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Lactantius, accounting for the numerous sects and divisions among Christians, mentions several causes : a " love of this world, and a desire of pre-eminence. When such men failed of attaining those advantages in the church, which they had in view, they formed parties. Another cause assigned by him is unacquaintedness with the scriptures, and the reason of things : insomuch that meeting with difficulties and objections against the right doctrine, which they could not answer, they embraced a less reasonable opinion. These last-mentioned may be supposed to have been honest men, though weak, and of little knowledge and understanding.
Many mistakes in the Writings of those who have published the History of Heresies accounted for.
THERE are, as it seems, not a few mistakes in the ancient writers of heresies, Irenæus, Epiphanius, Philaster, and others. Many learned moderns have been sensible of it; and it may be easily and fully accounted for. It was a large and difficult undertaking to write the history of a great number of heresies, and their authors; and the notions of some of them might be very obscure and intricate; it might be difficult to get a sight of their works, or to procure in. formation otherwise. Irenæus himself observes that some good men, who before him had written against the Valentinians, were not fully acquainted with their doctrine, and therefore could not confute them in a right manner. Moreover, wise and understanding persons are
ib. 1. 3.
dum singula calumniantur, manum injiciant Deo, cur solus leurs systêmes. Il falloit lire beaucoup dans un temps, ou sit Deus, cur inviderit creaturis, ut non omnos eâdem polleant les livres n'étoient gueres communes: et lire avec une grande majestate. Adv. Pelagian. lib. i. p. 496. m. Tom. 4.- -Do- attention, examines bien quels étoient les vrais sentimens trahatur ergo illi, cur diabolum esse permiserit, cur passus sit, des sectaires, pour ne leur en pas attribuer qu'ils n'avoient et hucusque patiatur quotidie aliquid in mundo mali fieri. point, ne pas dissimuler leurs raisons et leurs difficultez, Quærit hoc Marcion, et omnes hæreticorum canes, qui Vetus et ne donner point legerement créance à des bruits faux laniant Testamentum, et hujuscemodi syllogismum texere ni incertains. Il fallois surtout se defendre contre le preconsueverunt. Aut scivit Deus, hominem in paradiso posi- jugé et la partialité, &c. I. Beausobre Hist. de Manich. tum prævaricaturum mandatum illius, aut nescivit, &c.* Id. 1. 4. c. i. ü. iii. T. 2. p. 4. Unum fortasse caput in hac Dis
sertatione (Massueti] desiderabunt lectores nonnulli, quo fides a Sed quoniam multæ hæreses extiterunt, et instinctibus Irenæi historica sub examine revocata sit. Vulgus quidem dæmonum populus Dei scissus est- Ante omnia scire nos historiæ lectorum non considerat, quanto locorum ac tempoconvenit, et ipsum, et legatos ejns prædixisse, quod plurimæ rum intervallo disjunctus sit auctor aliquis ab eo de quo scripsectæ, et hæreses haberent existere, quæ concordiam sancti sit-At prudentiores scire avent, imprimis in historia de corporis rumperent, ac munuisse, ut summâ prudentiâ cavere- adversariis scripta, an scriptor notitiam habuerit undiquâque
Quorum plerique immemores, deserto itinere cælesti, certam, eamque sine affectu exposuerit. Non ignoramus, vias sibi devias per anfractus et præcipitia condiderunt; per Irenæum a Tertuliano vocari 'omnium doctrinarum curio. quas partem plebis incautam, et simplicem, ad tenebras, mor- • sissimum exploratorem. Sed an vera sit hæc laus, dubitare temque deducerent.
Quod quatenus acciderit, exponam. in mentem venit, postquam videmus, ipsum Massuetum longe Fuerunt quidam nostrorum vel minus stabilità fide, vel minus doctius de origine Guosticorum errorum judicare, quam Iredocti, vel minus cauti-Sed ii, quorum fides lubrica, cum næum. Heurnann. Recensio Iren. opp. a Massuet. edit. Deum nosse se et colere simularent, augendis opibus, et apud Act. Lips. Mens. Apr. 1712. p. 178. Meo quidem honori studentes, affectabant maxinium sacerdotium ; et, a judicio, eum, qui omnia quæ in hæreticos dixit Irenæus, apte potioribus victi, secedere cum suffragatoribus suis maluerunt, et solide dicta esse demonstrare vult, totam hominum illorum quam eos ferre præpositos, quibus concupierant ipsi ante disciplinam conturbare, et sententiis eorundem vim afferre præponi. Quidam vero, non satis cælestibus literis eruditi, oportet. 1. L. Moshem. Instit. H. E. Majores. p. 323. Vid. cum veritatis accusatoribus respondere non possent, objicien- ib. p. 321. tibus vel impossibile vel incongruens esse, ut Deus in uteruni c* We should not trust too much to the representations se mulieris includeret; nec cælestem illam majestatem ad which Christians, after the apostolical age, have given of the tantam infirmitateni potuisse deduci, ut hominibus contemp- heretics of their times. Proper abatements must be made tui, derisui, contumeliæ, et ludibrio esset ; posti emo etiam for credulity, zeal, resentment, mistake and exaggeration. cruciamenta perferret, atque exsecrabili patibulo figeretur- And as you descend from the middle of the second century, depravati sunt ab itinere recto- -Lact. Instit. 1. 4. cap. ult. the descriptions of this kind grow less fair and consistent, and P. 516.518.
more partial and improbable, till, at last, very little credit is b S. Irenée a été, si je ne me trompe, le premier auteur due to them. Jortin's Discourses concerning the truth of the Chrétien, qui ait entrepris de faire connoitre à l'Eglise les Christian Rel. p. 72. 3d ed. erreurs de tous les heretiques, qui s' etoient élevez jusqu'a son Quapropter hi qui ante nos fuerunt, et quidem multo temps, et les refuter. Mais, quelqu' habile que fût ce Pere, nobis meliores, non tamen satis potuerunt contradicere his qui l'entrepris étoit bien grande á cause du nombre des sectes, et sunt a Valentino, quia ignorabant regulam ipsorum. Iren. de l' obscurité, dont quelquesunes affectoient d'enveloper Præf. lib. 4. p. 227; 274. Grabe.
liable to prejudices. Alınost all are too averse to men of different sentiments. I have already made an apology for the mistakes observed in the writings of ancient Christians. I shall still endeavour to maintain an impartial regard to all, without aggravating the supposed errors of those who have been defamed as heretics, or the mistakes, oversights, inaccuracies, and misrepresentations of those who have written their history, or have argued against them. I likewise intend to avoid too great exactness and particularity in matters which are either plainly absurd, or very abstruse and metaphysical, and not necessary to be generally known in these times; following « herein the example of other ecclesiastical historians of good credit. And I suppose that the history of the Manichees, formerly written, may be of some use here. Indeed one reason of indulging myself in so copious and particular an account of this sect was, that I hoped thereby to shorten the history of the more ancient heresies, and to render it more easy and intelligible to my readers.
The Number of Heresies hath been augmented without sufficient Reason.
The ancient heresies have been unreasonably multiplied. The number in Epiphanius is eighty: that is, twenty before Christ, and sixty afterwards, down to his own time. We formerly saw some reason to doubt whether there ever were such sects or heresies as the Valesians, Angelies, and Apostolics, or even such Origenists as Epiphanius speaks of. And if the Nicolaitans were no distinct sect, and if the Simonians, and the Cainites, the Ophites or Ophians, and the Sethians, were not by profession Christians, but unbelievers and enemies of Jesus, as some think, they ought not to be reckoned heretics. But of this more particularly hereafter. The numbers in Epiphanius might be still farther reduced by other considerations.
In Philaster are now one hundred and fifty: but Augustine & computed in him twenty-eight heresies before Christ, and one hundred and twenty-eight afterwards. Our copies of Philaster therefore seem to be defective; for we have in him no more after our Lord's coming than one hundred and twenty-two. But many of Philaster's heresies are exceeding trifling: Augustine was sensible of it, and in one part of his work passeth over at once i fourteen or fifteen articles in Philaster. One of the heresies in Philaster, taken too by Augustine, is that there are more worlds than one. Another heresy, but omitted by Augustine, is of those who " had given names
a See Vol. ii. p. 234.
e It is very uncommon (says Du Pin) for writers of b Il est juste d'effacer des préjugés, qui viennent moins heresies to lessen their number, or forget any one; but to de l' ignorance que d'une aversion mal entendue pour les multiply them is a common fault. Bib. Eccle. T. 2. p. 244. hérétiques. Clément d'Alexandrie a fort bien dit, que toutes dans Philastre. He has many good remarks concerning Phi
les opinions des sectaires ne sont ni mauvaises, ni vaines et laster, and the heresies in him. meprisables. Παμπολλα γαρ των παρα ταις αιρεσεσι δοξαζο- i See Vol. i. p. 586-590. μενων ευροιμεν αν, όσαι μη τελεον εκκεκωφηνται. κ. λ. Clem. & Vid. Augustin. Pr. ad Quodvult deum, et libr. de Hær. Str. I. i. p. 298. B. Beausobre Hist. Manich. I. 3. c. 9. n. v. T.i. p. 573.
" Has hæreses putavi in hoc opus meum de Philastri • De hæreticis quibusdam agenius, qui hæc ætate prava opere transferendas. Et alias quidem ipse commemorat ; sed dogmata sparsisse dicuntur. De quibus tamen, cum nullos mihi appellandæ hæreses non videntur. Aug. de Hær. habemus æquales testes, nec quidquam proferre, possimus ex eorum scriptis, quæ interciderunt, nec supersit nobis eorum i Vid. Philast. H. 98. et Fabricii Annot. p. 188. Apud historia, nisi in infensissimorum proxime sequentis seculi, aut alios 49. Between the seventy-sixth and seventy-seventh etiam posteriorum adversariorum testinioniis, nihil ferme quasi heresies of Austin, there are in Philaster fifteen which Austin prorsus exploratum proferre possumus. Absit tamen, ut has omitted, as he has also seven others, which are inserted mendacii datâ operâ conficti quemquam insimulatum velimus, by Philaster, between those which answer to the seventye recte sentientibus Christianis : sed fieri potest, ut de iis, seventh and seventy-eighth heresy of Austin.
quibus merito infensi erant, multa facilius æquo crediderint, * Alia est hæresis, quæ dicit mundos esse infinitos et innu, aut ut mentem eorum non satis adsecuti sint, utque falsa de merabiles, secundum philosophorum quorumdam inanem sen
iis imprudentes prodiderint, non quidem mero nocendi aut tentiam, cum scriptura mundum unum dixerit, H. 113. p. mentiendi studio, sed adfectu nonnullo præpediti. Quod et 233. Edid. Fabr. Her. 65. p. 34. Tom. 4. La Bigne Bib. ex hodiernis Christianorum controversiis intelligere licet. Patrum. Par. 1624. Cleric. H. E. A D. 76. n. i. p. 481.
Aug. H. 77. Itaque hic nimiam adhibere diligentiam puderet. Id. A.D.
est hæresis, quæ secundum Paganorum vanitatem 121. n. viii. p. 583.
siderum diversa nomina profiteturQui Cometas, et Poga
to stars beside those named in scripture. A common opinion of the ancient Christian writers concerning the fall of some of the angels is with · Philaster a heresy. He has four or five different heresies about the version of the Seventy, and other Greek translations of the Old Testament. His Rhetorians are not a little whimsical; that “ article was not thoroughly approved by Augustine. I put in the margin a' conjecture of Fabricius upon it. There was no occasion to make a distinct chapter of such as held three modes in the Deity, after the mention of Noetus and Sabellius : and yet Augustine has copied that article. And there are many others altogether needless. So that the number of heresies in that writer might be greatly reduced; and indeed in Augustine likewise. Epiphanius" and Augustine' make two different articles of Montanists or Cataphrygians, and Pepuzians ; but Theodoret more judiciously one * only, they being different denominations of one and the same sect or people.
It may be worth observing in this place that the Christian writers, Justin Martyr,' Hegesippus," and Epiphanius," reckon six or seven sects among the Jews : and as they do not all mention the same, but different, they make in all ten or twelve at least. Whilst Josephus, whose authority must certainly be preferred, computes o but three, or at most four Jewish sects : bụt on this I shall not enlarge. I only refer to the curious dissertation of Rhenford upon the subject.
Most heresies of the two first Centuries may be reduced to two kinds.
The greatest part of the heresies of the two first centuries may be reduced to two kinds. This was done by so ancient a writer as Theodoret, whose words in the preface to his five books of heresies I shall here transcribe, as giving some authority to this observation. The 9 • first book of heretical fables,' says he, “shall contain the account of those who assert another • maker of the world, and deny that there is one principle of all things, who also say that the • Lord was man in appearance only. The first of these is Simon the magician of Samaria ; the • last Manes of Persia. The second book will shew those of a contrary way of thinking, whọ • allow one principle of all things, but say our Lord was a mere man, from Ebion down to Mar• cellus and Photinus, though in somewhat different forms. The third book will contain others • between these.' But of these there are but six, the Nicolaitans, the Montanists, Noetus, the Quartodecimans, Novatus, and Nepos, three of which, Noetus, Novatus, and Nepos, are of the third century, and the Montanists and Quartodecimans in the latter part of the second century. • In the fourth book,' he says, “ he will place later heresies, that of Arius, Eunomius, and others.
The fifth book is to contain a representation of the true evangelical doctrine.' So that the most
45. p, 24.
8 Aug. H. 74. * Alia est hæresis, quæ de gigantibus adserit, quod angeli
H. 48, 49.
H. 26, 27. miscuerint se cum feminis ante diluvium, et inde esse natos
* H. Fab. l. 3. c. 2. gigantes suspicatur. H. 107. p 108. H. 59. p. 29.
Just. Dialog. cum Tryph. p. 307. A. b Vid. H. 138–142. aliis 90-94.
Ap. Euseb. H. E. 1. 4. c. 22. • Alii sunta Rhetorio quodam, qui omnes laudabat * Epiph. I. i. p. 31, &c. hæreticos, dicens omnes bene sentire, et neminem errare ex • See the First Part of this Work, b. i. ch. iv, and ch. ix. jis, sed ambulare bene omnes illos, et male eos non credere sentiebat. H. 91. aliis 43.
^ De fictis Judæorum Hæresibus. A Rhetorio quodam exortam hæresim dicit nimium mira- * Και το μεν πρωτον των μυθων εκείνων την διηγησιν δεξεbilis vanitatis, quæ omnes hæreticos recte ambulare, et vera ται, ων οι πατερες δημιουργών μεν ανέπλασαν έτερον, την δε μιαν dicere affirmat ; quod ita est absurdum, ut mihi incredibile των όλων αρνηθεντες αρχην, αρχας έτερας 8κ εσας υπεθεντο, videatur. Aug H. 72
δοκησει δε φανηκαι τον κυριον εις ανθρωπος ερασιν • Suspicor, sub Rhetorio hoc rhetorem latere Theini-tium, δευτερον τες τ' αναντια τετοις επιδειξει τε θρησκευκοτα, οι μιαν qui oratione duodeciinâ ad Valentem, p. 159, et quivtâ ad μεν αρχην ειναι τον όλων συνωμολογησαν, ιλ.ον δε ανθρωπον Jovinianum, p. 69, docet varietate illa opinionum de rebus τον κυριον προσηγόρευσαν. Ταυτης δε της αίρεσεως ηρξε μεν divinis adeo non offendi Numen, ut etiam delectetur, In Eur. %. N. HÉ. T. iv. p. 188.
another • work. Tertullian • speaks of only two heresies in the times of the apostles, Docetæ and Ebionites.
Some learned moderns have spoken in the like manner; so · Vitringa ; nor does Mr. Turner much differ d from this account: and says Tillemont: • The church was disturbed from the • beginning with two opposite heresies, each of which produced several sects. Of one of these • Simon was the first author. Their capital doctrines are that there are two gods, and two prin
ciples, the Creator, and another above him: and that our Saviour was man in appearance only. • These are called by the general names of Gnostics and Docetæ, and comprel.end almost all
the sects of the two first ages. The other heresy opposite to this came from the Jews, who • embraced Christianity, but not in all its perfection. They owned one principle, and one God, • and the reality of Christ's human nature. But they believed him to be no more than a man, • denied his divinity, and retained the ceremonies of the law with so much zeal, as to diminish • the liberty and glory of the gospel.'
Agreeable to this, two different opinions concerning the person of Christ have been before spoken of." There is no need therefore to enlarge farther on this head at present.
Heretics have been often treated with great Acrimony.
Heretics have been often treated with much harshness, and great severity of expression. I have already had occasions to allege some instances of this. It is hard to forbear making some additions here. St. Jerom scruples not to say, they are worse than heathens, the worst of all men ; and if they are free from all reproach in their lives, yet k they have only the shadow and appearance of virtue, not the truth. Cyril of Jerusalem says of the Montanists that they are called Christians, but falsely. Epiphanius's introduction to his account of Ebionitism must be allowed to be a remarkable instance of harshness, not to say railing. It " is with him a many. headed monster, and has in it at once the profaneness and impurity of the Samaritans, the name of Jews, the errors of the Nazarenes and Cerinthians, and the wickedness of the Carpocratians, with the denomination of Christians. And he is in doubt whether he should not consider Arianism as infidelity; but corrects himself, and adds, or rather wrong faith : which surely is rightest. Passion may suggest the former: but reason will plead for the latter.
2 Σιμων, και Μενανδρος, και Μαρκιων, και Βαλεντινος, και Mem. Ec. T. 2. L'hérésie des Cericthiens. init. Βασιλειδης, και Βαρδεσανης, και Κερδων, και Μανης, ηρνηθη- See Vol. ii. p. 235. σαν αντικρυς την ανθρωποτητα τα Χρισε. Αρτεμων δε και 8 Ib. p. 147, 148, and 160. Θεοδοτος, και Σακελλιος, και Παυλος ο Σαμοσατευς, και Μαρ- 1 Multo quippe pejori conditione sunt hæretici quam genκελλος, και Φωτεινος εις την εναντιαν εκ διαμετρο βλασφημιαν tiles. Hier. in Μat. cap. xiii. T. iv. p. 51. f.---et impietatem κατεπεσον ανθρωπον γαρ μονον κηρυττεσι τον Χριςον, την δε
superant Ethnicorum- Nullus enimecclesiasticorum tantum προ των αιωναν υπαρχεσαν αρνονται θεοτητα. Αρειος δε και habet studii in bono, quantum hæretici in malo : et in eo se Europios. %. 2. Dial. 2. p. 52. c. T. iv.
lucrum putant consequi, si alios decipiant, et ipsi perditi b At in epistolâ eos maxime Antichristos vocat, qui Chris- cæteros perdant. In Is. cap. xviii. p. 180. m. T. 3. tum negarent in carne venisse, et qui non putarent Jesum | Hoc significat, quod impietate suâ omnes vincant hæreesse filium Dei. Illud Marcion, hoc Hebion vindicavit tici. Verbi gratiâ : Dicit Epicurus, non esse providentiam, Hæc sunt, ut arbitror, genera doctrinarum adulterinarum, et voluptatem maximum bonum. Comparatione hujus, scequæ sub apostolis fuisse, ab ipsis apostolis discimus. De Pr. leratior Marcion, et omnes hæretici, qui vetus lacerant testacap. 33, 34. p. 244. B. p. 210, 11.
mentum. In Is. cap. xviii. p. 179. f. Recte itaque episcopus Cestriensis, Vind. Ign. P. 2. c. i. * Porro hæretici imaginem tantum habentes umbramque p. 344, Duæ potissimum hæreses, ait, de natura Christi eâ virtutum, et non ipsam veritatem, absque fructu operum, tempestate obtinebant-Quarum altera Docetarum fuit a verborum folia pollicentur. In Is. cap. v. p. 50. m. Simonianis ortorum, humanæ naturæ veritatem in Christo de- Ψευδως μεν, ομωνυμως δε καλεισθαι Χριστιανες. Cat. 16. spuentium, altera Ebionitarum, divinam prorsus naturam et æternam generationem negantium, legisque cæremonias ur- η πολυμορφον τερασιον-πολυκέφαλο υδρας- -Σαgentium. Vitring, Obs. Sacr. 1. 5. cap. 12. p. 155, 156. μαρειτων μεν γαρ εχει το βδελυρον, Ιεδαιων δε το ονομα
d The primitive heretics were not by far so numerous as Ναζωραιων την γνωμην, Κηρινθινων το ειδος, Καρποκρατιανων bas been represented. The erroneous tenets propagated by την κακοτροπιαν, και Χριστιανων βαλεται εχειν την προσηγοριαν. the primitive heretics are reducible to a few heads; and, H. 30. n. 1. strictly speaking, there were not above three or four heresies, n --Ως ειθε και η τε Αρειο εμβείροντημενη πισις μαλλον for the first two hundred years. Calumnies upon the primio de Atisia ESO do manage zaxotisia. H. 69. 9. ii. fin. tive Christians, p. 190, 191.
Indeed there are many considerations that may lead men to moderation one toward another, upon occasion of different sentiments, especially in matters which have in them some abstruseness and difficulty. One consideration of no small moment is, that we are in danger of the same treatment which we give to others. It was formerly observed that Methodius bore hard upon Origen : but he himself has since been suspected of divers errors. Philaster, who wrote a long treatise of heresies, and condemns some of them with severity, has not been thought orthodox by all, but has fallen under the charge or suspicion of heresy. He speaks of man's free-will in terms that would be disliked by many of late times. Moreover he thought the soul to be created before the body. And as he has no article of Origenists, or followers of Origen, he is supposed to have favoured that great man in some of his peculiarities. The millennium, which has been a favourite doctrine of some ages, and has had the patronage of the learned as well as the vulgar, among Christians; at other times, and by other writers, has been exploded and ridiculed. And notwithstanding the allowed piety of some of its patrons, it is placed by Philaster among his - heresies. This is certain, that as bad things were said of the primitive Christians by Jews and heathens, as ever were said of the ancient heretics by catholics. Modern reformers have been treated just in the same manner.
And no wonder, since there have in every age been men so strongly attached to their present interest as to value the emoluments connected with old establishments, however erroneous, more than truth. Such men will always represent every attempt toward a reformation, as proceeding from wicked and impious dispositions, and will
cry down the promoters of it, as heretics, and as men of the most abandoned and profligate principles.
This must be the case whenever men think themselves privileged to neglect the rules of candour and moderation, in the judgment they form concerning each other. For though truth is one and unchangeable, orthodoxy and heresy are as variable as the opinions of fallible and in. constant, of prejudiced and ignorant men.
Heretics have been greatly calumniated, Some seem to have reckoned that they had a right to say the worst things of heretics which they could; and others have thought themselves obliged to believe all the evil that has been reported of them. I have already, at several times, had occasion to confute some grievous charges against such as were called heretics, particularly the impure · Origenists, if ever there were such a sect, and the Manichees. Some other things are now to be taken notice of relating to more ancient heretics, who appeared near the end of the first, or in the former part of the second century.
One thing laid to the charge of many of those heretics is magic.
Marcus or Marc, from whom the Marcosians were denominated, is often % called a magician and impostor. Irenæus says, the" Basilidians had invocations, inchantments, and all kinds of curious and magical practices. And, according to Epiphanius, Basilides' would never be persuaded to leave off magical arts. In like manner Irenæus also speaks of the * Carpocratians. And Eusebius says of these last, 'as upon the authority of Irenæus, that they practised magic not secretly, but openly, more openly than Simon himself.
Nevertheless some learned moderns have doubted of this, and have made a question, Whether
i Ou prije
a See Vol. ii. p. 98, 99.
o Quia arbitrii sui est omnis homo, quod velit ut eligat facere, permittente Deo. H. 26. p. 49. p. 7. E. Par. 1624. . Vid. H. 97. p. 26. Ibid.
H. 59. p. 119. p. 15. C. Par. 1624. • See Vol. i. p. 590.
p Vol. ii. 158-160. μαγικης υπαρχων κυβειας εμπειροτατος. Iren. 1. i. c. xiii. n. i. c. viii. p. 56. Grab. &c. ix. p. 56, 59. Gr.
" Utuntur autem et hi magiâmet incantationibus et invocationibus, et reliquâ universa periergiâ. L. i. cap. xxiv. N. v. cap. xxiii. p. 98. Gr.
δε αλλα και μαγγανικαις μηχαναις προσανεχων 8κ επαυσατο, και σερειργιας και απατεων.
H. 27. a. ii. p. 69. D.
* Artes enim magicas operantur et ipsi, et incantationes, philtra quoque et charitesia, et paredros, et oniropompos, et reliquas malignationes. Ib. c. xxv. n. iii. c. xxiv. joo.
Γραφει δε και Ειρηναιος συγχρόνισαι τετοις Καρποκρατης, έτερας αιρεσεως, της των Γνωσικων επικληθεισης πατερα οι και το Σιμωνος, εχ ως εκεινος κρυβδην, αλλ' ηδη και εις φανερον, Tas Payelas wagadidovai ngrov. Eus. H. E. 1. iv. C. vii. p. 120.