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ment, and those Jewish and profane authors, minute, that varied, that intimate acquaint-
with whom we bring them into comparison. ance with the statistics of a nation no longer
Throughout the whole examination, our at- in existence, which is evinced in every page
tention is confined to forms of justice; suc-of the evangelical writers. We find, in point
cessions of governors in different provinces; of fact, that both the Heathen and Christian
manners, and political institutions. We are writers of subsequent ages do often betray
therefore apt to forget the sacredness of the their ignorance of the particular customs
subject; and we appeal to all, who have which obtained in Judea during the time of
prosecuted this inquiry, if this circumstance our Saviour. And it must be esteemed a
is not favourable to their having a closer strong circumstance in favour of the anti-
and more decided impression of the truth quity of the New Testament, that on a sub-
of the Gospel history. By instituting a ject, in which the chances of detection are
comparison between the evangelists and con- so numerous, and where we can scarcely
temporary authors, and restricting our at- advance a single step in the narrative, with-
tention to those points which come under out the possibility of betraying our time by
the cognizance of ordinary history, we put some mistaken allusion, it stands distin-
the apostles and evangelists on the footing guished from every later composition, in
of ordinary historians; and it is for those, being able to bear the most minute and in-
who have actually undergone the labour of timate comparison with the contemporary
this examination, to tell how much this cir- historians of that period.
cumstance adds to the impression of their The argument derives great additional
authenticity. The mind gets emancipated strength, from viewing the New Testament,
from the peculiar delusion which attaches not as one single performance, but as a col-
to the sacredness of the subject, and which lection of several performances. It is the
has the undoubted effect of restraining the work of no less than eight different authors,
confidence of its inquiries. The argument who wrote without any appearance of con-
assumes a secular complexion, and the cert, who published in different parts of the
writers of the New Testament are restored to world, and whose writings possess every
that credit, with which the reader delivers evidence, both internal and external, of be-
himself up to any other historian, who has ing independent productions. Had only
a much less weight and quantity of histori- one author exhibited the same minute ac-
cal evidence in his favour.

curacy of allusion, it would have been esWe refer those readers who wish to pro- teemed a very strong evidence of his antisecute this inquiry, to the first volume of quity. But when we see so many authors Lardner's Credibility of the Gospels. We exhibiting such a well-sustained and almost shall restrict ourselves to a few general ob- unexpected accuracy through the whole servations on the nature and precise effect of their varied and distinct parratives, it of the argument.

seems difficult to avoid the conclusion, that In the first place, the accuracy of the nu- they were either the eye-witnesses of their merous allusions to the circumstances of own history, or lived about the period of that period, which the Gospel history em- its accomplishment. braces, forms a strong corroboration of that When different historians undertake the antiquity, which we have already assigned affairs of the same period, they either deto its writers from external testimony. It rive their information from one another, or amounts to a proof, that it is the production proceed upon distinct and independent inof authors who lived antecedent to the de- formation of their own. Now, it is not difstruction of Jerusalem, and consequently ficult to distinguish the copyist from the about the time that is ascribed to them by original historian. There is something in all the external testimony which has already the very style and manner of an original been insisted upon. It is that accuracy, narrative, which announces its pretensions. which could only be maintained by a con- It is not possible that any one event, or any temporary historian. It would be difficult, series of events, should make such a similar even for the author of some general specu- impression upon two witnesses, as to dislation, not to betray his time by some occa-pose them to relate it in the same language, sional allusion to the ephemeral customs to describe it in the same order, to form the and institutions of the period in which he same estimate as to the circumstances which wrote. But the authors of the New Testa- should be noticed as important, and those ment run a much greater risk. There are other circumstances which should be supfive different pieces of that collection which pressed as immaterial. Each witness tells are purely historical, and where there is a the thing in his own way, makes use of his continued reference to the characters, and own language, and brings forward circumpolitics, and passing events of the day. The stances which the other might omit altodestruction of Jerusalem swept away the gether, as not essential to the purpose of whole fabric of Jewish polity; and it is not his narrative. It is this agreement in the to be conceived, that the memory of a fu- facts, with this variety in the manner of ture generation could have retained that I describing them, that never fails to impress

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ors, 1 minute, that varied, that intimate acquainton. ance with the statistics of a nation no longer

at-in existence, which is evinced in every page uc- l of the evangelical writers. We find, in point es: of fact, that both the Heathen and China are writers of subsequent ages do often betrar the their ignorance of the particular custoa ive which obtained in Judea during the time of nce our Saviour. And it must be esteemed's ser strong circumstance in favour of the artith quity of the New Testament, that on a sub 'aject, in which the chances of detection are on- so numerous, and where we can scarcely at- advance a single step in the narrative, with ler out the possibility of betraying our time by but some mistaken allusion, it stands distir ing guished from every later composition, in ise, being able to bear the most minute and is

of timate comparison with the contemporary cir- historians of that period. leir! The argument derives great additional ited strength, from viewing the New Testament hes not as one single performance, but as a caiich lection of several performances. It is the the work of no less than eight different autbors ent/who wrote without any appearance of ma the cert, who published in different parts of te Ito world, and whose writings posms every ers evidence, both internal and external, ol be has ing independent productions. Had only bri- one author exhibited the same minute it

curacy of allusion, it would have been es ro- teemed a very strong evidence of his antiof quity. But when we see so many author Ve exhibiting such a well-sustained and almost ob- unexpected accuracy through the wice ect of their varied and distinct narratives. I

seems difficult to avoid the conclusion, the nu- they were either the eye witnesses of the

of own history, or lived about the period of m- its accomplishment. hat! When different historians undertake ned affairs of the same period, they either

It rive their information from one another, on proceed upon distinct and independent ! de-formation of their own. Now, it is not dit ily ficult to distinguish the copyist from the by original historian. There is something dy the very style and manner of an origina cy, narrative, which announces its pretensions on. It is not possible that any one event, or any alt, series of events, should make such a sim:J cu-impression upon two witnesses, as to a

a pose them to relate it in the same language Ens to describe it in the same order, to form 12 he same estimate as to the circumstances ! ta- should be noticed as important, and these

the credit of one of the parties as an i

first sight, the reader is alarmed

upon the inquirer that additional conviction (ry, than when employed to distinguish bro-
which arises from the concurrence of sepa- thers who have one name the same. The
rate and independent testimonies. Now, Herod who is called Philip, is just as likely
this is precisely that kind of coincidence a distinction, as Simon who is called Peter,
which subsists between the New Testament or Saul who is called Paul. The name of
writers and Josephus, in their allusions to the high priest, at the time of our Saviour's
the peculiar customs and institutions of that crucifixion, was Caiaphas, according to the
age. Each party maintains the style of evangelists. According to Josephus, the
original and independent historians. The name of the high priest at that period was
one often omits altogether, or makes only a Joseph. This would have been precisely a
slight and distant allusion to what occupies difficulty of the same kind, had not Jose-
a prominent part in the composition of the phus happened to mention, that this Joseph
other. There is not the slightest vestige of was also called Caiaphas. Would it have
anything like a studied coincidence between been dealing fairly with the evangelists, we
them. There is variety, but no opposition: ask. to have made their credibility depend
and it says much for the authenticity of upon the accidental omission of another
both histories, that the most scrupulous and historian? Is it consistent with any ac-
attentive criticism can scarcely detect a sin- knowledged principle of sound criticism, to
gle example of an apparent contradiction in bring four writers so entirely under the tri-
the testimony of these different authors, bunal of Josephus, each of whom stands as
wnich does not admit of a likely, or at least firmly supported by all the evidences which
a plausible reconciliation.

can give authority to a historian; and who When the difference between two his-have greatly the advantage of him in this, womans is carried to the length of a contra-that they can add the argument of their diction, it enfeebles the credit of both their concurrence to the argument of each septestimonies. When the agreement is car- ara

When the agreement is car-) arate and independent testimony? It so me length of a close and scrupulous | happens, however, in the present instance, anice in every particular, it destroys that even Jewish writers, in their narrative

I one of the parties as an inde- of the same circumstance, give the name

orian. In the case before us, I of Philip to the first husband of Herodias.

perceive this difference, nor this We by no means conceive, that any foreign agreement. Such are the variations, that, at testimony was necessary

hat, at testimony was necessary for the vindication ne reader is alarmed with the l of the evangelists. Still, however, it must appearance of very serious and embarrassing go far to dissipate every suspici

ng go far to dissipate every suspicion of artifice 4. such is the actual coinci- in the construction of their histories. It E, that the difficulties vanish when we proves, that in the confidence w

n when we proves, that in the confidence with which le labours of a profound and they delivered themselves up to their own

cism. Had it been the object linformation, they neglected appearance, and ospel writers to trick out a plausi- felt themselves independent of it. 10

the credulity of the world, I parent difficulty, like many others of the have studied a closer resem- same kind, lands us in a stronger confirma,

Isting authorities of that pe- tion of the honesty of the evangelists; and a they have laid themselves it is delightful to perceive, how truth re

superficial brilliancy of Vol-ceives a fuller accession to its splendour, gused their vindication with the Lelands grace and to dar

s every imagination, and from the attempts which are made to disistant posterity, whose 1 On this branch of the argument, the me attie attended to, and / partial inquirer must be struck with the lit

tle indulgence which infidels, and even Es, we are told that Herod Christians. have given to the evangelical

et, married his brother / writers. In other cases, when we compare " Josephus we have the the narratives of contemporary historians, he gives a different namelit is not expected, that all the circumstances s nim Herod; and what I alluded to by one will be taken notice of by y, there was a Philip of the rest : and it often happens, that an event We know not to have lor a custom is admitted upon the faith of a

This is single historian; and the silence of all other warming. But, in the writers is not suffered to attach suspicion ies, we are given to or discredit his testimony. It is an allowed sephus, that principle, that a scrupulous resemblance be1, tween two histories is very far from neces

one improbability in there be sary to their being held consistent with We also know, from the another. And, what is more, it so

100, that it was quite happens, that with contemporary his he same individual to have there may be an apparent.cc

nore necessa-l and the credit of both parties remain as

difficulties. And such is the actual coinc

apply to them the labours of a profound and
intelligent criticism. Had it been in
of the Gospel writers 1
ble imposition on the credulity on
they would have studied a close
blance to the existing authoriti
riod; nor would they have la!
open to the superficial brillia
taire, which dazzles every imaginati

and Lardners of a distant posterity,
sober erudition is so little attended to

n so few know how to appreciate.
In the Gospels, we are to
the Tetrarch of Galilee, marr
Philip's wise. In Josephus
same story; only he gives a dit
to Philip, and calls him Herod ;
adds to the difficulty, there was a P
that family, whom we know

been the first husban

at first sight a little alarming. by
Progress of our inquiries, we are

erstand from this same Josephus, that principle

are other circumstances which should be sur

ch/pressed as immaterial. Each witness to sa the thing in his own way, makes use of it nd own language, and brings forward circut! he/stances which the other might omit 210, he gether, as not essential to the purpose of ot his narrative. It is this agreement in te 11- ) facts, with this variety in the manner of at Idescribing them, that never fails to impress

there were three Herods of !!
and therefore no improbability
mg two Philips. We also kr
histories of that period, that
common for the same

nd, what is more, it sometimes

wo names; and this is never more nece

e an apparent contradiction,

12

entire and unsuspicious as before. Posterity where a great deal of circumstance is intro-
is in these cases disposed to make the most duced, it proves, that the narrator feels the
liberal allowances. Instead of calling it a confidence of truth, and labours under no
contradiction, they often call it a difficulty. I apprehension for the fate of his narrative.
They are sensible, that in many instances, Even though we have it not in our power
a seeming variety of statement has, upon a to verify the truth of a single circumstance,
more extensive knowledge of ancient his- yet themere property of a story being circum-
tory, admitted of a perfect reconciliation. stantial is always felt to carry an evidence
Instead, then, of referring the difficulty in in its favour. It imparts a more familiar
question to the inaccuracy or bad faith of any air of life and reality to the narrative. It is
of the parties, they with more justness and easy to believe, that the groundwork of a
more modesty, refer it to their own igno- story may be a fabrication, but it requires
rance, and to that obscurity which necessa- a more refined species of imposture than
rily hangs over the history of every remote we can well conceive, to construct a harmo-
age. These principles are suffered to have nious and well-sustained narrative, abound-
great influence in every secular investiga-ling in minute and circumstantial details
tion; but so soon as, instead of a secular, it which support one another, and where,
becomes a sacred investigation, every ordi- with all our experience of real life, we can
nary principle is abandoned, and the sus- detect nothing misplaced, or inconsistent,
picion annexed to the teachers of religion is or improbable.
carried to the dereliction of all that can-1 To prosecute this argument in all its ex-
dour and liberality, with which every other tent, it would be necessary to present the
document of antiquity is judged of and ap- reader with a complete analysis or examina-
preciated. How does it happen, that the tion of the Gospel history. But the most
authority of Josephus should be acquiesced. superficial observer cannot fail to perceive,
in as a first principle, while every step in that it maintains, in a very high degree, the
the narrative of the evangelists must have character of being a circumstantial narra-
foreign testimony to confirm and support tive. When a miracle is recorded, we have
it? How comes it that the silence of Jose- generally the name of the town or neigh-
phus should be construed into an impeach-bourhood where it happened; the names of
ment of the testimony of the evangelists, the people concerned; the effect upon the
while it is never admitted for a single mo- hearts and convictions of the by-standers;
ment, that the silence of the evangelists can the arguments and examinations it gave
impart the slightest blemish to the testimony birth to; and all that minuteness of refer-
of Josephus? How comes it that the sup-ence and description which impresses a
position of two Philips in one family should strong character of reality upon the whole
throw a damp of scepticism over the Gos- history. If we take along with us the time
pel narrative, while the only circumstance at which this history made its appearance,
which renders that supposition necessary is the argument becomes much stronger.-
the single testimony of Josephus; in which It does not merely carry a presumption
very testimony, it is necessarily implied, in its favour, from being a circumstantial
that there are two Herods in the same fam- history :-it carries a proof in its favour, be-
ily? How comes it, that the evangelists, cause these circumstances were completely
with as much internal, and a vast deal within the reach and examination of those
more of external evidence in their favour, to whom it was addressed. Had the evan-1
should be made to stand before Josephus, gelists been false historians, they would not
like so many prisoners at the bar of justice? have committed themselves upon so many
In any other case, we are convinced that particulars. They would not have furnished
this would be looked upon as rough hand- the vigilant inquiries of that period with
ling. But we are not sorry for it. It has such an effectual instrument for bringing
given more triumph and confidence to the them into discredit with the people; por
argument. And it is. no small addition to foolishly supplied, in every page of their
our faith, that its first teachers have sur-narrative, so many materials for a cross-
vived an examination, which, in point of examination, which would infallibly have
rigour and severity, we believe to be quite disgraced them.
unexampled in the annals of criticism. Now, we of this age can institute the

It is always looked upon as a favourable same cross-examination. We can compare presumption, when a story is told circum- the evangelical writers with contemporary stantially. The art and the safety of an authors, and verify a number of circumimpostor, is to confine his narrative to gen- stances in the history, and government, and erals, and not to commit himself by too peculiar economy of the Jewish people. minute a specification of time and place, We therefore have it in our power to instiand allusion to the manners or occurrences tute a cross-examination upon the writers of of the day. The more of circumstance that the New Testament; and the freedom and we introduce into a story, we multiply the frequency of their allusions to these circhances of detection, if false; and therefore, cumstances supply us with ample materials

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punishment. According to the eval

rity where a great deal of circumstance is intrnost duced, it proves, that the narrator feels the it a confidence of truth, and labours under no Ity. apprehension for the fate of his narrative ces, Even though we have it not in our power on a to verify the truth of a single circumstance, bis- yet the mere property of a story being circunion.stantial is always felt to carry an evidence 1 in /in its favour. It imparts a more familiar any air of life and reality to the narrative. Its and easy to believe that the groundwork ois zno- story may be a fabrication; but it requires ssa- a more refined species of imposture tha note we can well conceive, to construct a harmo lave nious and well-sustained narrative, abous! iga-ling in minute and circumstantial details ir, it which support one another, and where ordi- with all our experience of real life, we can

SUS- detect nothing misplaced, or inconsistent, on is or improbable.

can-! To prosecute this argument in all its exother tent, it would be necessary to present the 1 ap- reader with a complete analysis or examina; the tion of the Gospel history. But the mes isced. superficial observer cannot fail to perceive p in that it maintains, in a very high degree, the have character of being a circumstantial nerto

porttive. When a miracle is recorded, we have Jose- generally the name of the town or neige ach- bourhood where it happened ; the names of lists, the people concerned; the effect upon 132 mo-hearts and convictions of the by-standers 5 can the arguments and examinations it gare zony birth to; and all that minuteness of refersup-ence and description which impreses & ould strong character of reality upon the whole Gos- history. If we take along with us the time ance at which this history made its appearance ry is the argument becomes much strongerhich It does not merely carry a presumpa, lied, in its favour, from being a circumstanla fam- history:-it carries a proof in its favour. 2 lists, cause these circumstances were complete

deal within the reach and examination of the Four, to whom it was addressed. Had the erahus, gelists been false historians, they would no ice? have committed themselves upon so many that particulars. They would not have furnished znd-the vigilant inquiries of that period w has such an effectual instrument for bringing the them into discredit with the people; 7 to foolishly supplied, in every page of in sur-narrative, so many materials for a cheese

of examination, which would infallibly bar uite disgraced them.

Now, we of this age can institute in able såme cross-examination. We can compar im- the evangelical writers with contemporan

an authors, and verify a number of circum cen- stances in the history, and government, an too peculiar economy of the Jewish peope ce, We therefore have it in our power 10 DAY cestute a cross-examination upon the writers a

at the New Testament; and the freedom an the frequency of their allusions to these or re, cumstances supply us with ample materias

for it. The fact, that they are borne out in to believe, that truth should have been so
their minute and incidental allusions by the artfully blended with falsehood in the com-
testimony of other historians, gives a strong position of this narrative, particularly as we
weight of what has been called circum- perceive nothing like a forced introduction
stantial evidence in their favour. As a of any one circumstance. There appears
specimen of the argument, let us confine to be nothing out of place, nothing thrust in
our observations to the history of our Sa- with the view of imparting an air of proba-
viour's trial, and execution, and burial. bility to the history. The circumstance
They brought him to Pontius Pilate. We upon which we bring the evangelists into
know both from Tacitus and Josephus, that comparison with profane authors, is often
he was at that time governor of Judea. A pot intimated in a direct form, but in the
sentence from him was necessary before form of a slight or distant allusion. There
they could proceed to the execution of Je- 1 is not the most remote appearance of its be-
sus; and we know that the power of life | ing fetched or sought for. It is brought in
and death was usually vested in the Roman accidentally, and flows in the most natural
governor. Our Saviour was treated with and undesigned manner out of the progress
derision; and this we know to have been a of the narrative.
customary practice at that time, previous to The circumstance, that none of the Gos-
the execution of criminals, and during the pel writers are inconsistent with one an-
time of it. Pilate scourged Jesus before he other, falls better under a different branch of
gave him up to be crucified. We know from the argument. It is enough for our present
ancient authors, that this was a very usual purpose, that there is no single writer in-
practice among the Romans. The account consistent with himself. It often happens,
u an excution generally run in this form :-that falsehood carries its own refutation

stripped, whipped, and beheaded or along with it; and that, through the artful led. According to the evangelists, his disguises which are employed in the consuon was written on the top of the struction of a fabricated story, we can often Os; and we learn from Suetonius and detect a flaw or a contradiction, which con

the crime of a person to be ex- demns the authority of the whole narrative. utu was affixed to the instrument of his / Now every single piece of the New Testas

According to the evangelist, ment wants this mark or character of falseusation was written in three differ-hood. The different parts are found to susent languages; and we know from Jose

| tain, and harmonize, and flow out of each I was quite common in Jerusalem I other. Each has at least the merit ol being public advertisements written in la consistent narrative. For any thing we t: According to the evangelists, I see upon the face of it, it may be true,

ear his cross; and we know and a further hearing must be given before resources of information, that we can be justified in rejecting it as the the constant practice of these tale of an impostor.

ruwig to the evangelists, thel There is another mark of falsehood which was given up to be buried at each of the Gospel narratives appear to be 1 Iriends. We know that und Lexempted from. There is little or no på

was infamous, this was rading about their own integrity. We can custom with all Roman I collect their pretensions to credit from the

history itself, but we see no anxious display ew more particulars of the of these pretensions. We cannot fail to perwithin the compass of a ceive the force of that argument which is de

ngelical history. The rived from the publicity of the Christian miner of the history affords I racles, and the very minute and scrupulous is lavour, antecedent to l examination which they had to sustain irom

e circum- | the rulers and official men of Judea. But this

ng | publicity, and these examinations, are simce, when we find, that I ply recorded by the evangelists. There is

no boastful reference to these circumstances, 1 so great a / and no ostentatious display of the advantage testimony of other au- which they give to the Christian argument.

can collect from other They bring their story forward in the shape on, as to the manners of a direct and unencumbered narrative, and ulat period. It is diffi- I deliver themselves with that simplicity and

urst instance, how unembarrassed confidence, which nothing Tol a fabricated story would but their consciousnes

but their consciousness of truth, and the Of circumstances, I perfect feeling of their own strength any

point of compari- i consistency, can account for. They do ho hors, and giving to the write, as if their object was to carry

al chance of detecting that was at all doubtful or suspici Sition. And it is still more difficult | simply to transmi

phus, that it was quite common in
to have all public advertiseme
this manner. According to
Jesus had to bear his cross; and
from other resources of
this was the constant prac
times. According to the e
body of Jesus was given up to

less the criminal was infamous
the law, or the custom with
governors.

These, and a few more particula
same kind, occur within the compa
single page of the evangelical history.
circumstantial manner of the history
a presumption in its favour, anteced
all examination into the truth
stances themselves. But i
addition to the evidence, when we

il the subordinate 'parts of the main

story, the evangelists mai
consistency with the testimony
thors, and with all we can collect ir
sources of information, as to th
and institutions of that period
cult to conceive, in the first insta

the inventor of a fabr

hazard such a number of circum each of them supplying a point of c son with other authors, and giv inquirer an additional chance ol

the imposition. An

ject was to carry a point

oubtful or suspicious. It is simply to transmit to the men of other times,

and of other countries, a memorial of the they deliver themselves with the most fa-
events which led to the establishment of the miliar and unembarrassed simplicity. They
Christian religion in the world. In the do not appear to anticipate the surprise of
prosecution of their narrative, we challenge their readers, or to be at all aware, that the
the most refined judge of the human cha- marvellous nature of their story is to be any
racter to point out a single symptom of diffi- obstacle to its creditor reception in the neigh-
dence in the truth of their own story, or of bourhood. At the first performance of our
art to cloak this diffidence from the notice Saviour's miracles, there was a strong and
of the most severe and vigilant observers. a widely spread sensation over the whole
The manner of the New Testament writers country. His fame went abroad, and all
does not carry in it the slightest idea of its people were amazed. This is quite natu-
being an assumed manner. It is quite ral; and the circumstance of no surprise
natural, quite unguarded, and free of all being either felt or anticipated by the evan-
apprehension that their story is to meet gelists, in the writing of their history, can
with any discredit or contradiction from best be accounted for by the truth of the
any of those numerous readers who had it history itself, that the experience of years
fully in their power to verify or to expose had blunted the edge of novelty, and ren-
it. We see no expedient made use of to ob- dered miracles familiar, not only to them,
tain or to conciliate the acquiescence of but to all the people to whom they address-
their readers. They appear to feel as if ed themselves.
they did not need it. They deliver what What appears to us a most striking in-
they have to say, in a round and unvarnish- ternal evidence for the truth of the Gospel,
ed manner; nor is it in general accompa- is that perfect unity of mind and of purpose
nied with any of those strong assevera- which is ascribed to our Saviour. Had he
tions by which an impostor so often at- been an impostor, he could not have fore-
tempts to practice upon the credulity of his seen all the fluctuations of his history, and
victims.

| yet no expression of surprise is recorded to In the simple narrative of the evangelists, have escaped from him. No event appears they betray no feeling of wonder at the ex- to have caught him unprepared. We see traordinary nature of the events which they no shifting of doctrine or sentiment, with a record, and no consciousness that what they view to accommodate to new or unexpected are announcing is to excite any wonder circumstances. His parables and warnings among their readers. This appears to us to to his disciples give sufficient intimation, be a very strong circumstance. Had it been that he laid his account with all those the newly broached tale of an impostor, he events which appeared to his unenlightened would, in all likelihood, have feigned aston- friends to be so untoward and so unpromisishment himself, or at least have laid his ing. In every explanation of his objects, account with the doubt and astonishment we see the perfect consistency of a mind of those to whom it was addressed. When before whose prophetic eye all futurity lay a person tells a wonderful story to a com- open; and when ihe events of this futurity pany who are totally unacquainted with it, came round, he met them, not as chances he must be sensible, not merely of the sur-that were unforeseen, but ascertainties which prise which is excited in the minds of the he had provided for. This consistency of hearers, but of a corresponding sympathy his views is supported through all the variin his own mind with the feelings of those ations of his history, and it stands finally who listen to him. He lays his account contrasted in the record of the evangelists, with the wonder, if not the incredulity, of with the misconceptions, the surprises, the his hearers; and this distinctly appears in disappointments of his followers. The gradthe terms with which he delivers his story, ual progress of their minds from the splenand the manner in which he introduces it. did anticipations of earthly grandeur, to a It makes a wide difference, if, on the other full acquiescence in the doctrine of a crucihand, he tells the same story to a company, fied Saviour, throws a stronger light on the who have long been apprised of the chief perfect unity of purpose and of conception circumstances, but who listen to him for the which animated his, and which can only mere purpose of obtaining a more distinct be accounted for by the inspiration that and particular narrative. Now, in as far as filled and enlightened it. It may have been we can collect from the manner of the possible enough to describe a well-sustained evangelists, they stand in this last predica- example of this contrast from an actual hisment. They do not write as if they were tory before us. It is difficult, however, to imposing a novelty upon their readers. In conceive, how it could be sustained so well, the language of Luke, they write for the and in a manner so apparently artless, by sake of giving more distinct information; and means of invention, and particularly when that the readers might know the certainty the inventors made their own errors and of those things, wherein they had been in their own ignorance form part of the fabriåtructed. In the prosecution of this task, cation.

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