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occasion. Astyages seemed uneasy that he had offered
answers Cyrus, to merit your favour? then I should
soon have obtained it; for I'll answer for it, I can
through forgerfultless, ansitered Cyrus, that I did
Poison! how so?" “ Yes indeed, papa : for it is not long since I took notice, at an entertainment you gave the lords of your court, that after they “had drank a little of that liquor, all their heads
were turned. They bawled and sung, and talked
got that you' were king, and they, that they were
replies Astyages, does not the same thing happen
Never, answered Cyrus."
His mother Mandane being upon the point of returning into Persia, he cheerfully complied with the repeated instances of his grandfather to continue in Media, because he said, as he did not ride well enough yet, he might have time to perfect himself in that exercise, which was not practised in Persia, the dryness of the soil, and mountainous situation of the country not admitting the breeding of horses.
During this interval that he passed at court, he gained the esteem and love of all inankind. He was mild, affable, obliging, good-natured, and liberal. If the young lords had any favour to bey of the king, he solicited it for them. If there was any cause of
omplaint against them, he was their mediator with the king. He made their business his own, and managed so well, that he always obtained what he desired.
Cambyses recalling Cyrus to complete the time allotted for the finishing of his exercises in Persia, he immediately set forward on his journey, that his delay might neither give his father, nor his country, any. cause to complain of him. It then appeared how tenderly he was beloved. At his departure he was accompanied by all the world; those of his own age, young men and old, all attended him. Astyages went with him on horseback a considerable way, and when he was obliged to take his leave, the whole company broke out into tears.
Thus Cyrus returned into Persia, where he continued one year more in the class of children. His companions expected to find a great alteration in his manners, after having spent so much time in so voluptuous and splendid a court as that of Media. But when they saw he was contented with their ordinary table, and upon days of feasting was more sober and reserved than any of them, they looked upon him with new adiniration.
He passed from this first class into the second, which is that of the young men; where he shewed that he had not his equal in address, patience and obedience.
I shall not attempt to make any reflections upon the preceding story; they offer themselves in abundance to the reader, and cannot escape the view of the most dim-sighted. We see here how much a masculine, robust, and vigorous education contributes at the same time to strengthen the body, and enlarge the mind; and that the best means for young gentlemen of quality to acquire esteem and affection is not by assuming airs of grandeur, but by a civil and obliging deportment. I cannot but take notice how artfully the historian has introduced the excellent lecture he has given against drunkenness. He might have done it in a grave and serious manner, and with the air of a philosopher; for Xenophon, as much a soldier as he was, was no less a philosopher than Socrates his master. Instead of this, he puts it into the mouth of a child, and disguises it under the veil of a little story, told in the original with all the spirit and prettiness imaginable. I do not doubt, but it is wholly his own invention; and it is in this sense, in my opinion, we should understand what [t] Tully says of this admirable work; That the author has not pretended to follow the strict rules of truth and history, but designed to give princes in the person of Cyrus a perfect model of the manner in which they ought to govern their subjects. Cyrus ille à Xenophonte non ad fidem historice scriptus, sed ad effigiem justi imperii
. That is, he has added to the substance of the history, which is very true in itself, as I shall soon have occasion to observe, some particular circumstances, to exalt its beauty, and serve for the instruction of mankind. Such is, in my opinion, the history of the little Cyrus turned cup-bearer, which shews how dishonoura. ble drunkenness is to princes, far better than all the precepts of philosophers.
[s] Ad Qu. Fratr. lib. 1. Ep s.
II. THE FIRST EXPEDITIONS AND CONQUESTS
OF CYRUS. Cyrop. lib. 1, &c. Astyages king of the Medes being dead, his son Cyaxares, brother to Mandane the mother of Cyrus, succeeded him. Hewas scarce settled upon the throne, before he found himself engaged in a terrible war. He received advice that the king of the Assyrians was raising a powerful army against him; that he had already drawn over several other princes'to espouse his quarrel, and among the rest Cræsus king of Lydia. He immediately dispatched an embassy to Cambyses to demand his assistance, with orders to desire that Cyrus might have the command of the army thatshould be sent to his aid. They obtained their request without much difficulty. The young prince was then in the class of men grown, after having passed ten years in the second. The joy was universal, when it was known that Cyrus was marching at the head of the army. It consisted of thirty thousand foot, for the Persians had then no horse; besides a thousand young officers, the choice of the nation, who marched as volunteers, from a particular attachment they had to the person of Cyrus.
lle set forward, without losing any time, but not till after he had invoked the assistance of the gods. For his great principle, which he learned from his father, was never to enter upon any action, whether great or small, without first consulting the gods. Cambyses had often represented to him, that human prudence was very short-sighted, and the views of men confined within narrow bounds; that they could not penetrate into futurity, and what they often thought was most for their advantage, became the cause of their destruction; whereas the gods being eternal, know all things, the future as well as the past, and [u] inspire those they love with what is most proper
[u] They imputed every branch hunting. Venatio nobis hæc, amici, of their success to Divine Provis (says Cyrus,) volente Deo prospera dence, even what they caught in futura est. Cyrop. lib. 2.
for them to undertake; a protection they owe to none and grant only to such as call upon them and consult them.
Cambyses was pleased to accompany his son as far as the frontiers of Persia. By the way he gave liim excellent instructions upon the duties of the general of an army. I have already observed, in another place, that Cyrus, who thought he was a perfect master in the trade of war, after having studied it so long under the most experienced officers of his time, owned then that he was absolutely ignorant of the most essential part of the art military, till he had learned it from this familiar discourse, which deserves to be carefully read, and seriously considered by all persons designed for the profession of arms. I shall mention but one instance, from whence we may judge of the rest.
The point was, how to make the soldiers submissive and obedient. The easiest and surest method, in my opinion, says Cyrus, is to commend and reward the obedient, and to punish and disgrace the disobedient. That is right, answered Cambyses, if you would bring them to it by force: but the business is, how to make them submit voluntarily. Now the surest way of succeeding herein, is to convince those over whom we command, that we know better what is fit for them than they do themselves; for all mankind will readily obey those, of whom they have this opinion. From this principle arises the blind submission, which the sick pay to their physician, travellers to their guide, and sea-faring men to their pilot. Their obedience is wholly founded upon a persuasion, that the physician, the guide, and the pilot know more of the matter than themselves. But what must we do, says Cyrus again to his father, to appear more able and prudent than others? By being really so, replies Canbyses; and to this end applying diligently to our profession, seriously studying all the rules of it, consulta ing the ablest masters with docility and care, neglecting nothing which may make our enterprises succeed; Bb4