in Phænicia, as we are assured by himself, and by Libanius and Eunapius, who also says, he was descended from honourable ancestors. It is computed, that he was born in the twelfth year of Alexander Severus, of Christ 233.

His o original name was Meleck, which in the Syriac language signifies King, and with a Latin termination is Malchus: and sometimes he was called in Greek Bugineus King. Longinus, under whoin he studied some time, changed his name into Porphyry, signifying in Greek Purple, which was usually worn by kings and princes.

He was at Rome in the year 253, but made no long stay there. He came thither again in the tenth year of the emperor Gallienus, when he was thirty years of age, as he says ' himself. As the tenth year of that einperor answers to the year of our Lord 262, or 263, it is concluded, that Porphyry was born in the year of Christ 233. At that time Plotinus had a school at Rome; and Porphyry being much taken with him, spent there'six years under his instructions: at the end of which term, as " he says himself, he had a strong propensity to put an end to his own life. Plotinus perceiving it, told him, that thought did not proceed from reason, but from a melancholic disorder, and advised him to leave the city. Whereupon in the year 268 he went into Sicily, where he was in the second year of the emperor Claudius, in the year 270, when Plotinus died in Campania.

How long he staid in Sicily is not certain : but Eunapius says, hek afterwards returned to Rome, where he acquired great fame for his learning and eloquence. Eunapius says likewise, that he' lived to a great age. And Porphyry himself

, in his Life of Plotinus, mentions something which happened to him in the sixty-eighth year of his age; at which time, probably, he was about seventy years old. There can therefore be no reason to doubt, that he reached to the latter part of the reign of Dioclesian, and died, as may be supposed, in the year of Christ 202, or 208. Eunapius supposeth, that" he ended his days at Rome. Suidas says truly, but without much accuracy, that° he lived in the time of Aurelian, and reached to the emperor Dioclesian. Nor is Eunapius much more exact, who speaking of Porphyry, and some others, says, they flourished in the times of Gallienus, Claudius, Tacitus, Aurelian, and Probus.

Porphyry, as Eunapius ' assures us, had a wife named Marcella, a widow with five children, to whom he inscribed one of his books; in which he says, he married her, not for the sake of having children by her himself, but that he might educate the children which she had by her former husband, who was his friend : which shewed a virtuous and generous disposition; nor indeed do we meet with any reflections made upon his conduct of life. Cyril of Alexandria, in his answer to " Julian, makes honourable mention of Marcella, as a woman of a philosophical turn of inind, and for that reason esteemed by Porphyry.

Porphyry is called Bataneotes' by Jerom and 'Chrysostom. Baronius" hence argued, that Porphyry was a Jew, and was so called from Batanea, a city in Palestine: which opinion is re

a Vid. Suid. Voss. de Hist. Græcis. I. ii. cap. 16. Luc. Hol. * Αυλος μεν εν επι την Ρωμην επανηλθε, και της περι λoίoις sten de Vit. et Scriptis Porphyrii. Cav. Η:st. Lit. Pagi in εχειο σπεδης, ωςε παρηει, και εις το δημοσιον κατ' επιδειξιν. Baron. Ann. 262. iv. 263. iii. iv. et alibi. Basnag. ann. 278. Eunap. Porph. p. 19. nii Fabr. Bib. Gr. 1. iv. cap. 27. Tom. iv. p. 160. &c. Γάαινεται δε αφικομενος εις γηρας βαθυ. p. 21. Tillemont. Diocletien. art. 28–31. Hist. des Emp. Tom. iv. m De Vita Plotin. cap. 23.

• Εσχε δε και εμε Πορφυριον, Τυριον ονλα, εν τοις μαλισα * Εν Ρωμη δε λεβείαι μεταλλατίειν τον βιον. Εun. ib. zloupou. Porphyr. Vit. Plotin. cap. vii. p. 107. ap. Fabr. Bib.

γείονως επι των χρονων Αυρηλιανα, και παραθεινας Gr. T. iv p. 107.

έως Διοκλητιανε το βασιλεως. Suid. V. Πορφυριος. • Πορφυρια Τυρος μεν ην πατρις, η πραση των αρχαιων p Eunap. p. 21. Φοινικων η πολις" και πατερες δε εκ ασημαι. Εunap. p. 16. σ Και προς Μαρκελλαν γε, αιτe γυναικα γενομενην, βιβλιον

T8 Tuple yeporlos. Liban. ap. Socrat. H. E. I. iii. φερεται, ην φησιν αλαγεσθαι, και ταυλα εσαν πεντε μητερα τεκνων. cap. 23. p. 196.

2. a. Id. ib. Μαλχος δε κατα την Συρων πολιν ο Πορφυριος εκαλείτο τα Contr. Julian. I. vi. p. 209. πρωθα. Το δε δυναται βασιλεα λεξειν. Πορφυριον δε αυτον • Quod nequaquam intelligens Bataneotes, et sceleratus ille wigace 10570705, E1S TO Baoshomoy TV5 69770s waçaorLOV TTX Porphyrius, &c. Pr. in Comment. in ep. ad Galat. T.iv. p. 223. αυοση οριαν επιτρεψας. Εunap. ib. p. 16.

'' Οι περι Κελσον και τον Βαλανεωλην τον μετ' εκείνον. In '? Vid. Plotin. cap. 4. p. 99.

1 Cor. hom. 6. p.47. T. x. Cap: 5. p. 101.

u Porro eum constat natione Judæum, Bataneæ, quæ est in h Ib. cap. 11. p. 113. Conf. Euap. p. 17.

Judæâ civitas, natum. Hincque est quod S. Hieronymus · Porph. de Vita Plotini. cap. 2. 0.7.

eum Runnentem appellat. Baron, ann. 203, n. li.

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jected by his learned a annotator. Porphyry certainly was a Syrian, as was shewn above from unquestioned authority. Fabricius suspects that Porphyry was born at Batanea, a town in Syria, which might be a colony of the Tyrians. Heuman thought, that Porphyry did not pet his own name to the work against the Christians, but published it under the borrowed and fictitious name of Bataneotes. There are divers other conjectures concerning the original of this appellation, which may be seen in • Lucas Holstenius, and · Tanaquil Faber, and other learned

Which of them is right, or whether any one of them be so, I cannot say. Socrates, in his Ecclesiastical History, represents' Porphyry as originally à Christian : but having been beaten by some Christians at Cæsarea in Palestine, out of resentment and melancholy he was induced to renounce Christianity: and afterwards out of hatred against those by whom he had been beaten, he wrote against the Christians: and he seems to intimate, that Eusebius had said as much. But nothing of that kind is now to be found in Eusebius: nor do the words of Socrates clearly import that Eusebius had said so. Augustine too has been referred to as confirming this account: but, as Tillemont" has observed, the connection of the discourse shews, that Augustine intended no more, than that this philosopher was too proud to embrace Christianity. Heuman' also has considered this story, and rejects it as a mere fable.

If Porphyry had ever been a Christian, it was a thing too remarkable not to have been often and expressly mentioned by Christian authors, who have had occasion to speak of him: and he would have been frequently called an apostate as well as Julian.

Porphyry, as cited by * Eusebius, speaks of his having in his youth seen Origen. Some have hence argued, that Porphyry went to Alexandria to see Origen: and it is expressly said by: Vincentius Lirinensis. But it must be a inistake; for Origen left Alexandria before Porphyry was born, having removed thence" in the year 231. But Porphyry may have seen Origen at Cæsarea, or Tyre, where he resided a good while after he had left Alexandria.

Mill, in his Prolegomena, a work which one would not suspect to have been written in haste, calls Porphyry" Origen's schoolfellow. Indeed Eunapius makes mention of an Origen whomo he so calls; but it is not our Origen. That Origen published but two books only, as we learn from Porphyry himself in the Life of Plotinus ; which cannot suit so voluminous an author as our Origen. Moreover Porphyry, in the place where he speaks of his having seen Origen, acknowledgeth, that he was then in great repute among the Christians.

Divers other erroneous and groundless opinions concerning Porphyry have been entertained by some learned moderns : which may be seen confuted in Pagi, and other authors, referred to by me at the beginning of this chapter.

Porphyry's works were very numerous: there is a large catalogue of them in Suidas, though not complete; his defects are supplied by Fabricius and Lucas Holstenius. I shall mention but a few of them.

Beside that inscribed to Marcella already mentioned, and his Life of Plotinus, he wrote Of Abstinence from Animals, ' in four books, still extant.

A Philosophical History, or History of Philosophers, also in four books, quoted several times

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· Pagi ann. 302. n. viii.

H. E. I. vi. c. 19. p. 219. C. Suspicor patriam veram ejus fuisse Bataneam, oppidum | Namque impius ille Porphyrius excitum se famâ ipsius Syriæ, -Tyriorum forte coloniam. Bib. Gr. T.iv. p. 181. Alexandriam fere puerum perrexisse, ibique eum vidisse, jam © Heuman. Poe. seu Epist. Miscell. T. iii. p. 251.

senem, sed plane talem tantumque, qui arcem totius scientiae d De Vita Porph. cap. 4.

condidisset. "Vinc. Lir. Coinm. cap. 23. p. 343. Baluz. 1669. • Fab. Ep. 1. ep. 64.

m See Vol. i. p. 522. * Εκεινος μεν γαρ σπληνας εν Καισαρεια της Παλαιστινης υπο Sub hoc tempore, seu etiam aliquanto post, Origenis conτινων Χριςιανων ειληφως, και μη ενείκων την ορίην, εκ μελα/χο- discipulus, Porphyrius, libros quosdam adversus Christianos λιας τον μεν Χριστιανισμον απελειπε. Μισει δε των τυπίησανίων

edidit. Prol. num. 702. αυθον, εις το βλασφημα κατα των Χριστιανων γραφειν εξεπεσεν, Συμφοιτηθαι μεν εν (ως αυλος αναίραφει) κραιιςι τινες ως αυλον Ευσεβιος ο Παμφιλου εξελεύξεν, ανασκευάσας τας λοίες υπηρχον, Ωριμενης τε, και Αμελιος, και Ακυλινος. Εunap. vit. avis, Socr. I. iii. c. 23. p. 200.

Porph. p. 19. & Quam (sapientiam) si vere ac fideliter amasses, Christum p Vit. Plotin. cap. 2. Dei virtutem et Dei sapientiam cognovisses, nec ab ejus salu- 9 Concerning this point may be seen Vales. Ann. in Euseb. berrimâ humilitate, tumore inflatus vanæ scientiæ, resiluisses. 1. vi. c. 19. p. 120. et Fabr. de Vit. Plotini. Bib. Gr. T. iv. De Civ. Dei. 1. x. cap. 28. h Diocletien. art. 28.

'Ilepi atomTS Elyurwy. 8. Suid. Ubi supr. Epist. Miscell. T. iii. p. 53. &c.

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p. 97. in notis.

by Cyril of Alexandria in his work against Julian : mentioned also by "Socrates in his Ecclesiastical History. From Eunapius we know, that it concluded with the Life of Plato.

And, probably, in the first book of that work was the Life of Pythagoras, which we now have, but not complete.

Against the Christians in fifteen books: but there is nothing of this work remaining excepting some fragments, which it is incumbent on me to collect out of several authors in which they are to be found. He was answered by Methodius, Eusebius of Cæsarea, and Apollinarius of Laodicea in Syria. All which confutations of this adversary of the Christians are entirely lost.

They were all very prolix, as appears from Jerom's accounts of them. That of Methodius consisted of ten thousand lines ; Eusebius's of twenty books, or more ; Apollinarius's thirty books : and the twenty-sixth book, which was taken up in answering Porphyry's objections against the book of Daniel, was very long.

It is generally supposed, that Porphyry's work against the Christians was written in Sicily, as is intimated by · Eusebius, and 'Jerom. And by Cave, Porphyry is placed as flourishing in the

year 270, where I also plac: him; and I do so partly out of regard to Suidas, who, as before seen, says he flourished in the time of Aurelian; whose reign commenced before the end of the year 270. Porphyry was then almost forty years of age; at that time he was in Sicily: but I do not recollect any thing that should determine the exact time when he published his work against the Christians; for he might reside in Sicily some while: nor is there any remaining evidence, that immediately after coming into that island he set about this work. But we know that it was answered by Methodius, who 8 is supposed to have suffered martyrdom in the year of Christ 311 or 312, near the end of Dioclesian's persecution, if not sooner. Eusebius flourished from the year 315, and after ; but when his confutation of Porphyry was published cannot be said exactly: I think it " was one of his first works, and might be published before he was bishop. Porphyry's long stay in Sicily was so well known, or so much talked of, that. Augustine seems to have thought it to be his native country.

Socrates, the ecclesiastical historian, has preserved a letter of Constantine, written soon after the council of Nice, which was held in 325.

It is to this purpose : • Ask Arius has imitated the • impious and profane, it is but just, that he should undergo the same infamy with them. As • therefore Porphyry, that enemy of true piety, has received a fit reward for his impious writings

against religion; so that he is made infamous to all future times, and covered with reproach, • and his impious writings have been destroyed : so now it is decreed, that Arius and his fol: • lowers should be called Porphyrians, that they may bear the denomination of those whom

they have imitated. And if any writing of Arias is found, it should be burnt.' And what follows.

From which I think it may be concluded, that before that time there had been an order for destroying all the books of Porphyry against the Christian religion. But that edict had not its full effect: for Apollinarius, who wrote so voluminous a confutation of Porphyry, did not flourish till after the middle of the fourth century: and Libanius, who lived at the same time, was ' pleased to give a preference to Julian's work against the Christians to that of Porphyry, the Tyrian old man,' as he calls him. Which implies a supposition, that he had read what Porphyry

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Πορφυριος μεν γαρ τα κοροφαιολαλα των φιλοσοφων Σωκραίες Apollinarius quoque uno grandi libro, hoc est, vicesimo τον βιον διεσυρεν εν τη γείραμμενη αυτω φιλοσοφω ισορια. . sexto, &c. Præf. in Dan. T. iii. p. 1071. Socr. I. iii. c. 23. p. 197, D.

e H. E. I. vi. cap. 19. p. 219. Την φιλοσοφον ισοριαν, και τας των φιλοσοφων αναίων βιες,

{ De V. I. cap. 81. ο Πορφυριος και Σωθιων ανελεξαν7ο αλλ' ο μεν Πορφυριος, εσω & See Vol. ii. p. 100. συμζαν, εις Πλαίωνα εθελευτα, και τες εκείν8 χρονες. Εunap. Pr. " See Vol. ii. p. 357, 358. • Καλα Χρισιανων λοίες με. Suid.

quia quidam philosophi eorum, sicut in libris suis d See a passage before cited from Jerom, in the general Porphyrius Siculus prodidit, &c. De Consensu Evang. 1. i. account of the early adversaries of the Christians, p. 111, to cap. 15. T. iii. p. 2. which I now add here some others.

-præsertim quia nonnullas earum a Porphyrio philo-et contra Porphyrium, qui eodem tempore scribebat in sopho propositas dixit. Sed non eum esse arbitror PorphySiciliâ, ut quidam putant, libri triginta ; de quibus ad me vi- rium Siculum illum, cujus celeberrima est fama. Retract. ginti tantum pervenerunt. Hieron. de V. I. cap. 81.

1. ii. cap. 31. Tom. i. Extant ejus [Apollinar. Laod.) adversus Porphyrium triginta

Socr. l. i.

сар. .

ix. libri, qui inter cætera opera ejus vel maxime probantur. | Vid. Socrat. H. E. I. iji. cap. 23. in. Id. de V. I. cap. 104.

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had written upon that subject, or at least that it was then extant. And Jerom, in his works written in the latter part of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth century, has made large extracts out of some parts of that work of Porphyry. Finally, there was a new edict * of Theodosius the younger in 449, for abolishing the works of Porphyry: which affords reason to believe, that they subsisted, and were in being, till that time.

There is another work which is now generally ascribed to Porphyry, and is quoted as bis by Eusebius in his Evangelical Preparation and Demonstration. It is entitled, * Of the Philo. • sophy from Oracles." I formerly declared my opinion concerning it, that it is not genuine: before we conclude this chapter we shall have occasion to speak more distinctly about that work.

II. The first passage of Porphyry which I shall transcribe, will be taken from Eusebius; who, in the sixth book

of his Ecclesiastical History, speaking of Origen, says, that many of the Greek philosophers, who were his contemporaries, had made honourable mention of him, and some had dedicated books to him. • But,' as he adds, what need I to insist on them, when

Porphyry, who in our time, whilst he was in Sicily, wrote against us, and endeavoured to dis• parage our scriptures, speaking of those who had interpreted them, for want of arguments be• takes himself to railing, and reviles those interpreters, and among them especially Origen;

whom, as he says, when he was young, he was acquainted with. But let us hear his own words, • which are these: “Some,” says he, “ determined not to see the depravity of the Jewish scrip“tures, but to find out a solution of objections that may be brought against them, have adopted • forced interpretations, inconsistent in themselves, and unsuitable to those writings, and such as s should not only be a vindication of those absurdities, but afford likewise a recommendation of • their own particular opinions. For having given out, that the things delivered plainly by Moses • are types and allegories, and pretending that those writings are inspired, and to be looked upon

as oracles full of hidden mysteries; and having by this means captivated the judgments of men,

they with a critical pride and vanity set forth their expositions.” And afterwards' as he goes • on: “ An example of this absurd method may be observed in a man, whom I saw when I was

very young, who was then in great esteem, and is so still, for the writings which he has left • behind him: I mean Origen, whose authority is very great with the teachers of this doctrine. • For he being a hearer of Ammonius, who was so eminent in our time for skill in philosophy, • in point of learning made great improvements by the instructions of that master, but with • regard to the right way of life took a quite different course with him. For Ammonius, a . Christian by birth, and brought up by Christian parents, as soon as he was arrived to matu

rity of age, and had gained a taste of philosophy, returned to the way of life prescribed by * the laws. But Origen, a Greek, and educated in the Greek sentiment, went over to the • barbarian temerity; to which he devoted himself, and corrupted himself, and the principles

of literature which he had received: as to his life, living as a Christian, and contrary to the • laws: with regard to his sentiments concerning things, and the Deity, a Greek, and joining • Greek sentiments with their absurd fables : for he was very conversant with Plato, and Nu

menius, and Cronius, as well as with the writings of Apollophanes and Longinus, as also of • Moderatus and Nicomachus, and other learned Pythagoreans. He also read the works of the • Stoic Chæremon, and of Cornutus. When he had learned from them the allegorical method * of explaining the Greek mysteries, he applied it to the Jewish scriptures.” So writes Porphyry in the third book of his work against the Christianis.'

Upon this passage we may make a few remarks.

1. Eusebius supposeth, that Porphyry's book against the Christians was written in Sicily. The same is intimated by : Jerom. a See before, p. 111. Περι της εκ λοιων φιλοσοφιας. . Ακροαίης γαρ 81ος Αμμωνια- -εις μεν την των λοίων € Vol. ii. p. 361.

εμπειριαν, σύλλην παρα τα διδασκαλε την ωφελειαν εκζησαίο: * Olε και ο καθ' ημας εν Σικελια καθαρας,Πορφυριος,συ/γραμ- εις δε την ορθην τε βια προαιρεσιν την ενανιαν εκεινα τα βια μαθα καθ' ημων ενσησαμενος. κ. λ. Η. Ε. 1. vi. c. 19. p. 219. σορειαν εποιησαίο. Αμμωνιος μεν γαρ -ευθυς προς την καλα

• Της δε μοχθηριας των Ιεδαϊκων γραφων εκ αποφασιν, λυσιν νομες πολίτειαν μελεξαλείο. Ωριμενης δε, Ελλην εν Ελλησι, δε τινες ευρειν προθυμηθεύλες, επ' εξηδησεις ειραποντο ασυκλωσες παιδευθεις λοξοις προς το βαρβαρον εξωκειλε τολμημα ο δε και αναρμονες τους γείραμμενους: εκ απολούιαν μαλλον υπερ φερων αυτον τε και την εν τοις λοξοις έξιν εκαπηλευσε' καλα μεν των oθνειων, παραδοχην δε και επαινον τους οικείοις φερεσας. τον βιον, χριςιανας ζων, και παρα: ομως: καλα δε τας περι των Αινιμαία γαρ τα φανερως παρα Μωύσει λείομενα είναι κομπα- πραίμαίων, και το θεε δοξας, ελληιζων τε και τα 'Ελληνων σαντες, και επιθειασανίες ως θεσπισμαλα αληρη κρυφιων μυστηριων, τοις οθνείοις υποβαλλόμενος μυθοις. Ιb. p. 220. δια τε τα τυφε το κρίλικον της ψυχης καταβοήθευσανίες, επαίεσιν et contra Porphyrium, qui eodem tempore scriiebat εξηγησεις. Ιb. p. 219, 220.

in Sicilia. De V. I. cap. 81.

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