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bigildas would make no concession, unless Eutropius were taken off, contrary to the privilege • of asylum given to churches, they took him thence, and sent him to Cyprus, to be kept a close • prisoner. Afterwards he was brought thence to Chalcedon, and there put to death : thusa * eluding the oath they had given him, and pretending that they had only promised he should • not die at Constantinople.' So Zosimus.

19. Gainas, a Gothish prince, for some while general under Arcadius, revolted : • And * Gainas,' as Zosimus says, “demanded a conference with Arcadius at a place near Chalcedon, • where was a martyrdom, dedicated to a religious woman, named Euphemia, who had this ho, nour done to her because of her devotion to Christ.

20. Again, of Gainas. He attempted to take the city of Constantinople, in which he had already a great number of Gothish soldiers, but was defeated. This was in the year 400. The city," says Zosimus, . having thus escaped that danger, the barbarians, which were shut within the city, to the number of seven thousand, took_to a church of the Christians near the palace, seeking that as a sanctuary for their safety. But the emperor commanded them to be killed

even there, not allowing that place itself to secure them from the just punishment due to them. * That was the emperor's command: but none dared to lay hands on them to take them thence • for fear of a desperate resistance. It “ was therefore judged proper to break open the roof, - which was over the table called the altar. Which having been done, lighted wood was thrown * down upon them, till they were all burnt to death : by this means all the barbarians were killed. :* But the zealous Christians thought this to be a horrid crime committed in the midst of the ..city.'

21. Gainas fled into Thrace, and then to Chersonesus, with an intention to return through the streights of the Hellespont into Asia. At the same time the emperor and senate, with

common consent, made choice of Frajutus for general to act against him; a man who in regard • to his native country was a barbarian; but in disposition, and manners, and religion, a Greek; • and who had upon divers occasions shewn himself to be a good general. He came to an en

gagement with Gainas, and obtained a victory over him: but for some reasons did not pursue • him; upon which account he was censured, and suspected to favour him as being his coun* tryman. But Frajutus,& not being conscious of any fault, returned to the emperor in high

spirits for the victory which he had obtained, and openly ascribing it to the gods whom he worshipped. For he was not ashamed to own in the presence of the emperor himself, that he wor

shipped and honoured the gods according to the ancient custom, and that he could not persuade • himself to follow the multitude therein. The emperor received Frajutus graciously, and appointed him consul.'

So writes Zosimus. These things were done in the year 400, and Frajutus, or Fravitta, was consul in 401.

But though Gainas escaped then, he afterwards fell into the hands of Uldas, prince of the Huns, as Zosimus proceeds to relate, who fought with him, and overcame him, and slew him, and then sent his head to Arcadius. All' which was done before the end of the year 400.

The history of Gainas, but with somewhat different circumstances, may be seen in our ancient ecclesiastical historians. * Nor is Fravitta or Frajutus omitted by them: they have mentioned him in a very honourable manner. Socrates particularly says, that though he was a Goth by nation,' he was faithful to the Romans, and in that war performed very valuable services, for which reason he was honoured with the consulship in the following year. And Philostorgius

*---σοφιζομενοι τον όρκον οι τα περι βασιλεα διατιθεντες. τοινυν, ηδη πολλαις διαπρεψαντι σρατηγιαις,-- παραδεδωκάσι p. 794. in.

τας δυναμεις --p. 796. • Και προς τοτο δη το βασιλεας ενδοντος, εγινετο μεν η Ουδεντοιοτον εαυτο συνεπιςαμενος, επανγει προς τον βασιλεα, συνοδος εν τινι προ της Χαλκηδονος τοπω, καθ' ον όσιας Ευφημιας μεγα φρονων επι τη νικη, και μετα σαρρησίας τους παρ' αυτά μαρτυριον ωκοδομητο, τιμης δια την περι Χριςον θρησκειαν τιμώμενοις ταυτην ανατίθεις. Ουδε γαρ ησχυνετο, και αυτά τα αξιωθεισης. 1. 5. p. 794, fn. • Ib. p. 796. in.

βασιλεως ακουοντος, ομολογειν, ότι σεξοιτο και τιμαη θεες κατα « Εδοκει τοινυν, την υπερκειμενην της τραπεζης το λεγόμενα τα πατρια, και ουκ ανεξεται κατα τετο τους απο τα αληθες θυσιαςηρια σεγην γυμνωθείσαν. Ιbid.

ακολουθησαι. φραιουτον μεν εν αποδεξαμενος ο βασιλευς, • Εδοξε δε παρα τοις σφοδρα χριστιανιζεσι, μεγα μυσος εν υπατον ειναι κατεσησε. Zos. p. 798. n lb. p. 798, 799. μεση τετολμησθαι τη πολει. Ιbid.

i Vide Basnag. apn. 400. n. iii.-v. * Οντος δε εν τοτοις αυτ8, κοινη ψηφω βασιλευς τε και η Socrat. 1.6. c. 6. Sozom. 1. 8. c. 4. Theod. 1.5. c. 32, 33. γερέσια σρατηγον επι τω κατα Γαινήν αίρονται πολεμω Φραι8τον, Philostοrg. 1. xi. p. 531. ανδρα βαρβαρον μεν το γενος, Ελληνα δε αλλως 8 τροπη μονον, | Socrat. 1. 6. cap. vi. p. 309. αλλα και τη προαιρεσει και τη σερι τα θεια θρησκεια. Τατω

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says, Fravitta · was a Goth by nation, a Greek by religion, faithful to the Romans, and a great general.

May we not then observe that here is an example of moderation and generosity in a Christian emperor, and of fidelity in a heathen general, who were of different sentiments from each other in things of religion ?

22. I shall be now led to transcribe a long passage of this historian concerning the differences between the empress, wife of Arcadius, and John Chrysostom, in the years 408 and 404.

· Hence,' says this heathen historian, " was increased the empress's hatred against John, • bishop of the Christians (at Constantinople,] who was before greatly incensed against him, be.

cause he had been wont to revile her in his homilies delivered in the public assemblies. But at • that time, after the return of John and some others, she openly shewed her resentment. And

doing all things according to her own pleasure, she stirred up all the bishops every where to * remove John; the principal of whom was Theophilus « bishop of Alexandria in Egypt, who • first began the attack upon the temples, and the rites established from the beginning of time. • When the consultation was appointed, and John saw that the cause would not be decided

equitably, he left Constantinople of his own accord. The people being exceedingly disturbed • at this; for he was very skilful in governing the irrational multitude; the city was filled with • confusion, and the church of the Christians was seized by the monks. These are men who • reject lawful marriage, and fill numerous colleges in cities and villages with unmarried men, fit * neither for war nor any other service of the state: except that, increasing in a long course of * time, they have got possession of a large part of the earth, and under pretence of giving all to • the poor, they have reduced almost all mankind to poverty. These men having seized the • churches, obstructed the people from coming to the usual prayers: at which many of the * people, as well as the soldiers, were greatly provoked; and they desired leave to chastise the • audaciousness of those men. Having obtained a grant for that purpose, they set about the work • with a good will, and killed all whom they found without distinction, till they had filled the • church with corpses; and pursuing those who had escaped, they slew all whom they met with • in black coats: by which means many perished who happened to be so dressed, either for • mourning or on some other account. But John returning again, went on in his old way, • making the like disturbances in the city as formerly.' Here are inserted some reflections upon the public management under a weak prince and his imperious wife, governed by eunuchs and

* And as if all these disorders were not sufficient, a terrible calamity befel the city of • Constantinople, which was occasioned in this manner : John, as I said just now, being returned • after his flight, again excited the people in the wonted solemnities of religion against the empress. • But being soon after deprived of the episcopal see, and also banished the city, he took shipping • and went away. At which time they who favoured him, desirous that no other person should • be bishop in his room, resolved to set fire to the city; they therefore threw some combustible • materials into the church privately in the night, and early in the morning left the city; whereby

they were unknown. But when it was day the city appeared to be in the utmost danger, for • the church was all in flames, and at length was burnt down to the ground, as were also the adjoining houses, especially on that side where the wind drove the flames. The fire also seized * the house in which the senate used to meet, which was near the palace, and was adorned with • statues of excellent artifice, and marble of beautiful colours, such as are not now to be found

any where. And it is said that at that time were consumed those images which had been for• merly dedicated to the muses in Helicon, and were a part of the many sacrileges committed in the time of Constantine, and had been set up in this place: whereby was generally intimated general disaffection to the muses which now began to prevail among men.

However, at * that time there happened a kind of miracle which ought not to be buried in silence: for the * temple of the senate, for the sake of which I mention these things, had before the doors of it • the statue of Jupiter and Minerva, standing upon stone pedestals as they do at this time : and

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Πεμπεται γρατηγος κατ' αυτ8 Φρανιτης, Γοτθος μεν το γενος, Ελλην δε την δοξαν, πιςος δ' ον Ρωμαιοις, και τα Woneula aparisos. Philost. 1. xi. p. 531. D.

Żos. 1. v. p. 799, 800. • Εντευθεν ηυξηθη τη συνοικεση των βασιλει το κατα Ιωαννα

τα των Χριστιανων επισκοπ8 μισος, χαλεπαινησης προτερον μεν αυτω, κωμωδειν ειoθοτι κατα τας συνοδες αιτην εν ταις προς το αληθος ομιλιαις. p. 799. fin.

-σαφεςερον πως την καθεξασαν απαντας αμεσιαν JYVUOYTA. p. 801.

d Ibid.

b

year 408.

• they say that of Jupiter is Jupiter Dodonæus, and that of Minerva is the same that was for• merly set up at Lindus. When therefore the temple was consumed by the fire, the lead also • upon the roof was melted, and ran down upon the statues ; and the stones likewise which • could not resist the force of the fire, fell also upon them; till at last, when the beauty of the • building was all turned into a heap of rubbish, it was the common opinion that those two ima*ges were reduced to ashes : but afterwards when the place was cleared and ready to be rebuilt, • the statues of those deities, and they only, appeared, having escaped the universal destruction. • Whicho gave all men of a liberal mind good hopes concerning the city, and that those deities * would ever favour it with their protection. But let that be as God pleaseth.

I have thus largely transcribed this paragraph for more fully shewing the temper of this learned and polite writer.

23. In the year 408, the senate of Rome, with the advice of Stilicho, consented to pay Alarich the Goth four thousand pounds in gold. · However, it was not with the approbation * of all. And in the debates about that matter, as Zosimus says, "Lampadius, one of the

senators, and a man of great eminence for his family and station, said in the Latin tongue: • Non est ista pax, sed pactio servitutis, “ that is not the bond of peace but of slavery.". But ' when the senate was risen, fearing he might suffer for that freedom of speech, he fled to a neighbouring church of the Christians.'

24. We may take this opportunity to observe of Stilicho, that he was much in favour with Theodosius the First, who gave him in marriage his niece Serena, and left him, when he died. in the year 395, the charge of his son Honorius, and under him the care of the empire in the West. Honorius married two of Stilicho's daughters, first one, and after her death the other. He was consul in the years 400 and 405 : but his ruin soon followed after the conclusion of the contract above-mentioned; for he was put to death in the month of August in that same

25. At this time news was brought of the death of Arcadius. Honorius had a mind to go into the East, to secure the empire for young Theodosius: but Stilicho endeavoured to dissuade him from it. • Thus acted Stilicho," says Zosimus, conscious of no misbehaviour, or ill design

against the emperor, or the soldiers. But Olympius, who came from the Euxine sea, and had been advanced to a high military post in the palace, and who, under an appearance of Christian ' piety concealed a great deal of wickedness, and pretended to the emperor a world of candor • and moderation, vented against Stilicho, as the poet expresseth it, words exciting anger: for • he said that Stilicho contrived the taking a journey into the east, with a design to make away * with the young Theodosius, and then secure the empire for his own son Eucherius.?

26. Olympius o being now master of the emperor's counsels, sent imperial letters to the 6 soldiers at Ravenna, ordering Stilicho to be taken into custody, but to be kept at large. When • Stilicho knew that, he went to a church of the Christians which was near at hand in the night • time.-As soon as it was day the soldiers entered into the church, and, in the presence of the • bishop, made oath that they were ordered by the emperor only to take hiin into custody, but not to kill him.

When he was come out of the church and was in the hands of the soldiers, ' another letter was produced by him who brought the first, commanding Stilicho to be put to · death for his crimes against the state. His son Eucherius escaped for the present and went to • Rome. Thus died Stilicho, being beheaded : the most modest of all the men in power at that time : for he had married the niece of the elder Theodosius, and had been entrusted with the * care of both his sons; and in the three-and-twenty years that he had governed the army, it

never appeared that he sold any places for money, or converted any part of the pay of the sol• diers to his own use. His death happened when Bassus and Philip were consuls, in the same

year that the emperor Arcadius died, on the tenth day of the calends of September:' that is, the twenty-third day of August, in the year 4:08.

27. Stilicho's son, Eucherius,' was sought for to be put to death: but finding that he had

d

* Όπερ απασι τοις χαριεςερους αμεινές επι τη πολει δεδωκεν CP. 808. in. εχειν ελπιδας, ως δη των θεων τατων εχεσθαι της υπερ αυτης αει ---εν δε τη φαινομενη των Χρισιανων ευλαβεια πολλών βελευομενων προνοιας. Αλλα ταυτα μεν, έπη τω θειω δοκει, αποκρυπτων εν εαυτω πονηριαν. Ιbid. e P. 810, &c. σαντα προϊτω. p. 802. init.

P. 811. ––των πλειονων ου κατα προαιρεσιν, αλλα Στελιχωνος φοβω, τοτο ψηφισαμενων" κ. λ. p. 806, in.

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* fled to one of the churches at Rome, they let him alone out of reverence for the place.' How. éver, afterwards, he also was put to death by order of Honorius“.

28. Zosimus likewise gives an account of the death of Serena, which he says was a just judgment upon her. • She suffered,' he says, this punishment worthy of her impiety, as I shall • now relate. When Theodosius the elder, after having vanquished the tyrant Eugenius, came I to-Rome, and endeavoured to form in all a contempt of the sacred rites, and refused to allow * the public expenses for the sacrifices, and the priest and priestesses were driven away, and the * temples were left destitute of the sacred offices and ministrations there performed: at that * time Serena derided those things, and would herself see the temple of the mother of the gods. . And when she saw there the necklace upon the image of Rhea, an ornament suited to that • divine religion, she took it off from the image and put it upon her own neck. And when one i of the elder of the vestal virgins, that were yet left and stood by, reproved her for her impiety,

she abused her, and ordered her to be had away by her servants. She then, as she was going, • imprecated to Serena and her husband and her children, every thing worthy of her impiety.' He there goes on to say likewise that Stilicho had brought down the divine vengeance upon himself, by taking away the gold which was upon the doors of the capitol at Rome. So he is now pleased to say, though some while ago he commended Stilicho for his faithful services, and disinterested behaviour in the high offices which he had borne.

29. Alarich, after the death of Stilicho, came again to Rome, before the end of the year 408, the stipulated conditions, as is supposed, not having been performed. • The city was then • in great straits : and, as Zosimus says, the people were made sensible that these calamities had befallen them because they had neglected the ancient rites. Whilst they were thinking • after this manner,' as he goes on to say, Pompeianus, præfect of the city, met with some Tus• cans lately come to Rome; they proposed the performing some rites, by which, as they said, * they had saved another place called Narnia, when in great danger, for they had brought down " thunder and lightning which drove the barbarians away. Whereupon Pompeianus resolved * that the same rites should now be performed: but " considering what was the prevailing opinion, " that what he intended might be done with the greater security, he communicated the whole • affair to the bishop of the city. This was Innocent. He preferring the safety of the city to • his own opinion, gave them leave to do what they pleased, only privately. But they said that * those rites could be of no benefit to the city unless they were done publicly, after the appointed

manner, the senate ascending to the capitol, and there, and in the markets of the city, performing what was fit to be done. This being the case, none dared to partake in the sacred * rites, and the proposal of the Tuscans was rejected. They therefore dismissed the Tuscans, * and resolved to come to an agreement with the barbarians: and after treating with them, it

was agreed that the city should pay to Alarich five thousand pounds of gold, and thirty thou* sand pounds of silver, four thousand silk garments, three thousand skins of purple dye, and

three thousand pounds of pepper. But the treasury was empty, and it was difficult to get so ' much money from private persons. Some of the senators therefore who had good estates, un. dertook the collection by way of assessment: but in vain. And' that wicked dæmon, which • then governed human affairs, carried those who were appointed over this business to the per* fection of impiety; for they determined to make up the sum that was wanting with the orna•ments of the images. The taking away which things, set up with the solemn rites of conse

cration, and in a like manner covered with becoming ornaments, for securing perpetual pros' perity to the city, was nothing else than rendering them inanimate and insignificant. And • because every thing was to conspire to accomplish the ruin of the city, they not only stript the images of their ornaments, but they also melted down some of the images which were of gold and silver; among which was the image of Fortitude, which the Romans call Virtue: ich being destroyed, whatever fortitude or virtue had remained among the Romans till that time,

was now extinguished: and that this would be the event was then foretold by those who were • skilful in divine things.'

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a P 813.
b P. 814.

Ć Ibid. d P. 816. αλιτηριος δαιμων, τα πραγματα πραττοντας ηγαγε• Επει δε την κρατησαν κατα ναν ελάμβανε δοξαν, ασφαλ- και το της ανδρειας, ήν καλεσι Ρωμαιοι ουιρτετεμ, Ούπερ εσερον εθελων πραξαι το σπεδαζομενον, ανατίθεται παντα τα διαφθαρεντος, όσα της ανδρειας ην και αρετης παρα Ρωμαίους, της πόλεως επισκοπω. . Ην δε Ιννοκέντιος. κ. λ. Ιbid.

aTecór). Ibid. p. 817. ---ετι τον κολοφωνα των κακων και τα ανθρωπινα λαχων

(

I am not concerned to justify the conduct of those officers. But I suppose that no men of sense can now believe that those images were of any advantage to the safety of the city. However we have here another proof that the change of religion was continually, upon all occasions, represented as hazardous to the state. And we may farther observe, that no religion can be so absurd and unreasonable, especially when it has been established, and of a long time, that will not find men of good abilities, not only to palliate and excuse, but also to approve and justify and recommend its greatest absurdities.

Zosimus says that Innocent, bishop of Rome, consented to the proposal of Pompeianus, provided the ancient rites were performed privately. This a Baronius calls a calumny upon Innocent; the rather because the same affair is related by Sozomen, the ecclesiastical historian, whe says nothing of Innocent. It may be not improper therefore for us to observe Sozomen's account. Speaking of this siege of Rome by Alarich in the year 408, he says: “when the siege • had been prolonged, and the city laboured under both famine and pestilence, and many of the

slaves had gone away to Alarich; the senators who adhered to the Greek religion, were of • opinion that it was needful to offer sacrifices at the capitol, and the other temples; and that

there then were with the præfect of the city some Tuscans who engaged to drive away the • barbarians by thunder and lightning; and they boasted that they had already done the same • at Narnia, a city of Tuscany: whereupon Alarich passed by that place, when he came to Rome, * and never besieged it. But the event shewed that those things could be of no benefit to the .city'

Sozomen therefore seems to say that these rites were performed but were ineffectual. Perhaps some sacrifices were offered according to the ancient customs, but not openly, and at the public expense, as Zosimus intimates. And whether · Innocent consented, or was absent at that time, as Baronius thinks, may be doubtful. It may be best to leave some things in uncertainty concerning this history, for want of better information.

31. • Heliocrates, præfect of the treasury, was appointed to seize the effects of Stilicho, and • of those who were supposed to be concerned with him. But he used great lenity, and was • far from being strict in making inquiries after their effects. Being therefore,' as Zosimus says, • judged to be a man of no worth, he was sent to Ravenna, to be there punished for his huma• nity to the unfortunate; and would have been put to death, but that he took refuge in a church « of the Christians.'

32. In the year 409, as is computed, Generidus was appointed general of the forces in Dalmatia, as weli as in Pannonia, Noricum, and Rhætia. Of him Zosimus speaks in this manner: · This : Generidus was a barbarian by origin, but of an excellent disposition for every kind • of virtue, and not to be tempted by money: He still adhered to the ancient rites, and could * not be persuaded to relinquish the worship of the gods: though there was a law enacted which • forbade all who were not Christians to wear a girdle at court.

When that law was published, • Generidus, who had a considerable military post at Rome, staid at home, laying aside his girdle. • When the emperor called for him, expecting his attendance at court in the duty of his office, • he answered there was a law forbidding him

to wear a girdle, and that any should be so much • as numbered among officers, who were not of the Christian religion. The emperor replied,

that law was binding to all others, but not to him, who had run so many hazards for the state. • He answered, that he could not receive that honour with the injury of so many others, who by that law were deprived of their military posts. Nor would he discharge his office till the emperor, compelled by shame and necessity, repealed that law, and gave leave to all of the * same opinion with him to bear civil and military offices. Whereupon Generidus accepted the * office proposed to him, and acted therein with diligence and zeal.'

d P. 819.

δε τοιο

* Baron. ann. 109. num. vi. vi. &c. - αναγκαίον

εδoκει τοις ελληνιζεση της συγκλητο, θυειν εν τω Καπιτωλιο και τους αλλους ναοις Θεσκοι γαρ τινες επι τοτο μετακληθεντες παρα το υπαρχε της πολεως, υπισχναντο σκηπτους και βρονταις απελασειν τες βαρβαρες: ηυχον τον αυτοις ειργασθαι και περι Ναρνιαν πολιν της Θουσκιας, ήν σταριων Αλαριχος επι την Ρωμην εχ ειλεν αλλα τετων μεν εδεν οφελος εσεσθαι τη πολει, η αποβασις εδειξε. Soc. 1. 9. c. vi.

© Vide Basnag. ann. 408. n. x. Tillem. Emp. Honoré. art. 32.

€ See Tillem. L'Emp. Honoré. art. 34. p. 1228.

Sos. I. 5. p. 820. 1. 30, &c. και Ην δε ο Γενεριδος βαρβαρος μεν το γενος, τον δε τροπον εις σαν αρετης ειδος ευ πεφυκως, χρηματων τε αδωροτατος. Ούτος, επι τοις πατρωοις εμμενων, και της εις νεες θρησκειας εκρηναι ουκ ανεχομενος, επειδαν νομος εισηχθη τοις εκ έσι Χριςιανους ζωνην εν τοις βασιλειοις εχεις απαγορευων, τοτε το νομο τεθεντος, αρχης εν τη Ρωμι 5ρατιωτικης προεσως ο Γενεριδος, εμεινα επ' οικε, την ζωνην αποθεμενος. κ. λ. Zos. 1. ν. p. 820.

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