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• to the torture. If you cannot persuade them by fair means, you must use force, to make them
• bring all to you.'
7. I now take a letter to the Alexandrians, concerning. Athanasius.

• It was certainly very
• fit, that a man, who had been banished by repeated edicts of several emperors, should wait
• at least for one imperial edict, before he returned home ; and not audaciously insult the laws,
as if they were all extinct : forasmuch as even now we have not granted to the Galileans ba-
nished by the blessed Constantius, a return to their churches, but to their countries; but I
• hear, that the audacious Athanasius, behaving with his usual insolence, has seized on the
• episcopal throne, as they call it ; and that this is not a little grievous to the pious people of
• Alexandria : wherefore we command him to depart from the city on the day he receives our
letter. If he stays in the city, we warn him of a severer punishment.'

Athanasius had been once banished by Constantine, twice by Constantius; to which Julian here refers. Nor did he make use of the liberty to return granted by Julian, till after the death of George; when, as it seems, he was disagreeable to the heathen people of Alexandria, whom Julian calls pious. Julian here says, that he had not given leave to the banished bishops to return to their sees, or churches, but only to their countries. I should have thought, that his edict had included a return to both. And this explication seems to be evasive, and, perhaps, now first thought of from particular enmity to Athanasius.

8. The Catholic Christians at Alexandria wrote to Julian, as in the name of the city, requesting him to revoke his order against Athanasius, by a new edict; which he answered in the following letter to the Alexandrians. • He says, the distempered part of them had taken upon them

selves the name of the city. By the gods, ye men of Alexandria, I am ashamed that any • Alexandrian should acknowledge himself to be a Galilean. He tells them, that Alexander, * the Ptolomies, and other princes, their founders and patrons, were worshippers of the gods : : and had not raised their city and constitution to its grandeur by the words of Jesus, nor by

the doctrine of the hateful Galileans. —None of those gods do you worship; but Jesus, whom • neither you nor your fathers have seen, him you think to be God the Word,' John i. · Him you prefer to the great sun, who has so long enlightened and blessed the world. You


do • well to hearken to me, who, till I was twenty years of age, went in the same way ; but now • for twelve years I have been a worshipper of the gods. If you hearken to my admonitions, it * will be for your benefit : however, if you will still follow the instruction and su of

knavish men, agree among yourselves, and no longer desire Athanasius : there are disciples enough of his to please “ your itching ears," who want such impious discourses, 2 Tim. iv. 3. • I wish this wickedness were confined to Athanasius and his impious school ; but you have

among you a multitude of such people. And you may take notice, that whereas before I s banished Athanasius out of Alexandria, I now banish him out of all Egypt.'

9. In a letter to Ecditius, præfect of Egypt, he says : • Though you write to me about * no other matters, you should, however, have written to me about that enemy of the gods, · Athanasius : especially, when you know what I have rightly determined. I swear by the great

Serapis, if Athanasius does not depart from the city, or rather from all Egypt, before the first day of December next, the cohort under you shall be fined a hundred pounds of gold. You know how backward I am to condemn, and that I am still more backward to forgive those who have been once condemned. [And in his own hand xem ty aule xeipi.] It concerns me ex* tremely, that all the gods are despised. I desire not to hear so much of any service of yours, * as that you have expelled the wicked Athanasius out of Egypt, who, under my government, • has been so audacious as to persuade Greek women, wives of illustrious men, to receive bap• tism.'

10. Surely this, and the other letters, relating to Athanasius, shew that Julian did not prac. tise that indulgence and moderation toward the Christians which he sometimes boasted of; for no fault is alleged against Athanasius, except that he was an enemy of the gods,' and made converts to Christianity from among the Gentiles.

11. However, there is another letter of Julian, which seems to be written with better temper. It is inscribed to the people of Byzantium, or Constantinople. But Bletterie " suspects

• Ep. xxvi. p. 398,


1 Ep. li. p. 432.

Ep. vi. p. 376.

d Lettres choisies de l'Emp. Jalien. p. 371, &c.

the inscription to be false, and that it was not sent to the people of Byzantium, but of some other place, whose name had some resemblance, and has been mistaken by the transcriber.

We have restored to you all your senators and patricians, whether they are Galileans, or otherwise exempted from that charge. However, perhaps, that was not a privilege, but rather a burdensome office; the terms of the letter seem to lead to that sense; and Bletterie may be again consulted.

12. We have a letter of Julian to Arsacius, high-priest of Galatia ; which is also inserted by Sozomenat length in his Ecclesiastical History. I take a good part of it.

• Ifa Hellenism does not prosper according to our wish, it is the fault of those who profess it-Why do we not look to that which has been the principal cause of the augmentation of impiety, humanity to strangers, care in burying the dead, and that'sanctity of fife, of which they make such a show; all which things I will have to be really practised by our people. It

is not sufficient that you are unblameable yourself; all the priests in Galatia ought to be so • likewise. I will therefore, that you persuade, and even compel all the priests in Galatia to live • soberly; otherwise do you depose them from the priestly office, unless they and their wives,

and children, and servants, do religiously worship the gods: and also forbear to converse with • the servants, children, and wives of the Galileans, who are impious toward the gods, and prefer

impiety to religion. You are likewise to order them, not to frequent the theatre, nor to drink • in taverns, nor to exercise any mean and sordid employments. Such as hearken to your direc{ tions you are to encourage ; others you are to reject. You are also to erect hospitals in every

city, that strangers also may share in our humanity: and not only those of our own religion, but others likewise, if they are necessitous.' • He then tells him what allowances he had made • for that purpose.

For, says he, it is a shame, when there are no beggars among the Jews, and the impious Galileans relieve not only their own people, but ours also, that our poor

should • be neglected by us, and be left helpless and destitute.'

13. There is a long fragment of some oration or epistle,' in which Julian gives many direc- : tions for regulating the behaviour and studies of heathen priests, and recommends humanity, and near the end, particularly, a regard to the poor, where he says: “This & ought to be carefully • attended to, as what may be a good remedy for the present disorder. For it having so hap

pened, as I suppose, that the poor were neglected by our priests, the impious Galileans ob• serving this, have addicted themselves to this kind of humanity; and by the show of such good • offices have recoinmended the worst of things. For beginning with their love-feasts, and the • “ministry of tables," as they call it; Acts vi. 2. •(for not only the name, but the thing also • is common among them :) they have drawn away the faithful to impiety.'

There ends the fragment; but it seems not to be the conclusion of the piece. As it is plainly defective at the beginning, it appears to be so likewise at the end; otherwise we might have had somewhat more, not unworthy of observation.

In that fragment, nearer the beginning,' he says, “ he does not believe any man is the poorer for what he gives to the necessitous. I who have often relieved the poor, have been • rewarded by the gods manifold: though riches is a thing which I never was intent upon.' It

may be hence argued, that the scandalous stories about the Christian worship and manners, which were spread abroad at the first rise of Christianity, were without foundation. Nor were a Ep. xi. p. 380.

pose is the Latin translation of this epistle in Sozomen, made Αρσακιω αρχιερει Γαλαθιας-Εp. xlix. p. 429, &c. by Valesius. Whicb would be commanding every heathen c Sozoin. I. v. c. 16.

priest and his family to become persecutors; which cannot be Ο Ελληνισμος επω τερατλει κατα λοίον ημων, ένεκα των supposed to be probable. Cave, in the Introduction to his uslovlwy autor. If Hellenism does not prosper, &c. That History of the Fathers of the fourth century, p. 34, 'rot suf-. was the style at that time. Hellenism is Heathenism, or Gen- fering their servants, children, or wives, to be Galileans, tilism. And Heathens are called Hellenes, and Hellenists, who are despisers of the gods, and prefer impiety before by our ecclesiastical historians, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theo- religion.' Which cannot be right; for it is a tautology, doret, especially in their history of Julian's reign.

saying over again the same thing which had been said just € And also forbear to converse with, &c. anda aveyourlo before. And yet Bletterie's translation is much to the same των οικείων, η υιεων, η των Γαλιλαιων γαμείων, ασεβενίων purpose : S'ils soufirent dans leur famille de ces impies de μεν εις τας θεές, αθεοληλα δε θεοσεβειας προλιμων/αν. I have Galiléens. attempted a new translation of this place, not being quite sa- Tom. i. p. 288, &c. 8 Ibid. p. 305. tisfied with any other, which I have met with. In Span- h Toν αυίον και αυλοι τροπον αρξαμενοι δια της λειόμενης heim's edition the Latin version is : et ne patiantur servos, aut παρ' αυτοις αιαπης και υποδοχής και διακονιας τραπεζων κ. λ. filios, aut conjuges Galilæorum impie in Deos se gerere, et

p. 305. C. D.

i Ibid. p. 288. C. impietatem pietati præponere. And much to the samne pur

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the Christians now charged with them ; at least Julian never mentions them; and here he cele brates their virtue; however, still their religion was, with him, very bad. But it is somewhat strange that should be the worst impiety which had produced such exemplary humanity, as to be recommended to heathen priests for a pattern of imitation.

14. I may now take a passage or two of Julian, where he exposeth monkery.

In his seventh oration, which is addressed to Heracleas, a cynic philosopher, Julian tells him, that * • the cynics are like that sort of men, whom the impious Galileans call renouncers; many • of whom quitting a small substance, scrape together a great deal, or rather every thing, from all quarters, and arrive at such dignity, as to secure a numerous attendance, and all kinds of respect.'

15. In the fragment of the oration, or epistle, before quoted, he speaks of some people, who left cities, and retired into deserts. Whereas,' says he, .man is a social animal.

over,' as he adds, many of these load themselves with chains and shackles.' The place is obscure; but I think he means Christians, forasmuch as he supposeth them to be men, who had forsaken the immortal and good gods. And in his Misopogon " he speaks of old women lurking about sepulchres.

16. In his letter to the people of Athens, he mentions Epictetus, a bishop of Gaul, whomi Constantius had sent to him. În a fragment of an epistle, he speaks of bishops and presbyters of the Galileans.

17. In his Misopogon,' a satire upon the people of Antioch, in which he says what he pleaseth, both of himself and them, are these following things which may be taken notice of. "I

suppose, says he, ‘ you are very happy, because you have renounced all kinds of ser• vitude, first to the gods, then to the laws, and lastly to me, who am the guardian of the laws.'

And soon after : · But it is said, that Chi and Kappa never did the city any harm : it is • hard to know the meaning of this wise riddle of yours : but by some interpreters of your city, a we have been informed they are initial letters of names, the one denoting Christ, the other « Constantius.'

• But you love Christ, and esteem him the tutelar patron of your city, instead of Jupiter • and Apollo of Daphne. Many of you, it seems, I have offended, in a manner all of you,

the senate, the rich, the people. The greatest part of the people, or rather the whole of them, « are offended with me, because they are in love with impiety, and they see that I embrace and . adhere to the religion of my ancestors.'

• You * say, I wage war with Chi, and you admire Kappa.'

Omitting some other things, Julian' went on a feast day to pay his homage to the temple of Apollo at Daphne, in the neighbourhood of Antioch: but there were neither people nor sacrifices; the priest had only a small victim of his own preparing. Of this Julian complains grievously, that so large a city had not provided some bulls for a sacrifice on that solemnity: You * ought,' says he, to have sacrificed both privately and publickly. But you let your wives carry away every thing to the Galileans; and they maintain the poor with your goods, and so bring • their impiety into esteem.'

It is hence apparent, that Christianity was now the prevailing religion at Antioch.

18. I am disposed to conclude my accounts and extracts of Julian's Orations and Epistles, with a translation of his epistle to the people of Bostra, the chief city in Arabia, of which some notice was taken long ago :" and before I do that, I am led to recite an article of Sozomen,

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απολακτινας τινας ονομαζεσι οι δυσσεβεις Γαλιλαιοι: P. 337, &c. & Ibid. p. 356. D. τελων οι πλειές μικρα πρoεμενοι, πολλα πανυ, μαλλον δε τα h Το Χι, φησιν, 8δεν ηδικησε την πολιν, εδε Καππα. κ. λ. σανία πανταχοθεν συκομιζασι: και προσην, οιμαι, το τιμασθαι, Ιb. p. 357. Α. και δορυφορεισθαι, και θεραπευεσθαι. Ιbid. Οr. vii. p. 224. Β. Χριςον δε ααπωνίες εχετε κολιεχον αυτι Διος, και το

- ηδη δε και δεσμα, και κλοιες εξευρον οι πολλοι τουλων. Δαφναι8.- -Ελυπησα δ' εξω- -υμων μεντοι πολλές, και ολιδα Ούτω πανταχόθεν αυτες ο κακος συνελαυνει δαιμων, ω δεδωκασιν δεω φαναι σανίας, την βελην, τες ευπορος, τον δημoν. Ο μεν έκοντες εαυτους αποσανίες των αϊδιων και σωληρων θεων. κ. λ. γαρ δημος αχθεται μοι τω πλεισω μερει, μαλλον δ' απας

αθεοληλα προελομενος, ότι τοις πατριοις όρα της αιστειας θεσμους • Τοις περί τις ταφες καλινδουμενοις γραϊδιοις συνεχώρησαν. w pobxei p.svoy. Ibid. p. 357. C. D. Misop. p. 344. A.

* Και ότι πολεμω τω Χι, ποθος' δε υμας εισεισι το Καππα. 4 Αλλ' Επικληλον τινα των Γαλλιων επισκοπον επεμψεν. Ιbid. p. 36ο. D. ' Ibid. p. 362. Ad. I. P. 2. Athen. p. 286. C.

Πρεπειν δ οιμαι, τη πολει θυειν ιδια και δημοσια. νυνι δε * Οι μεν των Γαλιλαιων ισως επισκοποι και πρεσβυθεροι υμων έκαςος επίτρεπει μεν τη γυναικι πανία εκφερειν ενδοθεν συ/καθιζοσι σοι. Εp. xii. p. 450. C.

εις της Γαλιλαιες. κ. λ. p. 363. Α. • Vol. i. p. 146.

p: 288. B.


representing the state of things in the time of that emperor. Sozomen, though sometimes rather too credulous of miracles, was a lawyer, and a man of good understanding and great moderation : and therefore his testimony must deserve a good deal of regard, he being less partial than some others. He was born in Palestine, and wrote his Ecclesiastical History at Constantinople about the year 440. • This emperor,

says Sozomen, hearing that Athanasius held assemblies in the church of the Alexandrians, and that he boldly taught the people, and brought over many Greeks for • Gentiles] to Christianity, ordered him to leave Alexandria: threatening him with a severe pe

nalty if he did not go away: pretending this as a crime, that whereas he had been banished by * former princes, he had without his authority again taken possession of the episcopal chair ; forasmuch as he had not granted leave for the bishops, who had been banished by Constantius, to return to their churches, but only to their country. When in obedience to this order of • the emperor he left Alexandria, and the people were in tears, he said: “ It is only a small

cloud, which will soon pass away.”And,' says Sozomen, though the emperor was deter* mined by all means to restore Hellenism, he judged it imprudent to compel men by punish«ments to sacrifice against their will; for he knew that compulsion was of no avail in things " which depended upon men's free choice. Nevertheless, he would not permit them to meet • together, and offer the usual prayers. Therefore he took care to banish the clergy and

presidents out of cities, intending by their absence to abolish the assemblies of the people, when ! there were none to teach them, nor perform the accustomed rites, that in length of time the • memory of their worship should be lost. His pretence for doing so was, that the clergy excited

the people to sedition. Under this pretence he banished Eleusius and his friends from Cyzicum, 6 though there was no sedition there, nor any reason to apprehend it: and he required, that the

people of Bostra should, by a public decree, send away from their city, Titus bishop of their • church: for, when he had threatened, that if any disturbance happened there, he should im* pute it to the bishop and his clergy, Titus thereupon sent a letter to the emperor, assuring • him, that the Christians of Bostra were equal in number to the Greeks (or Gentiles] and that s they were very quiet, and that paying a regard to his admonitions, they had no thought of making any disturbance. From those words Julian took occasion to write a letter to the

people of Bostra, in order to incense them against Titus, as having accused them, saying: It • was not owing to their own good temper, but to his exhortations, that they were kept from . sedition. Thus exciting the people to expel him out of their city as a public enemy. And it . is likely, that there were many such things, partly owing to the command of the emperor, and

partly to the violence and petulance of the people. But the whole fault of all is to be ascribed • to the emperor himself, who neglected to punish, according to the laws, those who out of • hatred to our religion transgressed in these respects; seemingly reproving them in words, but

by his actions really exciting them to such irregularities. Therefore though he did not openly • persecute, yet the Christians were banished from cities and villages : of this, as many others of

my ancestors, so particularly my grandfather was an instance. His father was a Gentile ; but • he and the whole family were converted to Christianity by Hilarion ; and they were the first • Christians at Bethelia, a populous village near Gaza.' So writes Sozomen, with great discretion and judgment, as seems to me.

I now proceed to the letter or edict abovementioned. • Julian to the people of Bostra.'

• Io imagined, that the presidents of the Galileans would acknowledge themselves to be • under greater obligations to me than to my predecessor : for in his reign many of them were • banished, persecuted, imprisoned: and many of those who are called heretics were put to · death, particularly at Samosata, and Cyzicum in Paphlagonia, in Bithynia, in Galatia, and • other places, where many villages were plundered and utterly ruined. In my time it has been • quite otherwise: for they who had been banished are permitted to return home; and all their

goods that had been confiscated have been restored by a law of mine. Nevertheless, because * they have now no longer power to tyrannize over any, nor to practise their usual violences upon one another, nor upon us the pious worshippers of the gods, they are become furious, and a Soz. I. v. cap. 15.

οι Χριςιανοι" ταύτης δε της φυσης μελεσχον πολλοι των εμων προ• Οθεν και μη διωκογλος αυθε, καλα πολεις και κωμας εφευλον Γονων, και ο εμος παππος, κ. λ. p. 617. Α.

c Ep. 52. p. 435, &c.

• try every method to raise seditions and disturbances among the people. In which they shew • themselves void of fear toward the gods, and of respect to our edicts, though full of moderation • and humanity : for we suffer not any of them to be dragget to the altars against their own * choice. And we openly declare, that if any are desirous to partake in our worship, they must • first of all offer sacrifices of expiation, and so reconcile themselves to the gods : .so far are we “ from desiring, that any of the impious should communicate with us, till they have purified their • souls by prayers to the gods, and their bodies by the appointed expiations. It is plain there

fore, that the clergy mislead the people for no other reason, but because they are not suffered * to lord it over others. For they who have been hitherto accustomed to tyrannize over others, • are not satisfied that they have obtained forgiveness of past crimes; they would still, as for• merly, act as judges, make testaments, and appropriate estates to their own use, and bring ' every thing to themselves : for this reason they blow up the fire of sedition among the people. • Wherefore we by this edict declare, and make known to all people, that they join not the

clergy in seditions, nor be persuaded by them to throw stones, nor to disobey the magistrates, • but to be contented with saying their prayers among themselves in their own assemblies. This • edict is particularly addressed to the city of the Bostrenes; because their bishop Titus, and his • clergy, in a petition sent to me, have accused their people as ready to raise disturbances if not • restrained by their admonitions. I insert here their own words : “ though the Christians are • equal in number to the Gentiles, they are so restrained by our admonitions, that they are not • at all inclined to make any disturbances.” These are your bishop's words concerning you: see; • how he says, your good order proceeds not from your own mind; and that you have been una

willingly restrained by his admonitions. Therefore do you willingly, and of your own accord, • expel him out of your city as your accuser. Do you live in concord with each other : let no

one be an enemy, or injurious to another. Let not them who are in error disturb those who rightly and justly worship the gods, according to the tradition handed down to us from ancient • time. Nor let the servants of the gods disturb or pillage the houses of those, who err more , through ignorance than choice. Men ought to be persuaded and taught by reason, not by • blows, reproaches, and corporal punishments: I therefore again and again, and often exhort • those who embrace the true religion, not to abuse nor insult the Galileans. We ought to pity * rather than to hate men, who suffer the greatest calamity : for indeed true religion is the 'greatest good, and, on the contrary, impiety is the greatest of evils : which calamity they

bring upon themselves, who forsaking the immortal gods, betake themselves to dead men and • their relics. With those who are sick we sympathize: and we rejoice with them who obtain

deliverance from the gods. Given at Antioch the first day of August.' That is, in the year of Christ 962.

From this edict, as well as from other things, it appears, that Julian was very fond of Hels Jenism, or heathenism: and Sozomen's observations above mentioned appear to be very pertinent: Julian was very ready to lay hold of every pretence, and to improve every occasion, to rid him. self of the presidents of Christian churches, especially such as had an influence with the people, Here we see three instances of this in Athanasius of Alexandria, Eleusius of Cyzicum, and Titus of Bostra; all of them men of great distinction.

Julian here makes repeated professions of moderation and equity toward the Christians; but the letter bears witness against him. Titus was one of the most learned men of the age : his people were peaceable, and he had exhorted them to be so: and yet Julian commands his people to expel him out of their city; under a pretence, that his exhortations to a peaceable behaviour implied an accusation of an unpeaceable temper. I add no more.

The extracts now made are sufficient to cast some light upon the circumstances and state of things in the time of Julian; and to shew the real temper of that emperor, and that he was intent upon extirpating Christianity, and with the greatest dispatch. He was a man of great ingenuity, sobriety of manners, and good natured in himself: but his zeal for the religion which he had embraced was excessive, and degenerated into bigotry and superstition ; insomuch, that with all his pretensions to right reason, and all his professions of humanity, moderation, tenderness, and equity, he has not escaped the just imputation of being a persecutor:

I cannot but think, that a review of the history of this person, of shining abilities and high station, may lead us to some serious reflections : particularly it holds out to us this humbling and useful admonition : « Let him that thinks he stands take heed lest he fall.” 1 Cor. x. 12,

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