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Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount applied Arthur Young capital capitalist causes circulating capital condition considerable consumed consumption cultivation degree demand desire of accumulation diminished duction Economy of France effect employment England equal exertion exist expense farmer favorable flax France funds greater gross produce human hundred quarters idle class improvement increase individual industry instruments Ireland kind labor employed laboring classes land landlord less limited mankind manufactures manure material means ment métayer mode necessary objects obtained occupation operations paid peasant proprietors persons plough political economy Poor Law population portion possession present principle productive consumers productive labor productive power profit proportion quantity quired remuneration render rent require saving slavery small farms society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus taxes things tillage tion tivation tive Tuscany unless unproductive wages wealth whole workmen
Página 197 - It is not so with the Distribution of Wealth. That is a matter of human institution solely. The things once there, mankind, individually or collectively, can do with them as they like.
Página 420 - every speculation respecting the economical interests of a society thus constituted implies some theory of Value : the smallest error on that subject infects with corresponding error all our other conclusions ; and anything vague or misty in our conception of it creates confusion and uncertainty in everything
Página 122 - ... the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
Página 293 - The landlord is no doubt liable in the end to suffer from their poverty, by being forced to make advances to them, especially in bad seasons ; and a foresight of this ultimate inconvenience may operate beneficially on such landlords as prefer future security to present profit.
Página 335 - The condition of the class can be bettered in no other way than by altering that proportion to their advantage ; and every scheme for their benefit which does not proceed on this as its foundation, is, for all permanent purposes, a delusion.
Página 311 - ... of all vulgar modes of escaping from the consideration of the effect of social and moral influences on the human mind, the most vulgar is that of attributing the diversities of conduct and character to inherent natural differences.
Página 235 - This is partly intelligible, if we consider that only through the principle of competition has political economy any pretension to the character of a science.
Página 288 - ... to the most effective use of the powers of the soil ; that no other existing state of agricultural economy has so beneficial an effect on the industry, the intelligence, the frugality, and prudence of the population, nor tends on the whole so much to discourage an improvident increase of their numbers ; and that no existing state, therefore, is on the whole so favourable, both to their moral and their physical welfare.
Página 371 - A mason or bricklayer, on the contrary, can work neither in hard frost nor in foul weather, and his employment at all other times depends upon the occasional calls of his customers. He is liable, in consequence, to be frequently without any. What he earns, therefore, while he is employed, must not only maintain him while he is idle, but make him some compensation for those anxious and desponding moments which the thought of so precarious a situation must sometimes occasion.