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19. When Sapor, king of Persia, had gained some advantages over the Romans, in the time of Constantius, and had taken some virgins, after the Christian manner devoted to God,' as Ammianus says, “ he gave orders that no man should hurt them, and that they should be
permitted to perform their religious worship in their own way, without molestation.' 20.
Heb also speaks of a bishop of the Christian law, in a castle besieged by Sapor, who • went out to the king to persuade him to desist from his design upon the place. But he was sus
pected of informing the king where the castle was weakest, and might be attacked to the best • advantage.'
21. In the beginning of the reign of Valentinian, · Apronianus præfect of Rome con• demned a person to death for the practice of some magical arts. But the executioner,' as Ammianus says, losing his hold, the criminal fled to a chapel of the Christian rite; but being pre• sently taken thence, had his head cut off.'
22. In the year 367, or 368, in the tiine of Valentinian, ' a German prince, d named Rando, surprised the city of Mentz, then without a garrison. And,' as Ammianus says, ' finding the * people engaged in celebrating a feast of the Christian rite, he plundered the place, and • carried off without resistance the people of both sexes, and of every condition, with all their • effects.' 23. 6
Palladius, notary, or secretary of state, had been taken up by order of Valentinian for some offences. And, says Ammianus, · sensible of his guilt, early in the evening, when his • keepers were absent, being gone to spend the night in a neighbouring church on a festival of • the Christian rite, he hanged himself.' Tillemont' thinks it might be the eve of Easter in 374.
24. I have now transcribed a great deal from Ammianus : nevertheles I hope not too much.. Many of the passages are important, as well as entertaining : some are curious. If any others are less material, they are still of some use: they serve to shew, that Christian people were then of some consequence. A heathen historian, writing of public affairs, could not decline to take notice of them; and for the most part he speaks civilly of them, and with marks of moderation.
· Inventas tamen alias quoque virgines Christiano ritu cul- -Denique. -Hilarinum aurigam convictum atque contui divino sacratas, custodiri intactas, et religioni servire solito fessum---capitali animadversione damnavit; qui, laxius more, nullo vetante, præcepit. Lib. xviii. cap. 10. fin. retinente carnifice, subito lapsus confugit ad ritûs Christiani
b Verum secuto die otio communi adsensu post ærumnas sacrarium, abstractusque exinde illico abscissâ cervice conmultiplices attributo, cum magnus terror circumsisteret muros, sumptus est. L. xxvi. cap. 3. p. 488. Persæque paria formidarent; Christianæ legis Antistes exire se d Sub idem fere tempus Valentiniano ad expeditionem caute velle gestibus ostendebat et nutu : acceptâque fide, quod redire ut rebatur profecto, Alemannus regulus, Rando nomine, diu permitteretur incolumis, adusque tentoria Regis accessit. Ubi præstruens quod cogitabat, Moguntiacum præsidiis vacuum datâ copiâ dicendi quæ vellet, suadebat placido sermone dis- cum expeditis ad latrocinandum latenter irrepsit. Et quoniam cedere Persas ad sua.- -Sed perstabat incassum hæc mul. casu Christiani ritûs invenit celebrari solennitatem, imprætaque similia disserendo, efferatâ vesaniâ Regis obstante, non pedite cujusquemodi fortunæ virile et muliebre secus cum ante castrorum excidium digredi pertinaciter adjurantis. Per- supellectili non parvâ indefensum abduxit. L. xxvii. cap. 10. strinxit tamen suspicio vana quædam, Episcopum, ut opinor, licet asseveratione vulgatâ multorum, quod clandestino col- e His literis ad Comitatum missis et lectis, Valentiniani loquio Saporem docuerat, quæ mænium appeteret membra, jussu Meterius raptus suam esse confitetur epistolam : ideoque ut fragilia intrinsecus et invalida. L. xx. cap. 7.
Palladius exhiberi præceptus, cogitans quas criminum coxerit - Dum hæc in Oriente volubiles fatorum explicant sortes, moles, in statione primis tenebris observatâ custodum absentiâ, Apronianus, regens Urbem æternam, judex integer et se- qui festo die Christiani ritûs in Ecclesiâ pernoctabant, innodato verus, inter curaruın præcipua, quibus hæc Præfectura sæpe gutture laquei nexibus interiit. Lib. xxviii. cap. 6. p. 593. solicitatur, id primum operâ curabat enixâ, ut veneficos, qui See L'Emp. Valentinien, art. xxvii. Tom. v. p. 196. tunc rarescebant, captos, indicatis consciis, morte multaret,
Flavius VEGETIUS RENATUS * wrote a treatise in five books, of the Art of War, dedicated to an emperor, by whose order it was composed. In most copies it is inscribed to Valentinian the Second; though some think, it was rather dedicated to Theodosius the First. Fabriciusb is inclined to think him a Christian. As that is only a doubtful point, I suppose I ought to quote him among heathen writers, and at the year 390, which is some while before the death of Valentinian the Second, and five years before the death of Theodosius.
He gives this account of the oath taken at that time by soldiers, when enlisted into the legions : They swear,' says he, by God, and by Christ, and by the Holy Spirit, and by the • emperor's majesty, who is to be loved and honoured by mankind in the next place after God.?
I. His time and works. II. Extracts from his history of the Roman Emperors. III. Extracts from his Lives of the Sophists and Philosophers. IV. Remarks upon the foregoing Extracts.
1. Eunapius “ was a native of Sardis in Lydia. He came from Asia to Athens, when he was about sixteen years of age, in the year of Christ 363 or 364, and ' therefore not till after the death of Julian: when likewise Proæresius, the Christian sophist, was returned to his chair, and had resumed his lectures. Under that celebrated sophist Eunapius & studied five years. He wrote a book with this title, The Lives of Philosophers and Sophists, which was not finished till near the end of the fourth century: for which reason I place him at the year 396. In that work he speaks of his having written the History of the Roman Emperors, and that he should write the same history again: that history, in the second edition of it, reached to the year 404, as it began in the year 268, with the reign of Claudius the second, who succeeded Gallienus. This may suffice for the history of this writer and his works.
II. I begin my extracts with the History of the emperors, of which we have remaining some fragments only. Photius, in his Bibliotheque, gives this account of it: We have read,' says he, the Chronical History of Eunapius, in the new edition, in fourteen books. He begins his history with the reign of Claudius, where Dexippus's history concludes; and he ends with the reigns of Honorius and Arcadius, sons of Theodosius, about the time that the wife of Arcadius • died (meaning Eudoxia.] This Eunapius was of Sardis in Lydia. Aso to religion he is impious, and a great admirer of the Greek customs. In his history he asperseth those who * adorned the empire by their piety, and especially the great Constantine. But he commends • the impious, and above all the rest Julian the apostate: so that he seems to have written his
a Fabric. Bib. Lat. L. iii. cap. 12. T. i. P. 616. Tillem. H. Emp. Théodos. i. art. 92.
• Fl. Vegetius Renatus videtur fuisse Christianus. Fabr. Bib. Lat. T. iii. p. 132. Hamb. 1722.
• Jurant autem per Deum, et per Christuin, et per Spiritum Sanctum, et per Majestatem Imperatoris, quæ secundum Deum generi humano diligenda esi et colenda. Veget. Institutio Rei Militaris. 1. ii. c. 5. Quemadmodum Legio constituatur.
Nec multo hoc junior Eunapius fuit. Nam Valentiniani, Valentis, et Gratiani temporibus vixit : sophista, idem medicus, ac historicus insignis, magni illius Proæresii discipulus,
affinis nobilis sophistæ Chrysanthii ; quippe qui Eunapii cone
Il quitta l'Asie, et vint à Athènes âgé de 16 ans, au mois d'Octobre, vers le temps de Julien, mais apparemment, lorsqu'il étoit mort, et que Proérèse avoit repris ses leçons. Ainsi c'étoit en 363 ou 364. Tillem. ubi supr.
8 See Eunapius, as before, note e.
history with the view of making an encomium upon him.' [He then commends his style, making however some exceptions.) • He composed two works containing the same history, the .. first and the second. In the first he has inserted many blasphemies against our holy Christian
religion, and extols the Greek superstition, and often reproacheth the pious emperors. But in * the second, which he also calls a new edition, he omits a great deal of the reproachful language, which he had before uttered against our religion. Nevertheless he has still left sufficient marks of his enmity to us.' So wrote Photius in the ninth century.
If that work of Eunapius were now extant, undoubtedly we should find in it a good deal of railing. But the loss of it is the less regretted by those learned men who have a curiosity to know what he had said, because it is supposed that · Zosimus has copied a good deal out of him, and moreover we shall see a good deal of the temper of Eunapius in his Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists, which remain.
III. To that work therefore I now proceed. And I intend to take those passages which contain any express mention of the Christians, or any material references to their affairs; in which will be many proofs of that zeal for Gentilism, which Photius observed in his history of the emperors.
1. This work begins with the life of Plotinus. The next is that of Porphyry. After whom follows Jamblichus, then Ædesius, in all three and twenty.
2. In his life of Ædesius, who was a Cappadocian, he writes to this purpose : At' length,' says he, ' Ædesius became little inferior to his master Jamblichus, setting aside the inspiration • which belonged to Jamblichus. For of that I have nothing to write, perhaps, because • Ædesius concealed it, by reason of the times. For then Constantine was emperor, who threw down the most celebrated temples, and set up the structures of the Christians. For this • reason it is likely the chief of his scholars,' that is of the scholars of Jamblichus, "might affect . a kind of mysterious silence, and priestly taciturnity. Whence it came to pass that the writer • of this, who from his youth was a scholar of Chrysanthius, spent wellnigh twenty years with • him before he was acquainted with the true doctrine. So difficult a matter has it been to bring • down to our time the philosophy of Jamblichus.'
3. After which he proceeds, in the same life, to give an account of the death of Sopater, another celebrated Platonic philosopher, who attended on Constantine, as Eunapius says, “to & .check and govern by reason the warm temper of that emperor, and who was for a considerable
* Ανεγνωσθη Ευναπια χρονικης Ισοριας, της μετα Δεξιππον Fabricius seems sometimes to refer to an edition of Eunapius νεας εκδοσεως-Ph. P. 169.
made by himself. Porphyrii vitam composuit e veteribus Eu-' Avrdéons de Try Agnonay wv, To 'Eaarwy yap etium. napius, ad quem nonnulla annotavi. Bib. Gr. Tom. 1. p. 181. Τας μεν ευσεβεια την βασιλειαν κοσμησαντας, σαντι τροπω, But from the learned Reimar, de Vita et scriptis J. A. Fa. και ανεδην κακιζαν διασυρει, και μαλισα γε τον μεγαν Κων- bricii. p. 209, we learn, that, though Fabricius had begun an Σαντινον. p. 169. m. c Ibid.
edition of this author, it was never finished. Eunapii vitæ Impulsu hujus Chrysanthii scripsit de Vitis Sophistarum Philosophorum ac Sophistarum Collatæ cum vi. Codd. MSS. opus elegans ac venustum ; sed in quo passim prodat, quam a Marquardo Gudio, Græce et Latine, cum notis FabriciiChristiano nomini fuerit infestus. Idem res gestas Cæsarum, Tria hujus folia usque ad p. 48. typis exscripta, sunt in 8. esinde orsus, ubi desierat Herodianus, ad sua usque tempora sed typographo moras nectente, quarum vel maxime inproduxit Eo ex opere solum de Legationibus fragmentum, patiens erat vir excitati ingenii, editionem abrupit, nec beneficio Andreæ Schotti, lucem vidit. Reliqua extare di- ipsum opus perfecit. I several years ago was informed cuntur in Bibliothecâ Venetâ. Eo autem æquiori animo istis that a learned German, whose name I do not remember, was daremus, quod Zosimum habemus. Nam easdem res Euna- preparing a new edition of Eunapius. In which I make no pius et Zosimus tractârunt, et ita tractârunt, ut Zosimus Eu-. question there would be many valuable improvements. But napium prope descripsisse visus sit. &c. Voss. de Hist. Gr. I have not yet heard that it is finished. I therofore shall refer 1. 2. cap. 18.
to the edition, before mentioned, in 1616. e I know not of any good edition of that work. I have Eunap. Vit. Ædes. p. 33, 34.
Antverpiæ, ex officina Chr. Plantini, 1568; the & Ib. p. 34. m. other, Coloniæ Allobrogum, apud Sam. Crispinum. 1616. J.A.
* time in great favour with him, so as to excite the envy of many of the courtiers. At • length, by Constantine's order, he was put to death. Our author imputes his death to Ablabius, præfect of the prætorium. It is not certain when it happened. Tillemont inclines to the year 333. Nor do we clearly discern what was the occasion of it. I may take some farther notice of this Sopater hereafter in my extracts from · Zosimus.
4. In the same life he speaks of Eustathius, another scholar of Jamblichus, and intimate friend of Ædesius, whom he greatly commends upon divers accounts, and particularly for his eloquence : . Which,' as " he says, ' was so charming, that the emperor [Constantine], though • fond of the books of the Christians, was desirous to see him.'
· Eustathius married Sosipatra, who surpassed her husband, though he was so considerable.' • She left behind her three sons : the names of two of them need not to be mentioned; but the * third, whose name was Antoninus, was not unworthy of his parents.' • He, choosing for the • place of his abode one of the mouths of the Nile, called Canobus, wholly applied himself to the • Iearning there taught, and endeavoured to fulfil his mother's prediction concerning him. And • all the youth of sound judgment, and that were studious of philosophy, resorted to him: and • the temple was full of young priests. At that time he was not accounted more than a man, • and conversed among men. Yet he foretold to all his disciples that, after his death, there ' would be no temples, but that the magnificent and sacred temple of Serapis would be laid in
ruinous heaps, and s that fabulous confusion, and unformed darkness, would tyrannize over the • best parts of the earth. All which things time has brought to pass, and his prediction has • obtained the credit of an oracle.'
Afterwards of the same Antoninus, he says : · But " he made no show of divine converse, nor of any thing above the common apprehensions of men: suspecting, perhaps, the emperor's • inclinations, which lay another way.' But i that there was somewhat divine in him was not * long after made manifest: for he was no sooner departed out of this world but the worship of • the gods at Alexandria was abolished, and the priests were dispersed.' • And not only the sacred worship was abolished: but the sacred fabrics were thrown down; and all things had * the same end with the vanquished giants in the fables of the poets. And k the temples at • Canobus underwent the same fate, Theodosius then reigning, Theophilus presiding over the
affair, Euetius at the same time governor of civil affairs (or præfect,] and Romanus general of * the soldiery: who, having never so much as heard of war, vented all their anger against stones * and statues, and levelled the temple of Serapis to the ground; and rifling away the consecrated . oblations, they gained a complete, though never contested and bloodless, victory. For they • fought so valiantly with statues and consecrated donatives, that they not only overcame them, • but plundered them, and carried them away. And it was a part of their discipline, that what' ever they stole they kept concealed. They only carried not away the foundations of the • temple, by reason of the weight of the stones which rendered them not easy to be removed. • Thus these warlike and courageous champions, overwhelming all things with confusion and • disorder, and lifting up hands to heaven, not stained with blood indeed, but foully defiled with • avarice, gave out that they had overcome the gods, and boasted of their sacrilege and impiety. • Then'they introduced into the sacred places a sort of people called monks, men it is true as to * their outward shape, but in their lives swine, who openly suffered, and did ten thousand, " wicked and abominable things. Nevertheless to them it seemed to be an act of piety to * trample under foot the reverence due to the sacred places. For every one that wore à black 'coat, and was content to make a sordid figure in public, had a right to exercise a tyrannical • authority. Such a reputation for virtue had this sort of men attained. But” of these things I • have already spoken in the Universal History. These monks also were settled at Canobus ; who, instead of deities conceived in our minds, compelled men to worship slaves, and those • not of the better sort neither. For picking up and salting the bones and skulls of those whom • for many crimes justice had put to death, they carried them up and down and shewed them • for gods, and kneeled before them, and lay prostrate at their tombs, covered over with filth • and dust. These were some of them (called martyrs and ministers and intercessors with the gods) slaves that had served dishonestly, and been beaten with whips, and still bore in their corpses the scars of their villanies. And yet the earth brings forth such gods as these. This • highly advanced the reputation of Antoninus's foresight : forasmuch as he had told every body that the temples would be turned into sepulchres.'
a L'Emp. Constantin. sect. 71.
φαινομενην αισθησιν, τας βασιλικας ισως όρμας υφορωμενος b See Tillemont, as before, and Crevier's History, Vol. x. ετερωσε φερεσας. p. 62. p. 169, 170.
ή “Ότι δε ην τι θειοτερον το κατ' αυτόν, εκ εις μακραν απεσηc See here after my extracts from Zosimus, num. 7. μανθη. κ. λ. p. 63. d Vit. des. p. 44. e Ib. p. 48.
* Ibid. p. 63. fin. f Ib. p. 59, 60.
1 Ειτα επεισηγoν τοις ιερούς τόπους της καλεμενες Μοναχος, Και τι μυθωδες και αειδες σκοτος τυραννησει τα επι γης ανθρωπος μεν κατα το ειδος, ο δε βιος αυτοις συωδης, και ες το καλλιςα. κ. λ. p. 60. ηη.
εμφανες επασχόν τε και εποιθή μυρια κακα και αφρασα. κ. λ.. και Απεδείκνυτο μεν γαρ εδεν θεουργον, και παραλογιν ες την Vit. Ædes. 64 et 65,
So writes Eunapius, with great freedom, as all will allow, under a Christian emperor.
The demolition of the temples, which Eunapius here speaks of, was made by order of the emperor Theodosius the first, in the year 389, as some think; or as others o in the year 391. Eunapius says that Theophilus presided in this affair. Which is very agreeable to what Socrates says of Theophilus, then bishop of Alexandria. At his request
At his request the emperor's edict was obtained ; and he was also intrusted with the execution of it. And instead of Euetius, governor of civil affairs,' or præfect of Egypt, it has been observed that · Eunapius should have said. • Euagrius.'
5. In the life of Proæresius he says, “When 'Julian was emperor, being excluded from the schools, because he seemed to be a Christian, he applied to Hierophantes, for the high-priest of Eleusinium] who had a skill of discerning futurity, that he might inquire of the gods ' whether this state of things would last. And understanding that it would not, he was the more easy.'
By Jerom, & in his Chronicle, we are informed that Proæresius was an Athenian sophist : and that when Julian's edict was published, forbidding Christians to teach the polite arts, Proæresius resigned his chair at Athens, though Julian was willing to allow him by a special privilege to continue there.
For certain therefore Proæresius was a Christian. Nor does the expression of Eunapius, • because he seemed to be a Christian,' imply any doubt of it. The truth therefore of his making any inquiry of the gods concerning futurity may be questioned. Tillemont " was of opinion that this story needs not be received.
6. In this place Eunapius tells us that when he was sixteen years of age he came to Athens, and entered himself among the scholars of Proæresius, who loved him as if he had • been his own son. With him Eunapius stayed five years, and then returned to Lydia ; soon • after which Proæresius died,' as may be supposed, in the year 368, when he was about ninetytwo years of age. For when Eunapius came to be with him, he was in the eighty-seventh year of his age. And as Proæresius resigned the chair of rhetoric in the time of Julian, it must be supposed that he resumed it after the death of that emperor, in the year 363, about which time our Eunapius came to Athens, and studied five years under him. There is extant' a letter of Julian to Proæresius, filled with high compliments upon his eloquence. And I would observe here, in favour of Eunapius, that though he was a zealous Gentile, he has once and again spoken very honourably of Proæresius, as a " very amiable, as well as eloquent, man, and in great reputation upon that account. Eunapius, therefore, notwithstanding his bigotry, was not wholly destitute of candour.
7. Chrysanthius, as we have seen above, was one of Eunapius's " masters. He was descended
Μαρτυρες γεν εκαλέντο και διακονοι τινες, και πρεσβεις φικoν τινα τριποδα προς την τε μελλοντος προνοιαν πασι τοις των αιτησεων παρα των θεων. κ. λ. p. 6. ead. vit.
δεομενοις ανακειμενον, σοφια τινι περιήλθε ξενη την προγνωσιν b Vid. Tillem. Theodos. i. art. 51. et note 40. Pagi ann. -Ο δε Προαιρεσιος ηξιωσεν αυτον εκμαθειν σερι των θεων, ει 389, num. xv.
βεβαια μενει τα της φιλανθρωπιας. Ως δε απεφασαν, ο μεν Basnag. ann. 391. num. ix. x. Vid. et Pagi. ann. 389. εγνω το πραχθησομενον, και την ευθυμοτερος. Vita Progres. num. xii,
& Socrat. 1 5.C.. xvi. p. 274. C. Conf. Sozom. 1. 7. c. xv. & Chron. p. 185. Jerom's words are cited Vol, viii. ch.
. Secundo, loco horum verborum : EVETID OE TYY TIGNITIXTY , xlvi. sect. 1. sub fin. ayyy QOZOVTOS, legendum Evaype: ac vertendum, Evagrio " L'Emp. Julien, art. 33. res civiles administrante.' Evagrius itaque non præfectus i Vita Proæres. p. 126.
k Ibid. p. 102. Urbi, ut perperam vertit Junius, sed pra fectus Augustalis, | Julian. Epist. ii. ap. Spanhem. p. 373. &c. Pagi ann. 389. n. xiv.
m Ubi supr. pr 102. et p. 126, 127. et alibi. Ιρλιανα βασιλευοντος, τοπων τα παιδευειν εξειργομενος, o Vit. Chrys. p. 144. εδoκει γαρ ειναι Χριςιανος, συνορων τον Ιεροφαντην ωσπερ Δελ