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• substance,' which caused so much disturbance among Christians of the fourth century. Thirdly, we plainly see, that the Arians rendered themselves ridiculous, and exposed the Christian religion, by the multitude of their synods in this a reign. Nor were the heathen people only, but the catholicks likewise, concerned for the poor post-horses: as appears from a passage of Hilary observed by Valesius in his notes upon this place of Ammianus. I shall also transcribe below a part of the conference at Milan, between Liberius and the emperor Constantius, and Eusebius his great chamberlain, as it stands in * Theodoret. Fourthly, the design of these councils was impertinent, namely, to bring all Christians to an agreement in some words and phrases, which were the invention of a vain and eager curiosity; when it was sufficient for Christians to agree in the main things of religion. Lastly, take away the additions of human invention, and Christians might agree, and be of one mind: which is a very desirable thing, and is the command and earnest request of Christ and his apostles : but till that is done, unity is in vain expected, and Christianity will be reproached.

4. In the year 355 Constantius made Julian Cæsar, and sent him into Gaul. «Whend he came to Vienne, he was received with great rejoicings. And,' says Ammianus, ' at that time • an old woman, who had lost her sight, asked, who it was that was then making his entrance • into the city; and being informed that it was Julian the Cæsar, she cried out : “ This man • will repair the temples of the gods:”:

5. Ammianus gives this account of Julian's dissimulation of his real sentiments, even after he was declared emperor and Augustus by the soldiers at Paris, and after he had accepted of those titles. It is in the history of affairs at the beginning of the year 361. Julian was then marching toward Constantinople, and was got as far as Vienne in Gaul.

In the mean time,' says Ammianus, making no alteration in the present state of things, * but with a sedate and composed mind disposing matters according as incidents led him, and by

degrees confirming his authority, that the increase of his power might be proportionable to the • increase of his dignity. And that he might secure the affections of all, he pretended to be • still a Christian, though he had for some good while before secretly forsaken that religion, and * practised soothsaying, and augury, and other things, which are always performed by the wor• shippers of the gods. But those things were done privately, and were known to a very few only, * who were acquainted with all his secrets. And that this change might be still concealed for a · while, on a holiday, which the Christians keep in the month of January, and call the Epiphany, • he went to their church, and publicly worshipped the Deity according to their custom.'

By Zonaras the same story is told in this manner: Though' Julian had long since renounced Christianity, fearing the soldiers, whom he knew to be almost all Christians, the better to cover • his wickedness, he gave leave to all to follow their own religious rites. And on the day of our • Saviour's nativity he went to church and worshipped, that he might seem to agree with the 'soldiers.' Zonaras calls that our Saviour's nativity,' which Ammianus calls 'the Epiphany." They mean the same day, the sixth of January, on which many Christians in the East celebrated both our Saviour's nativity and baptism.

6. He gives this account of Julian's conduct in matters of religion, after the death of Constantius, and after his entrance into Constantinople.

a Some notice was taken of their numerous creeds and sy- ponens, paullatimque se corroborans, ut dignitatis augmento nods formerly, Vol. ii. p. 308, 309. Where also this same virium quoque congruerent incrementa. Utque onines, nullo passage of Aminianus is quoted.

impediente, ad sui favorem illiceret, adhærere cultui Christiano • Cursusque ipse publicus attritus ad nihilum reducitur. fingebat, a quo jam pridem occulte desciverat, arcanorum Hilar. Fragmentum iii. p. 1320. C. Paris. 1693.

participibus paucis, haruspicinæ, auguriisque intentus, et • Επικληλος επισκοπος ειπεν. Ana' ó Scougs TWY Oqpoolwy cæteris, quæ Deorum semper fecere cultores. Et ut hæc εχ υποσησεται την χρειαν της των επισκοπων παροδε. Λίξεριος interim celarentur, feriarum die, quem celebrantes mense 8 χρειαν εχει τα εκκλησιαστικα δημοσια δρομά. κ. λ. Theod. Januario Christiani Epiphaniam dictitant, progressus in eorum 1. ii. cap. 16. p. 94. B.

ecclesiam, solemniter numine orato discessit. L. xxi. cap. 2. d Cumque Viennam venisset, ingredientem optatum qui- fin. dem et impetrabilem [al. Imperatorem] honorifice suscep- Ηδη δε την εις Χριςον εξομοσαμενος αισιν, ευλαβεί7ο δια tura omnis ætas concurrebat et dignitasTunc anus quæ- τελο της τραίιωίας, ειδως σχεδον ξυμπανίας Χριστιανος ονίας. dam orba luminibus, cum percontando quinam esset ingres- Διο συσκιαζων την εαυ78 κακιαν, έκαςον εκελευε θρησκευειν ως bus, Julianum Cæsarem comperisset, exclamavit, hunc Đeo- B820110. Aulos de tns yeveda18 T8 Ewirpos quepas EQe5TXDIAS rum templa reparaturum. Id. 1. xv. cap. 8. fin.

εισηλθεν εις τον ναον, και προσκυνήσας, ίν' ομόδοξος τους στρατιωe Agebat itaque nihil interim de statu rerum præsentium las doxn, amadey. Zonar. mutaus, sed animo tranquillo et quieto incidentia cuncta dis


And though from his early youth he had been inclined to the worship of the gods, as he grew up, his affection for it was greatly increased. But being full of fears, he performed only * some of the rites belonging to it, and with the utmost secresy. But when the causes of his • fears were removed, and he found the time was come that he could freely do what he pleased, • he discovered the secrets of his mind; and by plain and express edicts he ordered the temples • to be opened, and sacrifices to be offered in the worship of the gods. And that he might the • better secure the success of his designs, having sent for the disagreeing bishops of the • Christians, together with the divided people, and they being introduced into his palace ; he « told them, that all civil discord being laid aside, every one might practise his own religious - rites without fear or molestation. Which he did with this view, that liberty increasing their • dissensions, he might have nothing to fear from their unanimity among themselves : for he had • observed, that no beasts were so cruel to men, as the generality of Christians are to one another.'

7. Having commended Julian for some alterations for the better in proceedings at law, he adds: · But that was an unmerciful law, and to be for ever buried in silence, which forbade the • Christians to teach grammar or rhetoric.'

He speaks again of this law in his general character of Julian after his death. · His . laws;' he says, “were generally right, and commendable for their plainness and perspicuity, whether • they commanded, or forbade the doing any thing, except a few only. Among which must be

reckoned that unmerciful law, which forbade the Christian professors of rhetoric and grammar • to teach, unless they came over to the worship of the gods.'

Of this we said something formerly in the chapter of Julian, to which place, therefore, the reader is now d referred.

8. Soon after the first of those two passages, he relates the murder of George, the Arian bishop of Alexandria, by the heathen people of that place; which must have happened near the end of the year 362. In this account I may omit some particulars for the sake of brevity. Bye Julian's order, Artemius, duke, or governor of Egypt, had been put to death : this seems to have been very acceptable to the heathen people of that city. • When they heard of that,' as

· Et quamquam a rudimentis pueritive primis inclinationis, Episcopus Alexandriæ est ordinatus, in civitate, quæ erat erga numinum cultum, paullatimque adolescens deside- suopte motu, et ubi causæ non suppetunt, seditionibus crebris rio rei flagrabat, multa metnens tamen agitabat quædam ad agitatur et turbulentis, ut oraculorum quoque loquitur fides. id pertinentia, quantum fieri poterat occultissime." Ubi vero, His efferatis hominum mentibus Georgius quoque ipse grave abolitis quæ verebatur, adesse sibi liberum tempus faciundi accesserat incentivum, apud patulas aures Constantii multos quæ vellet, advertit, sui pectoris patefecit arcana ; et planis exinde incusans, ut ejus recalcitrantes imperiis : professionisque absolutisque decretis aperiri templa, arisque hostias admoveri suæ oblitus, quæ nihil nisi justum suadet et lene, ad delato. ad Deorum statuit cultum. Utque dispositorum roboraret ef- FUF: ausa feralia desciscebat- -Ad hæc mala id quoque ad. fectum, dissidentes Christianorum Antistites cum plebe dise diderat, unde paullo post trusus est in exitium præceps. Recissâ in Palatium intromissos monebat, ut, civilibus discordiis versus ex comitatu Principis, cum transiret per speciosum consopitis, quisque nullo vetante religioni suæ serviret intrepi- Genii templum, multitudine stipatus ex more, Hexis ad ædem dus. Quod agebat ideo obstinate, ut, dissensiones augente ipsam luminibus. ' Quamdiu,' inquit, 'sepulcrum hoc stabit ?' licentiâ, non timeret unanimantem postea plebem : nullas Quo audito, velut fulmine multi perculsi, metuentesque ne infestas hominibus bestias, ut sunt sibi ferales plerique Chris- illud quoque tentaret evertere, quidquid poterant, in ejus pertianorum, expertus. L. xxi. cap. 5.

niciem clandestinis insidiis concitabant. Ecce autem repente b Post multa enim etiam jura quædam corresit in melius, perlato lætabili nuntio, indicante exstinctum Artemium, plebs ambagibus circumcisis, indicantia liquide, quid juberent fieri, omnis elata gaudio insperato vocibus horrendis infrendens, vel vetarent. Illud autem erat iuclemens, obruendum pe- Georgium petit : raptimque diversis mulcandi generibus renni silentio, quod arcebat docere magistros rhetoricos et proterens et conculcans : divaricatis pedibus-Quo non grammaticos, ritûs Christiani cultores. Lib. xxii. cap. 10. fin. contenta multitudo immanis dilaniata cadavera peremptorum

Namque et jura condidit non molesta, absolute quædam camelis imposita vexit ad litus : iisdemque subdito igne crejubentia fieri, vel arcentia, præter pauca. Inter quæ erat illud matis, cineres projecit in mare, id metuens, ut clamabat, ne, inclemens, quod docere vetuit magistros grammaticos Christi- collectis supremis, ædes illis exstruerentur, ut reliquis, qui anos, ni transissent ad numinum cultum. Lib. xxv. cap. 5. deviare a religione compulsi, pertulere cruciabiles pænas, d See before, p. 320.

adusque gloriosam mortem intemeratâ fide progressi, et nunc Of Artemius may be seen Theodoret. H. E. 1. iii. cap. 18. Martyres appellantur. Poterantque miserandi homines ad And compare Basnag. Ann. 362. num. xi.

crudele supplicium ducti, Christianorum adjumento defendi, Cumque tempus interstetisset exiguum, Alexandrini Ar- ni Georgii odio omnes indiscrete flagrabant. Hoc comperto, temii comperto interitu, quem verebantur, ne cum potestate Imperator ad vindicandum facinus nefandum erectus, jamque

reversus (id enim minatus est) multos læderet ut offensus, expetiturus pænas a noxiis ultimas, mitigatus est lenientibus iram in Georgium verterunt Episcopum, vipereis, ut ita dix- proximis. Missoque edicto, acri oratione scelus detestabatur erim, morsibus ab eo sæpius appetiti. In fullonio natus, ut admissum, minatus extrema, si deinde tentatum fuerit aliquid, terebatur, apud Epiphaniam Ciliciæ oppidum, auctusque in quod justitia vetet et leges. lib. xxii. cap. 11. damna complurium, contra utilitatem suam, reique commu

Ammianus says, they turned their rage against George the bishop, who had often abused • them, and, as I may say, with a viperous malice: a man born, as it is said, in a fulling mill at * Epiphania, a town in Cilicia, and who had grown great to the ruin of many: and at length, • neither for his own, nor for the public good, was ordained bishop of Alexandria, a place, as is * well known, very apt to go into sedition. To those turbulent and exasperated spirits George • himself added fuel, often accusing people to Constantius, whose ears were too open to such • things, as disaffected to his government. Thus forgetting the office of his profession, which • recommends nothing but justice and lenity, he went into the vile methods of informers• To all these provocations he added this also, which soon -hastened his ruin. Being returned • home from the imperial court, as he was passing by the beautiful temple of Genius, accom* panied with a numerous attendance, as usual, turning his eyes to the temple itself, “ How • long,” says he, “ shall this sepulchre stand ?" Being greatly enraged, they fell upon George, • and some others, and killed them. The mad multitude, not content with that, took the

mangled bodies of those whom they had killed, and placing them upon the backs of camels, * they carried them to the sea-side ; and having burnt them, threw the ashes into the sea, lest, • as they said, if their relics were gathered up, they should have temples built to their honour, • as had been done for others; who, when required to renounce their religion, had suffered the • most cruel torments, and even a most glorious death, with unshaken constancy, and are now * called martyrs. Those unhappy men, who were thus destroyed, might have been saved with * the assistance of the Christians, (meaning, I suppose, the catholics, friends of Athanasius ;] • but that all in general, without exception, were filled with hatred of George. The emperor, * when he heard of this transaction, was much provoked, and intended to inflict an exemplary * punishment: but his displeasure was moderated by those who were about him. Whereupon he • sent an edict to the Alexandrians, severely reproving them for this outrage, and threatening * the heaviest penalties, if they should again do any thing contrary to justice and the laws.'

Of this transaction we took some notice before, in the life of Julian, and observed, that the letter, or edict, here mentioned, as sent upon this occasion, is still extant: however, I have thought it best to bring up this story again as related by Ammianus.

And upon this account of our heathen author, we may observe, that Ammianus knew very well, that the office of a Christian bishop taught him nothing but justice and lenity.' Farther, he was acquainted with the sufferings of Christians in former times: and though they are here mentioned by the by only, if I do not misunderstand him, he appears to have had a high opinion of their fidelity and fortitude, in patiently enduring the most exquisite tortures, rather than do any thing contrary to the conviction of their own minds: and he esteemed their death • glorious,' and honourable to themselves.

It seems to me very probable, that if we still had remaining the first books of this work of Ammianus, which are now irrecoverably lost, we should have seen many things relating to Christian affairs, that would have been instructive and entertaining.

Whilst Julian was at Antioch, in his way to the Persian war, the temple of Apollo at Daphne, near that city, was suddenly burnt down on the 22d day of October 362. • By which sudden • and terrible accident, says Ammianus, the emperor's displeasure was greatly raised; so that he • commanded a more than ordinary strict inquiry to be made by tortures into the cause of it, . and ordered the great church at Antioch to be shut up. For he suspected, that the Christians • out of envy had set fire to the temple, because it was surrounded by a magnificent coo lonnade.'

10. The passage to be next taken would be this author's account of Julian's design to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem : but that has been already quoted in the chapter of Julian, and nothing farther needs to be now said about it.

11. Of Jovian, who succeeded Julian, Ammianus says, he was a zealous Christian.

· P. 343.

b Eodem tempore die xi. Kalend. jorem ecclesiam Antiochiæ claudi. Suspicabatur enim id Novembrium amplissimum Daphnæi Apollinis fanum, quod Christianos egisse stimulatos invidiâ, quod idem templum Epiphanes Antiochus Rex ille condidit iracundus et sævus, inviti videbant ambitioso circumdari peristylio. L. xxii. cap. et simulacrum in eo Olympiaci Jovis imitamenti æquiparans 13.

c See above. p. 325. magnitudinem, subitâ vi flammarum exustum est. Quo tam

& Christianæ legis idem studiosus L. xxv. cap. 10. atroci casu repente consumpto, ad id usque Imperatorem ira sub fin. provexit, ut quæstiones agitari juberet solito acriores, et ma


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12: Liberius; bishop of Rome, before mentioned, having died in September 366, the third year of Valentinian and Valens, there was a warm contention for his place between Damasus and Ursinus, who was deacon in that church. Ammianus speaks of this matter at the year 367.

• Damasus' and Ursinus,' says he, heated with an extravagant ambition for the episcopal seat, were so fierce in their contention, that on each side the quarrel proceeded to wounds, and • even to death. Juventjus [præfect of Rome] not being able to stop, nor to compose the dif• ference, was compelled to retire into the suburbs. Damasus overcame in the contest, the party ' that was with him prevailing. It is certain, that in the basilick of Sicinninus, where was an ' assembly of the Christians, an hundred and seven and thirty were killed in one day : and it was a good while before the exasperated multitude were brought to good temper. Nor do I deny, considering the pomp and wealth of the city, that they who are desirous of such things, * are in the right to contend with all their might for what they are fond of: since having obtained

it, they are sure of being enriched with the offerings of matrons, and will ride in chariots, and • be delicately clad, and may make profuse entertainments, surpassing the tables of princes, But they might be happy indeed, if despising the grandeur of the city, which they allege as an excuse for their luxury, they would imitate the life of some country bishops, who by their temperance in eating and drinking, by the plainness of their habit, and the modesty of their . whole behaviour, approve themselves to the eternal Deity, and his true worshippers, as men of. • virtue and piety.

Under the year 368 he greatly commends Prætextatus, who had succeeded Juventius as præfect of Rome, and says, that by his wisdom and good conduct the disturbance was composed • which the quarrels of the Christians had occasioned, and Ursinus having been banished, tran, quillity was restored.'

What Ammianus here writes is very true: Damasus was bishop of Rome after Liberius : and Socrates says, that in the contention between Damasus and Ursinus many were killed.' And he observes, that the ground of the contention was not any heresy, or difference of opinion, but

only which of them should be bishop.' And Sozomen, in the very words of Ammianus, says, • this contention proceeded to wounds and death.'

It is plain from Ammianus, that at that time the bishops of Rome lived in great splendour, and that this contention about the bishopric was a scandalous thing. There were, however, some country bishops, who not having the temptation of riches, were humble and modest, as became their profession. In short, it was the opinion of Ammianus, that a man may be a good bishop without being rich; and that piety and modesty do more recommend religion, than a great deal of state and splendour. Once more, in the opinion of this heathen author, a Christian bishop who despises grandeur, may be a more happy man, than he who enjoys the grandeur even of the city of Rome, is enriched with the presents of ladies, rides in a coach, is delicately clad, and is able to give more than princely entertainments.

13. As we have seen in Ammianus some notice taken of the splendour of the bishops of Rome at that time, I may add a short story from Jerom concerning Prætextatus, just mentioned, who was a very eminent man, and was well acquainted with Damasus, and, as may be supposed, saw how he lived. Jerom then tells us, that Prætextatus, in conversation with Damasus, would

Damasus et Ursinus, supra humanum modum ad rapi- quos tenuitas edendi potandique parcissime, vilitas etiam induendam Episcopatûs sedem ardentes, scissis studiis asperrime mentorum, et supercilia humum spectantia, perpetuo numini. conflictabantur, adusque mortis vulnerumque discrimina ad- verisque ejus cultoribus ut puros commendant et verecundos.. jumentis utriusque progressis : quæ nec corrigere sufficiens L. xxvii. cap. 3. fin. Juventius nec mollire, coactus vi magnâ secessit in suburba- Cujus auctoritate justisque veritatis suffragiis tumultus num. Et in concertatione superaverat Damasus, parte quæ lenito, quem Christianorum jurgia concitârunt, pulsoque ei favebat instante. Constatque in basilicâ Sicionini, ubi ritûs Ursino, alta quies parta, proposito civium Romanorum ap-Christiani est conventiculum, uno die centum triginta septem

tissima. Lib. xxvii. cap. 9. reperta cadavera peremptorum ; efferatamque dio plebem • Ερασιαζον προς εαυτες, και δια τινα εισιν η αίρεσιν, ægre postea delenitam. Neque ego abnuo, ostentationem αλλα σερι το μονον τις οφειλει το επισκοπικό μονο εύκρατης. rerum considerans urbanarum, bujus rei cupidos ob impetrai)- yeyeofas.' Socrat. H. E. l. iv. cap. 29. dum quod appetunt, omni contentione laterum jurgari debere: « Ως μεχρι και τραυματων και φονων το κακον προελθειν.. cum, id adepti, futuri sint ita securi, uit ditentur oblationibus Soz. I. vi. cap. 23.

ap. 666. D. matronarum, procedantqae vehiculis insidentes, circumspecte * Miserabilis Prætextatus, qui designatus Consul est mortuus. vestiti, epulas curantes profusas, adeo ut eoruin convivia Homo sacrilegus, et idolorum cultor, solebat ludens beato. regales superent mensas. Qui esse poterant beati reverâ, si, Papæ Damaso dicere : • Facile me Romanæ Urbis Epis: magnitudine Urbis despectâ, quam vitiis opponunt, ad imi- copum, et ero protinus Christianus.' Hieron. Ep. 38. ila. talionem Antistitum quorumdam provincialium viverent ; 61. Ton. iv. p. 310. fin.


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says he.

• sonttimes pleasantly say to him: “ Make me bishop of Rome, and I will presently be a • Christian."

14. Ammianus relates several cruelties of Valentinian: as Christianity is mentioned in some of them, I am likewise obliged to observe these passages. Among his cruelties, as • that were much observed, this is one. Diodorus, who had been his steward, and three serjeants • of the vicar of the præfect of Italy, were cruelly put to death by him upon the complaint of a

certain count, whom Diodorus had judicially summoned to appear before the vicar, and to ' whom the serjeants, by orders of the vicar, had delivered the summons.

Whose memory,' says Ammianus, “ is still honoured by the Christians at Milan, who call the place where they were • buried, The Innocents. Then also in the case of one Maxentius, when, on account of a sen* tence legally pronounced, he ordered the officers of three towns to be put to death. Whereupon

Eupraxius, the quæstor, interceded in this manner : “ Be more moderate, O most pious of

princes: for they whom you command to be put to death as guilty, the Christian religion reve• renceth as martyrs, that is, men acceptable to the Deity.

15. Ammianus speaks afterwards of another cruelty of Valentinian, in putting to death a presbyter of the Christian religion upon account of Octavianus, formerly proconsul: but the passage is defective, some words being wanting. It is supposed by Valesius, in his notes upon Ammianus, to be the same thing which is inserted by Jerom in his Chronicle at the year of Christ 372, who says: • In this year a presbyter of Sirmium was most unjustly beheaded, be• cause he did not discover Octavianus, formerly proconsul, who lay concealed at his house.'

16. In his character of Valentinian, at the end of his reign, Ammianus says : * Lastly d he was remarkable for the moderation of his government, that he stood neuter between all the di? versities of religion, and was troublesome to none, nor did he require any to follow either this,

or that. Nor did he strive by severe edicts to bend the necks of his subjects to his own way of * worship, but left matters untouched in the condition he found them.'

Socrates says, “thato Valentinian was favourable to the men of his own opinion, [meaning • the Homoüsians) without being troublesome to the Arians.' Which is very true. But the observation of Ammianus is more extensive, including moderation toward Hellenists, as well as Christians. An instance of this may be hereafter taken notice of by us from Zosimus,' and perhaps from some other writers also.

Having alleged the principal passages of Ammianus, I shall now put down some others, though out of the order of time, as being of some use.

17. In the affairs of Gallus Cæsar, in the reign of Constantius, at the year 553, he speaks of one Maras, & a deacon, as the Christians call it.

18. Silvanus, master of the horse to Constantius, who had performed many services for him, and for his father Constantine, fell under suspicion of disaffection to the government: whereby he was in a manner obliged, for his own safety, to rebel, and take the imperial purple at Cologne, where he then was, in the year 355. • The soldiers of Ursicinus got into that city, and killed *the guards, and soon after Silvanus himself,' Ammianus says, as he was fleeing to a conventicle of the Christians. That was the end of Silvanus, in about a month after he had assumed the title of emperor.

• Eminuit tamen per id tempus inter alias humilium neces, ex proconsule apud se latitantem prodere noluisset. Hieron. mors Dioclis, ex Coinite Largitionum Illyrici, quem ob de- Chr. p. 187. licta levia flammis jussit exuri : et Diodori ex Agente in d Postremo hoc moderamine principatûs sui inclaruit, quod rebus, triumque Apparitorum potestatis Vicariæ per Italiam, inter religionem diversitates medius stetit, nec quemquam inob id necatoruin atrociter, quod apud eum ques!os est Comes, quietavit, neque ut hoc coleretur imperavit, aut illud; riec Diodorum quidem adversus se civiliter implorâsse juris aux- interdictis minacibus subjectorum cervicem ad id quod ipse ilium, officiales vero jussu judicis ausos movere proficiscentem, coluit inclinabat, sed intemeratas reliquit has partes, ut ut responderet ex lege. Quorum memoriam apud Medio- reperit. Lib. xxx. cap. 9. lanum colentes nunc usque Christiani, locum ubi sepulti sunt, • Socr. l. iv. c. 1. p. 211. B.

f Zos. I. iv, sub in. • Ad Innocentes' appellant. Dein cum in negotio Maxentii

Maras quidam nomine inductus est (ut appellant cujusdam Pannonii ob exsecutionem recte maturari præcep- Christiani) diaconus. L. xiv. cap. 9. tam trium oppidorum ordines mactari jussisset, interpellavit Firmato itaque negotio per sequestres quosdam gregarios, Eupraxius tunc Quæstor: et, ' Parcius,' inquit, 'agito, piissime obscuritate ipsâ ad id patrandum idoneos, præmiorum exspec

principum. Hos enim, quos interfici tamquam noxios jubes, tatione accensos, solis ortu jam rutilo subitus armatorum glout Martyras, id est, Divinitati acceptos, colit religio Chris- bus erupit : atque ut solet in dubiis rebiis audentior, cæsis tiana.' Lib. xxvii. cap. 7.

custodibus, regià penetratâ, Sylvanum, extractum ædiculâ, 6 Episoten aliquem ritûs Christiani Pre byterum-tum quo exanimatus confugerat, ad conventiculum ritûs Christiani Octavianum ex proconsule-offensarum auctore, licet tar- tendentem, densis gladiorum icuibus trucidârunt. Lib. xv. dius ad sua redire permisso. Amm. 1. xxix. c. 3. p. 614. cap. 5. p. 92.

. Presbyter Sirmii nequissime decollatur, quod Octavianum

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