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To the Editor of the Christian Observer. To the Editor of the Christian Olseres. Allow me to suggest a small altera. STATE OF THE ENEMY'S PREPARATION. tion in the title by which you refer to A work has recently been published, the volumes of your publication. Your entitled, “The experienced Officer, present mode of reference to them, being a translation of the instruction under the titles of Vol. I. II. &c. is of General Wimpffen to his sous, be attended with this inconvenience, Lieutenant Colonel Macdonald, of that if in binding they are so lettered, the first battalion of Cingue Porto a person who shall hereafter begin to lunteers. In an introduction to the take in the work will appear to pos- work, the translator has inserted, what sess only odd volumes, unless he pur: he calls, an " AUTHENTIC STATE Of Le chases all the preceding ones, which, preparations of the enemy," on the when numerous, few would care to 15th April 1804. As the residence a do. If, on the other hand to avoid that gentleman at Dover seems to al this appearance, he letters them ac- ford him easy means of intelligence, cording to the date of the year, the and as his general respectability entvolume to which any reference is tles his statements to considerable made in the body of the work is not tention, I beg leave to transcribe, tor so readily understood: - To obviate the information of your readers, the the inconvenience which has arisen passage to which I allude.' from a long succession of volumes in regular order, several periodical publications have found it convenient to “ The translator has positive ar3 form a new series, but this is an ex. direct information received from the pedient which only remedies the evil blockading stalion of the three Bosfor a short time, and which has the logne harbours, and deduced from the appearance of a trick to entice a new log-books of the blockading squadron, set of readers. There is, however, that thirteen hundred and thirty gutno occasion, in my opinion, to consi- boats, or carrying-boats, have enterder a miscellaneous work like your's, ed Boulogne since the commenceconsisting principally of unconnected ment of the blockade; that fifty hare essays, as forming any regular set of entered Ambleteuse harbour, and volumes. I would, therefore, suggest that there are thirty at Wimille. A to you the propriety of always dis- is perfectly understood that there were tinguishing your publications, when three hundred boats at Boulogne when made up at the end of the year, by the blockade was formed, one hutthe date of the year rather than by dred and twenty are reckoned to have the number of the annual volumes been built in the three harbours, this which have been published since its gives the aggregate number, at ttus commencement.' And if you always moment, at eighteen hundred and there refer to them by that mode of desig- ty. Allowing three hundred and thirty nation, it will be found equally con- for carrying ammunition, a field trail, venient with the usual manner of re- camp equipage, horses, or for huse ference, and free from its inconveni. rital boats, we have one thousand ences. I remain, &c...

five hundred for conveying troops. VIMAND. From the ascertained capacity of the

captured gun-boats, each will carry, In compliance with the suggestion with ease, one hundred men; and of our correspondent we shall adopt, therefore, the one thousand five hunfor the future, the mode of reference dred will carry one hundred and his he recommends; and therefore request thousand. The grand attempt will our correspondents, in the references not be made till there may be two they make to the Christian Observer thousand carrying-boats, which w of a former year, to state only the endeavour, by rowing in a dead cats, year in which it was published. Those to land two hundred thousand men on of our friends, who have not yet two succeeding days. We repeat it bound up their former numbers, will the object is the Capital, by forced be pleased to give directions to their marches, and Dover by a coup de bookbinder to pay attention to this main, to form a convenient depoi, circumstance.

and receiving harbour. The boals are not capable of attempting any distant

point; therefore, the nearest, point empire was decided. We wish not bructicable is that intended to land on. 10 create false alarms, or to produce The boats on this coast, forty feet by despondency in the public mind. - We len nearly, manned by fifteen men to state facts of a stubborn description. nanage the boai, and work a carro. It is not by concealing the extent of pade, are not, by any means, ade the danger, but by exposing it tully, quate to oppose the French flotilla ef- that timely measures are adopted, by ectually. Gun-bouts and gun-brigs land, and sea particularly, io avert its furnished with sweeps are the proper consequences. It is the duty of evelescription. By exertion, there is still ry well-wisher of his country to bring ime to take such up, and fit them forward facts calculated to invigorate put. When these statements are public exertion, on which alone we nade, we hear of four hundred thou. can depend at an eventful period, and volunteers. Three-fourths of when Europe lies prostrate at the feet them would not have time to leave of France." heir homes, before the fate of the


CLXV. Three Tracts on the Syntax following general erceptions: one only and Pronunciation of the Hebrew instance of irregularity or particular Tongue, with an Appendir address- exception being discoverable, which ed to the Hebrew Nation. By yet may fairly be attributed to poetiGRANVILLE SHARP. London, Ver- cal licence... nor and Hood, 12mo. 1804. First When it is only known that excepTract 65 pp. Second Tract 106 tions to a general rule exist, but those pp. Third Tract 32 p. Appen- exceptions are incapable of an acdix 146 pp. Index 38 pp.

curate description, the whole subject

* remains in its original obscurity. Mr. The well earned laurels of Mr. Sharp Sharp has endeavoured to remove this in the field of Grecian criticism, will obscurity respecting the above-mena sot be tarnished by his present al- tioned rule, by ascertaining, by dechievements in that of the Hebrew. scribing, and correctly defining the The first of these valuable treatises general exceptions which limit its in has for its object to reduce that curi- fuence. They are set down as a conDua phenomenon of the Hebrew lan- tinuation of the rules, the first general guage, the conversive vau, to some exception being the second rule. definite rules an attempt, which, he Rule II. They is not conversive, jually laments, has been accomplished when one or more identical tenses by no grainmarians that have fallen follow a verb of the same tense within bis way, either antient or modern. out a prefised: the perfect is not al.

After remarking (p. 11) the neces- ways influenced by this exception. sity of the two following observations Rule III. The' prefixed 1 does not concerning Hebrew sentences-" 1st. convert any verb in the imperative That the verses of the Hebrew 'scrip- mood, nor any verb or verbs in the tures, frorn period to period, do fre- future tense, following an imperative quently contain more sentences than one, nood: the perfect is exempt from this sometimes even two or three sen- exception. tences. And 2ndly, That sometimes, Rule IV. The conversive, does not on the contrary, one sentence, para- affect any future or present tenses graph, or sentiment, is obviously ex- alter an interrogation: the per ect tended throughout several adjoining is exempt from This exception like. Verses:"-our author proceeds (p. 13) wise. to lay down his first rule.

Rule V. This rule is borrowed by That prefired to future tenses con- Mr. Sharp from Rabbi Elias, and is perts them into perfect, and prefixed to thus expressed:-" If a future tense perfect tenses converts them into future, put for a præter perfect tense' (which regularly and in every case, which does must be by having a prefixed 1) prenot fall under one or other of the four @edes a preter tense,' (having also a


· prefixed 1,) the latter is (merely] ther noun, if no verb is expressed to copulative." Vide pp. 13-17. tween them, the auriliary terd in the

All these rules relate to single sen- present tense must be understood be tences only.

tween them in the text, and must be The remainder of this tract consists expressly added in translations." p.. of examples of each of these rules in This construction, which is not per: order.

liar to the Hebrew language, was caOf the first and fundamental rule, sily to be established. the examples adduced are' very nu- 2nd. The understanding of other merous, and Mr. Sliarp does not he- Words necessary to complete the sezsitate to affirm, that the converted tence. This is common to all lat tenses are much more frequently used guages. than the proper ones, (p. 19); inso- Sid. After a negative in the beginmuch that this peculiarity may justly ning of a sentence, the repetition of be considered as a proper idiom of it is frequently to be understood, the language, p. 23. Our author's though not expressed. Ps. ix. 19. Ps. version of ani, Gen. ix. 13, in the lxxv. 6. and Ps, xci, 5, 6, are destiperfect tense, is confirmed by those of sive instances of this peculiar (CAinsworth and Rosenmüller. The struction. When the 1 is inserted Septuagint, however, render it in the where tlie negative is understood, present, and the Vulgate in the future must be translated neither. p. 1 tense. The second rule is confirmed contains a curious instance of an tby exar: ples, pp. 24-26; the third lipsis of the effect of 1 convertire, by a stiil larger number, pp. 27-39; which is understood. In p. 16, art the fourth with sufficient evidence, to be found two instances of the sup pp. 39–45. The fifth, which con- pored retrospective influence of the tains an interesting discussion of Ezc- This we feel some reluctance to a kiel xxxvii, is established by as many mit. The instances occur in p. 14 exanıples as could be expected of so 17 and 19. We are more disposed to extraordinary a grammatical con- avail ourselves of the help of MSS; struction.

and before nnon in the first of these 2. The subject of this treatise, the verses one of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. conversive power of the prefixed 1, No. 166, inserts 1; as likewise in the is, perhaps, the most curious pheno- other verse, where No. 76 reads un menon in human language, and one for 10. Three other MSS. read which is least capable of a philoso- . phical and satisfactory solution. The 4th. The fourth particularity is exattempt of Parkhurst accounts for but pressed thus-“ In the opinion one part of the peculiarity, and can- some learned translators, a future not, therefore, be admitted as any so- tense is sometimes used for the prescia lution at all. “When the connected tense; and sometimes, but not 500 particle 1, and," (says he) “ is pre- ten, for the perfect tense." p. 17. F fixed to a word in the future tense, this construction, however, although that verb signifies future in respect to several instances of it occur, Mr. the time of' (not the time in which Sharp professes not to have been the historian is writing, or the per- able to trace out any rule of syntar: son speaking, as Gen. i. 1. The Aleim p. 21. Nya created the heavens and the curih, The remaining particularities are ver. 2. 90N"), and then the sleim said," more important. &c. Methodical Heb. Grammar, pre. 5th. The expression of the genitive fixed to his Lexicon, p. 15.

case of nouns by mere position. 10 The rationale of the conversive this particularity, which so generalis vau, is worthy of a philosophical in- obtains in the Hebrew Scriptures, vestigation.

there are, however, seven exceptions The next tract of this able critic but these are so accurately defined, Professes to give an account of soic that they produce no uncertainty or other peculiarities in the Hebrew embarrassment. In this part of the tongue, seven in number, the three work the reader will meet with sotne first of which are instances of ellip- important inferences respecting cet tical construction.

tain prophecies and the divinity of Ist, " When a pronoun, or a partici. our blessed Saviour,-an object which, ple, or a noun with a pronominal ad. to the honour of Mr. Sharp, we obe jective annexed to it, precedes ano. serve he never overlooks.

oth. This was the original place of That the Jews themselves are not he discussion concerning the con- agreed in the pronunciation of their rersive vau, which is more elabo- own language is proved p. 30; but ately pursued in the first tract or let- our author probably errs on the side

of charity, when he acquits them of 7th. Here Mr. Sharp vindicates to “any wilful alterations or corruptions he Hebrew language a regular binoni in the words of the sacred text itself. y present tense, which may be known This was once the opinion of the

the nominative preceding the verb great Kennicott; but five and twenty n kal. Of this rule there are three years experience convinced him of nodifications, and one general excep- the contrary; and the arguments jon, which occupies the remainder of which he has produced in support of the tract from p. 98.

the charge against the Jews of the The third tract in this valuable little wilful corruption of their scriptures, volume attempts to settle the pronun- are loo decisive to be withstood. See riation of the Hebrew vowel letters, the Diss. Gen. prefixed to his Bible, The masoretic points are now suffici- pp. 27-43. See likewise Whitaently exploded,' and the Hebrew al- ker's Origin of Arianism, pp. 302phabet is proved to contain its proper 317. proportion of vowels. See Walton, Our opinion of this work is sufficio Prol. ii. de Ling. Heb. § 49. Mr. ently evident from what we have alSharp does not pretend to ascertain ready said; and we have no doubt with precision the real pronunciation that our readers, with us, will rejoice of the Hebrew tongue; but, by the that, in these times especially, the fair application of ctyinology, to ren- talents of a learned layman are so der the utterance or sound of the lan. well employed. We shall now proguage more regular and intelligible, ceed to the Appendix. when appropriated without variation The respectable author states, that to the several vocal letters of the He- while he was occupied in searching brew alphabet, p. 6. And we con- the Hebrew Bible for examples of the féss, that, on so dark and desperate a rules laid down in the preceding tracts, subject, etymology appears to be the many of the examples which occur. most hopeful instrunient that can be red “ suggested (at the same time) applied."

ideas of infinitely more importance From a considerable number of than the mere grammatical subject very evident derivations, it appears intended by the author.” He prothal x was sounded like the English ceeds4, both long and short, but at the be- "For it is very remarkable how fre. givning of words in general like the quently the examples of the several rules, short e; that was pronounced like which occurred in searching for them, were e long; that had the sound of į long, equally

equally demonstrative of an object of except when placed at the beginning

much higher consideration, and more es

s pecially to the nation of the Jeros, than of words, it was sounded as the con

the grammatical topic for which they were sonant j; and that I was pronounced

purposely selected; as if an instruction in like u long, u short, o long, ou, and ihe inere syntax of the Hebrew scriptures the Greek letters 8, w, and o. That was providentially connected with the they was universally, or even gene- highest and most important national inte. rally, pronounced like a long, we are rest of the Hebrew nation!" (p. 6.) not so clear. We have examined the Mr. Sharp, having expressed an first chapler of Genesis in the Hexa. anxious and becoming solicitude for pla of Origen, in the second column of the welfare of the Hebrews, invites which he gives the pronunciation in their attention to what he justly reGreek letters of the Hebrew, which presents as “the great and principal occupies the first column; and there object of divine revelation, viz. the We find the sound of D unitormly ex- promised Messiah of the Jews, and pressed by the Greek a or t. The the absolute necessity of a perfect ocly exception is 50, which is turned bedience by all mankind (not only as

into '60. The known pronunciation individuals, but also in their national o n , the national appellation of capacities, as stales, kingdoms, and

the Jews, is a confirmation of this governments) to his prevailing kiriga doubt; nor has our author concealed dom of righteousness.pp. 15, 16. it froin his readers. See pp. 8, 9, 10, His claim to their attention upon this note.

subject he founds, not on any precarious or unauthorized opinion, but tions in the Hebrew scriptures upon the plain grammatical construc- cerning the pre-existent dignity of the tion of their own scriptures. Ib. Of Messiah whom they expect." P. & these scriptures (the New as well as The remainder of this tract is accord the Old Testament, both being writ- ingly employed in explaining many ten by Israelites,) he considers them passages in the Old Testament relative as the just proprietors, and as trus- to this important subject. The gramtees for all other nations; and there- matical construction established in the fore peculiarly bound to attend to foregoing tracts is here illustrated, as the present awful signs of the times, the instances occur. This part of the and enquire into the meaning of the work will be peculiarly interesting sacred oracles upon the important both to the Christian and the Biblical subject above-mentioned. p. 20. scholar-characters which we alway

The approaching dissolution of the wish to see united. Turkish power, which Mr. Sharp supposes, particularly on the foundation of St. John's prophecy, is to make CLXVI. The Opportunity; or, Reaway for the future millennium, or sons for an immediate Alliance wits rcign of martyrs, and the consequent St. Domingo. By the Author of restoration of the Jews, he represents

“The Crisis OF THE SUGAR COLas one of the awful signs of ihe times NIEST." London), Hatchard. 1805 which more particularly pronipted his 8vo. pp. 156. present address. The appeal to the In every page of the present parJews, as the original persecutors of the disciples of the Messiah, and as

phlet the author displays the same a

cute and penetrating mind, the same having entailed upon themselves and their descendants a national responsi

vigorous understanding, and the same bility for blood, is peculiarly strikingject be bas' undertaken to discuss,

intimate acquaintance with the subSee pp. 48–50. Our author then examines and urges

which have already obtained for

him so large a share of the public atolher prophecies, more properly Hebrew, particularly those of Daniel.

tention. His conceptions are bold and pp. 51, &c.

comprehensive; his argumentation

forcible and impressive; and his eloUpon Mr. Sharp's interpretation of the prophetic scriptures, which, in

quence, though not uniformly chaste, the main,' is evident and incontro

manly and energetic. But his highvertible, it would be easy to make

est praise, in our estimation, is the many observations, or to tread in the

purity and elevation of his principles

In assuming the character of the pofootsteps of Mede, or Newton, or lit;

litical economist, he does not, like Lowman, or Kett. But we decline

too many of his contemporaries, lose the mysterious subject, for want of

sight of those rules of moral rectie sufficient wisdom, as Whitby professes

tude which christianity prescribes, concerning himself.

neither does he forget that " verily From p. 74 to 85 this work con

there is a God who judgeth the tains a curious account of a solemn

earth.” council of the Jews assembled in the

In the commencement of his pamplains of Buda, in Hungary, to ex

phlet, the author adverts to the facts aminethe scriptures concerning Christ, A, D. 1650.

which he had advanced in " the CriBut it was rendered frustrate by the representation which

sis," and to the reasoning which he

had grounded upon them, shews that the Roman Catholics, who were pre that work had proved, for the most sent, gave of the Christian religion*.

part, a history by anticipation of the To prevent any similar failure in any

recent events in St, Domingo. future council of the same sort, Mr.

“In delineating," observes our nothor, Sharp directs that the Jews “ should

“ the peculiar objects, both physical and previously examine, as private indivi- moral, by which the restitution of private duuls, some of the leading intima- slavery, the Consul's true purpose, would

be opposed, it was found necessary to ad* We should be obliged to any of our duce facts relative to colonial slarery, d. correspondents, who may be well ac- which the true nature was generally disquainted with the history of that period, to furnish us with evidence of the real oc- + Reviewed in our number for Masi currence of this council.

1802, p. 305.

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