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way by which the claims of the inferior not one moment might elapse between a
animals are practically to be carried. To state of pleasurable existence and a state
obtain the regards of man's heart in behalf of profound unconsciousness. Again, we
of the lower animals, we should strive to do not foresee, but with the perfecting of
draw the regards of his mind towards the two sciences of anatomy and physio-
them. We should avail ourselves of the logy, the abolition of animal experiments;
close alliance that obtains between the re- but we do foresee a gradual, and, at length,
gards of his attention, and those of his sym- a complete abandonment of the experiments
pathy. For this purpose, we should im- of illustration, which are at present a thou-
portunately ply him with the objects of sand-fold more numerous than the experi-
suffering, and thus call up its respondent ments of humane discovery.
emotion of sympathy, that among the As to field-sports, we for the present, ab-
other objects which have hitherto engross-stain from all prophecy, in regard, either to
ed his attention, and the other desires or their growing disuse, or to the conclusive
emotions which have, hitherto lorded it extinction of them. We are quite sure, in
over the compassion of his nature and over-the mean time, that casuistry upon this
powered it, this last may at length be re-subject would be altogether powerless; and
stored to its legitimate play, and reinstated nothing could be imagined more keenly, or
in all its legitimate pre-eminence over the more energetically contemptuous, than the
other affections or appetites which belong impatient, the impetuous disdain where-
to him. It affords a hopeful view of our with the enamoured votaries of this gay
cause, that so much can be done by the and glorious adventure would listen to any
mere obtrusive presentation of the object to demonstration of its unlawfulness. We
the notice of society. It is a comfort to shall therefore make no attempt to dogma-
know, that in this benevolent warfare we tise them out of that fond and favourite
have to make head, not so much against amusement which they prosecute with all
the cruelty of the public, as against the the intensity of a passion. It is not thus
heedlessness of the public; that to hold that the fascination will be dissipated. And,
forth a right view, is the way to call forth therefore, for the present, we should be in-
a right sensibility; and, that to assail the clined to subject the lovers of the chase,
seat of any emotion, our likeliest process is and the lovers of the prize-fight, to the
to make constant and conspicuous exhibi- same treatment, even as there exists be-
tion of the object which is fitted to awaken tween them, we are afraid, the affinity of
it. Our text, taken from the profoundest a certain common or kindred character.
book of experimental wisdom in the world, There is, we have often thought, a kind
keeps clear of every questionable or ca- of professional cast, a family likeness, by
suistical dogma; and rests the whole cause which the devotees of game, and of all sorts
of the inferior animals on one moral ele- of stirring or hazardous enterprise admit
ment, which is, in respect of principle, of being recognized; the hue of a certain
and on one practical method, which is, in assimilating quality, although of various
respect of efficacy, unquestionable: “A gradations, from the noted champions of
righteous man regardeth the life of his the hunt, to the noted champions of the
beast.” Let a man be but righteous in the ring or of the racing-course; a certain dash
general and obvious sense of the word, and of moral outlawry, if I may use the ex-
let the regard of his attention be but di- I pression, among all those children of high
rected to the case of the inferior animals, and heated adventure, that bespeaks them
and then the regard of his sympathy will a distinct class in society,--a set of wild
be awakened to the full extent at which it and wayward humourists, who have broken
is either duteous or desirable. Still it may them loose from the dull regularities of life,
be asked to what extent will the duty go? | and formed themselves into so many trusty
and our reply is, that we had rather push and sworn brotherhoods, wholly given over
the duty forward than be called upon to de-to frolic, and excitement, and excess, in
fine the extreme termination of it. Yet all their varieties. They compose a sepa-
we do not hesitate to say, that we foresee rate and outstanding public among them-
not aught so very extreme as the abolition selves, nearly arrayed in the same pictu-
of animal food; but we do foresee the in- resque habiliments-bearing most distinctly
definite abridgement of all that cruelty | upon their countenance the same air of
which subserves the gratifications of a base recklessness and hardihood-admiring the
and selfish epicurism. We think that a same feats of dexterity or danger-indulg-
christian and humanized society will at ing the same tastes, even to their very
length lift their prevalent voice, for the literature--members of the same sporting
least possible expense of suffering to all the society--readers of the same sporting ma-
victims of a necessary slaughter-for a gazine, whose strange medley of anecdotes
business of utmost horror being also a gives impressive exhibition of that one and
business of utmost despatch--for the blow, pervading characteristic for which we are
in short, of an instant extermination, that contending; anecdotes of the chase, and





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anecdotes of the high-breathed or bloody i proceeded from them. An endowment for contest, and anecdotes of the gaming-table, an annual discourse upon a given theme, is, and, lastly, anecdotes of the high-way. we believe, a novelty in Scotland; though We do not just affirm a precise identity be- it is to similar institutions that much of the tween all the specimens or species in this best sacred and theological literature of our very peculiar department of moral history. sister country is owing. We should rejoice But, to borrow a phrase from natural his-if, in this our comparatively meagre and tory, we affirm, that there are transition unbeneficed land, both these themes and processes, by which the one melts, and de- these endowments were multiplied. We moralises, and graduates insensibly into the recommend this as a fit species of charity, other. What we have now to do with, is for the munificence of wealthy individuals. the cruelty of their respective entertain- Whatever their selected argument shall be ments—a cruelty, however, upon which whether that of cruelty to animals, or some we could not assert, even of the very worst one evidence of our faith, or the defence and and most worthless among them, that they illustration of a doctrine, or any distinct rejoice in pain, but that they are regardless method of Christian philanthropy for the of pain. It is not by the force of a mere moral regeneration of our species, or aught ethical dictum, in itself, perhaps, unques-else of those innumerable topics that lie tionable, that they will be restrained from situated within the reach and ample domain their pursuits. But when transformed by of that revelation which God has made to the operation of unquestionable principle, our world-we feel assured that such a into righteous and regardful men, they will movement must be responded to with benespontaneously abandon them. Meanwhile, ficial effect, both by the gifted pastors of we try to help forward our cause, by forcing our Church, and by the aspiring youths of upon general regard, those sufferings which greatest power or greatest promise among are now so unheeded and unthought of its candidates. Such institutions as these And we look forward to its final triumph, would help to quicken the energies of our as one of those results that will historically establishment; and through means of a ensue, in the train of an awakened and a sustained and reiterated effort, directed to moralized society.

some one great lesson, whether in theology The institution of a yearly sermon against or morals, they might impress, and that cruelty to animals, is of itself a likely more deeply every year, some specific and enough'expedient, that might at least be of most salutary amelioration on the princisome auxiliary operation, along with other ples or the practices of general society. and more general causes, towards such an Yet ye are loath to quit our subject withawakening. It is not by one, but by many out one appeal more in behalf of those poor successive appeals, that the cause of justice sufferers, who, unable to advocate their and mercy to the brute creation will at own cause, possess, on that very account, length be practically carried. On this sub- a more imperative claim on the exertions ject I cannot, within the limits of a single of him who now stands as their advocate address, pretend to aught like a full or a before you. finished demonstration. This might require And first, it may have been felt that, by not one, but a whole century of sermons; the way in which we have attempted to and many therefore are the topics which resolve cruelty into its elements, we instead necessarily I must bequeath to my succes- of launching rebuke against it, bave only sors, in this warfare against the listlessness devised a palliation for its gross and shockand apathy of the public. And, beside the ing enormity. But it is not so. It is true, force and the impression of new topics, if we count the enormity to lie mainly in the there be any truth in our doctrine, there is heedlessness of pain, but then we charge a mighty advantage gained upon this sub- this foully and flagrantly enormous thing, ject of all others by the repetition of old not on the mere desperadoes and barbarians topics. It is a subject on which the pub- of our land, but on the men and the women lic do not require so much to be instruct- of general, and even of cultivated and highed, as to be reminded; to have the re- bred society. Instead of stating cruelty to gard of their attention directed again and be what it is not, and then confining the again to the sufferings of poor helpless imputation of it to the outcast few, we hold creatures, that the regard of their sympathy it better, and practically far more impormight at length be effectually obtained for tant, to state what cruelty really is, and then them. This then is a cause to which the fasten the imputation of it on the commoninstitution of an anniversary pleading in its place and the companionable many. Those favour, is most precisely and peculiarly outcasts to whom you would restrict the adapted. And besides, we must confess, in the condemnation, are not at present withm general, our partiality for a scheme that has the reach of our voice. But you are; and originated the Boyle, and the Bampton, and it lies with you to confer a ten-fold greater the Warburtonian lectureships of England, boon on the inferior creation, than it all with all the valuable authorship which has | barbarous sports, and all bloody experi

protracted agor SIDE distants trede is carried wight to our a and daughters the daily thous man my live; have to die mor may live more wa of the art a ity trade--fron ut not alone th

Eten its appeara xus of a refine stifind and scie ta sequence, it sequence betwer an exquisite or eakery; and i art avails herse philosophy,--th

that the second the metaphysic lits train. A verstand, hen that of that pre ture which oft i Bight be feaste that the eyes of Tegaled with a ties of a Majen väe the eve of Horse in the se of the evil in Mlajendies. His intury of intel 她a Ensual

titely nought Worthlessandis

But, secondi your kindness

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ments were forthwith put an end to. It is tions to a close, offer to your notice the at the bidding of your collective will to save bright and the beautiful side of it. I would those countless myriads who are brought to bid you think of all that fond and pleasant the regular and the daily slaughter, all the imagery, which is associated even with the difference between a gradual and an instant lower animals, when they become the obdeath. And there is a practice realized injects of a benevolent care, which at length every-day life, which you can put down ripens into a strong and cherished affection -a practice which strongly reminds us of a for them-as when the worn-out hunter is ruder age that has long gone by ;-when permitted to graze, and be still the favourite even beauteous and high-born ladies could of all the domestics through the remainder partake in the dance, and the song, and the of his life; or the old and shaggy housefestive chivalry of barbaric castles, unmind-dog, that has now ceased to be serviceable, ful of all the piteous and the pining agony is nevertheless sure of its regular meals, and of dungeoned prisoners below. We charge a decent funeral; or when an adopted ina like unmindfulness on the present gene-mate of the household is claimed as proration. We know not whether those wretch-perty, or as the object of decided partiality, ed animals whose still sentient frameworks by some one or other of the children; or, are under process of ingenious manufacture finally, when in the warmth and comfort of for the epicurism or the splendour of your the evening fire, one or more of these home coming entertainment, we know not whe- animals take their part in the living groupe ther they are now dying by inches in your that is around it, and their very presence own subterranean keeps, or through the serves to complete the picture of a blissful subdivided industry of our commercial age, and smiling family. Such relationships are now suffering all the horrors of their with the inferior creatures, supply many of protracted agony, in the prison-house of our finest associations of tenderness, and some distant street where this dreadful give, even to the heart of man, some of its trade is carried on. But truly it matters simplest yet sweetest enjoyments. He even nought to our argument, ye heedless sons can find in these some compensation for the and daughters of gaiety! We speak not of dread and the disquietude wherewith his the daily thousands who have to die that bosom is agitated amid the fiery conflicts man may live; but of those thousands who of infuriated men. When he retires from have to die more painfully, just that man the stormy element of debate, and exchanges, may live more luxuriously. We speak to for the vindictive glare, and the hideous disyou of the art and the mystery of the kill-cords of that outcry which he encounters ing trade-from which it would appear, among his fellows,-when these are exthat not alone the delicacy of the food, but changed for the honest welcome and the even its appearance, is, among the connois- guileless regards of those creatures who seurs of a refined epicurism, the matter of gambol at his feet, he feels that even in the skilful and scientific computation. There society of the brutes, in whose hearts there is a sequence, it would appear-there is a lis neither care nor controversy, he can sursequence between an exquisite death, and round himself with a better atmosphere far, an exquisite or a beautiful preparation of than in that which he breathes among the cookery; and just in the ordinary way that companionships of his own species, Here art avails herself of the other sequences of he can rest himself from the fatigues of that philosophy,--the first term is made sure, moral tempest which has beat upon him so that the second term might, according to violently; and, in the play of kindliness the metaphysic order of causation, follow with these poor irrationals, his spirit can

in its train. And hence, we are given to forget for awhile all the injustice and fe' understand, hence the cold blooded ingenui- rocity of their boasted lords.

ties of that previous and preparatory tor- But this is only saying, that our subject ture which oft is undergone, both that man is connected with the pleasures of sentimight be feasted with a finer relish, and ment. And therefore, in the third and last that the eyes of man might be feasted and place, we have to offer it as our concluding regaled with a finer spectacle. The atroci-observation, that it is also connected with ties of a Majendie have been blazoned be- the principles of deepest sacredness. It may fore the eye of a British public; but this is be thought by some that we have wasted worse in the fearful extent and magnitude the whole of this Sabbath morn, on what of the evil--truly worse than a thousand may be ranked among but the lesser moraliMajendies. His is a cruel luxury, but it is the ties of human conduct. But there is one luxury of intellect. Yours is both a cruel aspect, in which it may be regarded as more and a sensual luxury: and you have posi- profoundly and more peculiarly religious tively nought to plead for it but the most than any one virtue which reciprocates, or worthless and ignoble appetites of our nature. is of mutual operation among the fellows

But, secondly, and if possible to secure of the same species. It is a virtue which your kindness for our cause, let me, in the oversteps, as it were, the limits of a species, act of drawing these lengthened observa- and which, in this instance, prompts a de

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mader THE

scending movement, on our part, of righ-land scornfully away from the rights of teousness and mercy towards those who those creatures whom God hath placed in have an inferior place to ourselves in the dependence under him? We know that the scale of creation. The lesson of this day is cause of poor and unfriended animals has not the circulation of benevolence within many an obstacle to contend with in the difthe limits of one species. It is the trans-ficulties or the delicacies of legislation. But mission of it from one species to another. we shall ever deny that it is a theme beThe first is but the charity of a world. The neath the dignity of legislation; or that second is the charity of a universe. Had the nobles and the senators of our land there been no such charity, no descending stoop to a cause which is degrading, when, current of love and of liberality from spe- in the imitation of heaven's high clemency, cies to species, what, I ask, should have they look benignly downward on these become of ourselves? Whence have we humble and helpless sufferers. Ere we learned this attitude of lofty unconcern can admit this, we must forget the whole about the creatures who are beneath us? economy of our blessed gospel. We must Not from those ministering spirits who wait forget the legislations and the cares of upon the heirs of salvation. Not from those the upper sanctuary in behalf of our fallen angels who circle the throne of heaven, and species. We must forget that the redempmake all its arches ring with joyful har- tion of our world is suspended on an act of mony, when but one sinner of this prostrate jurisprudence which angels desired to look world turns his footsteps towards them. into, and for effectuating which, the earth Not from that mighty and mysterious visi- we tread upon was honoured by the foottant, who unrobed Him of all his glories, steps, not of angel or of archangel, but of and bowed down his head unto the sacri- God manifest in the flesh. The distance fice, and still, from the seat of his now ex- upward between us and that mysterious alted mediatorship, pours forth his interces- Being, who let himself down from heaven's sions and his calls in behalf of the race he high concave upon our lowly platform, surdied for. Finally, not from the eternal passes by infinity the distance downward Father of all, in the pavilion of whose resi- / between us and every thing that breathes. dence there is the golden treasury of all And He bowed himself thus far for the purthose bounties and beatitudes that roll over pose of an example, as well as for the purthe face of nature, and from the footstool of pose of an expiation; that every Christian whose empyreal throne there reaches a might extend his compassionate regards golden chain of providence to the very over the whole of sentient and suffering nahumblest of his family. He who hath ture. The high court of Parliament is not given his angels charge concerning us, degraded by its attentions and its cares in means that the tide of beneficence should behalf of inferior creatures, else the Sancpass from order to order, through all the tuary of Heaven has been degraded by its ranks of his magnificent creation; and we counsels in behalf of the world we occupy, ask, is it with man that this goodly provi- and in the execution of which the Lord of sion is to terminate-or shall he, with all heaven himself relinquished the highest his sensations of present blessedness, and seat of glory in the universe, and went all his visions of future glory let down upon forth to sojourn for a time on this outcast him from above, shall he turn him selfishly I and accursed territory.




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PREFACE. The following Sermons are of too miscellaneous a character to be arranged according to the succession of their topics, and they are, therefore, presented to the reader as so many compositions that are almost wholly independent of each other.

Two of the Sermons treat of Predestination, and the Sin against the Holy Ghost. There are topics of a highly speculative character, in the system of Christian Doctrine, which it is exceedingly difficult to manage, without interesting the curiosity rather than the conscience of the reader. And yet, it is from their fitness of application to the conscience, that they derive their chief right to appear in a volume of Sermons; and I should not have ventured any publication upon either of these doctrines, did I not think them capable of being so treated as to subserve the great interests of practical godliness.

The Sermons all relate to topics that I hold to be strictly congregational, with the exception of the thirteenth and fourteenth in the volume, which belong rather to Christian Economies, than to Christian Theology—to the "outer things of the house of God," rather than to the things of the sanctuary, or the intimacies of the spiritual life. I, perhaps, ought therefore to apologize for the appearance of these two in a volume of Congregational Sermons, and yet I have been led by experience to feel the religious importance of their subject, and I think that much injury has been sustained by the souls of our people, from the neglect of obvious principles both in the business of education, and in the business of public charity. I have, however, more comfort in discussing this argument from the press, than from the pulpit, which ought to be kept apart for loftier themes, and which seems to suffer a sort of desecration when employed as the vehicle for any thing else than the overtures of pardon to the sinner, and the hopes and duties of the believer.

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The Constancy of God in His Works an Argument for the Faithfulness of God in

His Word.

"For ever, O Lord, thy word is settled in heaven. Thy faithfulness is unto all generations : thou hast egtablished the earth, and it abideth. They continue this day according to thy ordinances: for all are thy servants."-Psalm cxix. 89, 90, 91.

In these verses there is affirmed to be an afterwards. And then, as if to perfect the analogy between the word of God and the assimilation between them, it is said of both works of God. It is said of his word, that it in the 9lst verse, “They continue this day is settled in heaven, and that it sustains its according to thine ordinances, for all are faithfulness from one generation to another. I thy servants;" thereby identifying the sureIt is said of his works, and more especially ness of that word which proceeded from his of those that are immediately around us, lips, with the unfailing constancy of that even of the earth which we inhabit, that as Nature which was formed and is upholden it was established at the first so it abideth | by his hands.

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