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It was this that Lewis XIV. when ready to expire, that is, at a time when the judgment is most sound, recommended to the present king, who sits upon the throne. Amongst other instructions, which have been justly deemed worthy of eternal remembrance, I have been too fond of war  said he to him, do not follow me in that, nor in the very great expences I have run into. In the last discourse he had with his grandson at Seaux, when he was setting out for Spain, he gave him the same advice; and the king of Spain told the person from whom I had it, that his grandfather spoke these words to him with tears in his eyes.
Nothing of this kind makes a man greater or more deserving, because nothing of all this makes a part of himself, but is wholly external and foreign to him. And yet the generality of mankind place their greatness in these. They look upon themselves as inixed and incorporated with all around them, their Furniture, Dress, and Equipage. They swell and enlarge the idea they form of themselves as much as they can, from these outward circumstances: by these they think they are very great, and flatter themselves that they appear so in the eyes of others.
[r] But to pass a right judgment upon their greatness, we should examine them in theinselves, and set aside for a few moments their train and retinue. We
 Dernieres paroles de Louis dacia. Sen. Ep. 76. XIV. au roi Louis XV. de l'im. Auro illos, argento, & ebore orprimerie du cabinet du roi. navi: intus boni nihil est. Isti,
[r] Nemo istorum, quos divitiæ quos pro felicibus aspicitis, si, non honoresque in altiore fastigio ponunc qua occurunt, sed qua latent, vimagnus est. Quare ergo magnus deretis,iniseri sunt, sordidi, turpes, videtur? Cum basiillum sua metiris. ad siinilitudinem parier um suorum Hoc laboramus errore, sic nobis extrinsecus culti. Itaque, dum illis imponitur, quòd neminem æstima- licet stare, & ad arbitrium suum nius eo quod est, sed adjicimus illi ostendi, nitent & imponunt: cùm & ea quibus adornatus est. Atqui aliquid incidit quod disturber ac cùm voles veranı hoininis æstimati. detegat, tunc apparei quantum ante onem inire, &scire qualis sit, nu- ac veræ fæditatis alienus splendor duin inspice. Ponat patrimonium, absconderit. lv. lib. de Provide ponat honores, & alia fortunæ men
should then find that they appear great and exalted, by being beheld at a distance, and raised in a manner upon their basis. Strip them of this advantage, and reduce them to their proper standard, to their.just proportion, and the vain phantom vanishes. Their outside is rich and fine, like the walls of their apartments; within there is often nought but meanness, baseness, and poverty, with an hideous void of every merit; and sometimes even this fine outward shew conceals the inost enormous crimes and the most infamous vices.
God, [s] says Seneca, could not have cast a greater reproach and disgrace upon theseoutwardadvantages
, which are the object of our desires, than by conferring them, as he often does, upon sorry wretches, and denying them usually to men of the greatest probity. To what a condition would the latter be reduced, if men were to be judged by their outside? How often has the most solid merit been mistaken, and exposed even to contempt, because concealed under a mean habit, and an indifferent appearance?
[t] Philopemen, the greatest soldier of his age in Greece, who exalted so much the glory of the republic of the Achæans, by his extraordinary merit, and whom the Romans called by way of admiration the last of the Greeks; this Philopemen was usually clad in a very plain dress, and often went abroad without any servant or attendance.
In this manner he came alone to the house of a friend who had invited him to dinner. The mistress of the family, who expected the general of the Achæans, took him for a servant, and begged he would give her his assistance in the kitchen, because her husband was absent. Philopemen without ceremony threw off his cloak, and fell to cleaving wood. The husband coming in at that instant, and surprised at the oddness of the sight. “ [u] How now,
[s] Nullo modo magis potest  Plut. in Vit. Philop. Deus concupita traducere, quàm si  Τι τετο (έφη) Φιλοποίμην, illa ad turpissimos defest, ad optimis Tiyaçãrão, (ion dapifwor iztivos) abigit. Ibid. cap. 5.
ή κακάς ύψεως δίδωμι
“ Philopemen,” says he, “what's the meaning of
“Oh,” answered the other, “I an paying “interest for my bad appearance.”
Scipio Æmilianus, who lived four and fifty years, never made any acquisition in all his life, and when he died, left only four and forty marks of silver plate, and three of gold, though he had been master of all the wealth of Carthage, and had enriched his soldiers more than any other general. Being deputed by the senate of Rome with full powers to restore discipline in the towns and provinces, and to inspect kings and nations, though descended from one of the most illustrious families in Rome, and adopted into one of the richest, and though he had so augušt a character to support in the name of the Roman empire, he carried with him but one friend, and he was a [.r] philosopher, and five servants, one of which dying upon the road, he contented himself with the four that remained, till one came from Rone to supply his place. As soon as he came to Alexandria with his small retinue, his fame discovered him, notwithstanding all the care his modesty had taken to prevent it, and drew all the city to meet him upon his landing. [y] His personal one, without any other attendance but that of his virtues, his actions, and his triumphs, was enough to extinguish, even in the eyes of the people, the vain splendor of the king of Egypt, who was advanced to meet hin with all his court, and drew upon him alone the eyes, the acclamations, and applauses of all the world.
[:] These examples teach us, that we ought not to value men by their outward appcarance, any more than a horse by his trappings. An extraordinary merit may lie hid under a mean labit, as a rich garment may cover enorious vices. They shew us in the second place, that
greater courage and resolution is required, than [x] Panætius.
tu amplitudinis pondus secum [y] Cùm per socios & exteras ferret, estimabatur. gentes iter faceret, non mancipia lib. 4. cap. 3. n. 13. sed victoriæ numerabantur; nec,  Senec. Ep. 47. quantum auri & argenti, sed quan
frin anut thet
one would easily imagine, to become superior to popular opinions, and to get the better of the false infamy which the world is pleased to cast upon a plain, poor, and frugal manner of living. Seneca, as much a philosopher as lie was, or had a mind to be thought, had always somewhat of this false shame hanging about him; and [a] he owns himself, that going down sometiines to his country-seat in an ordinary chariot, he has blushed against his inclination at being caught upon the road in such an equipage by persons of distinction ; a certain proof, as he says himself, that he had not thoronghly reduced to practice what he had said and wrote upon the advantages of a frugal life. He that blushes at a mean chariot, adds he, is fond of a finer. And he has made little progress in virtue, who dares not openly declare in favour of poverty and frugality, and is at all concerned about the judgment of spectators.
 Agesilaus, king of Lacedæmon, was herein a greater philosopher than Seneca
A Spartan education had armed bim against this false shame. Pharnabasus, governor of one of the provinces belonging to the king of Persia, had desired to treat of him; and the interview was appointed in the open field. The first appeared in all the pomp and luxury of the Persian court. He was dressed in a purple robe embroidered with gold and silver. The ground was spread with rich carpets, and fine cushions were laid to sit down upon. Agesilaus, in a very plain dress, without any ceremony, sat himself down upon the grass.
. The pride of the Persian was confounded at his behaviour', and unable to support the comparison, paid homage to the piainness of the Lacedæmonian, by folluwing his example. And this, because a quite dif
[a] Vix à ine obtineo, ut hoc ve- certam fidem & immobilem. Qui hiculum velim videri meum. Durat sordido vehiculo erubescit, pretioso adhuc perversa recti verecundia. gloriatur. rum adhuc profeci, Quoties in aliquem comitatum lau. nondum audeo frugalitatem palam tiorem incidimus, invitus erubesco: ferre: etiam nunc curo opiniones quod argumentum est, ista que viatorum. Id. Ep. 87. probo, quæ laudo, nondum habere [b] Plut. in Vit. Ages,
ferent train, which far outshone all the gold and silver of Persia, surrounded Agesilaus, and gained him reverence; I mean, his name, his reputation, his victories, and the terror of his arms, which made the king of Persia tremble even upon his throne.
The emperors [c] Nerva, [d], Trajan, [e] Antoninus, and [f] Marcus Aurelius, sold the palaces, the gold and silver plate, the valuable furniture, and all the superfluities they could dispense with, which their predecessors had heaped up through a desire of possessing solely whatever was exquisitely curious. These princes, as also Vespasian, Pertinax, Severus, Alexander, Claudius II. and Tacitus, who were raised to the empire by their merit, and whom all ages have admired as the best and greatest of princes, always affected a great simplicity in their apparel, their furniture, and outward appearance, and despised whatever had the least tincture of pomp and luxury. By retrenching all useless expences, [g] they found a greater fund in their own modesty, than the most avaricious in all their spoils; and without endeavouring to set themselves off by anyoutward lustre, [/i] shewed they were only emperors by the care they took of the public. In every thing else they resembled other citizens, and lived like private men. But the lower they stooped in their condescensions, the greater and more august they appeared.
[i] Vespasian upon solemn days drank out of a small silver cup, which had been left hiin by his grandmother, who brought him up. [li] Trajan's retinue was very modest and moderate. The had nobody to clear the way before him, and was pleased sometimes to be under a necessity of stopping in the streets to ler the attendants of others pass by him.
UJ In Vit. Mar. Aurel. Vict.
 Plin. Paneg.
 Dio. lib. 66. Tř a coroix Tân κοινων, αυτοκράτωρ ένομίζετο.
 Sueton. Vit. Vespas. cap. 2. K] Plin. Paneg.