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ments of infantry, 24 of cavalry, and 58,000 lation of the senate of regency to Peters garrison troops, he commenced his cam- burg took place two months later. In June, paign in Livonia and Carelia, which were 1712, he again visited Carlsbad, with his conquered in 1710. The Turks, instigat- wife. After having taken the waters three ed by Charles XII, had, meanwhile, declar- weeks, he proceeded to his army in Holed war against him. Peter immediately stein, where Steenbock, the Swedish genestablished a senate to administer the af- eral, had obtained some successes over the fairs of the empire, and, having restored Danes. He shut up this general in Tönto the bishoprics and monasteries the prop- ningen, and returned to Petersburg, to ef erty before taken from them, in order to fect the conquest of Swedish Fmland, and, gain the favor of the clergy and the na- in 1713, penetrated beyond Abo to Tavas. tion, he advanced to the Pruth, opposite thus, while the Swedes in Tönningen the camp of Mehemed, the grand-vizier. were compelled to surrender. But the The soldiers were here reduced to the neutrality of Pomerania, proposed by greatest extremes from want of provision, Prussia, and consented to by Menzikoti, and their condition was the more despe- thwarted his plans: for this act, even the rate on account of the defection of the intercession of the czarina was hardly able prince of Walachia, and his refusal to to save the favorite from ruin. Peter confurnish the promised supplies. Peter, tinued his efforts to improve the Russian nevertheless, crossed the river, but was marine ; but he was obliged to submit forced to retreat, and his exhausted army when the college of admiralty refused to was surrounded by a numerous enemy. promote him to the dignity of vice-admiPeter saw nothing before him but captivi- ral, “because he had not sufficiently disty or death. He was delivered from this tinguished himself at sea, to be preferred difficulty by his new wife, Catharine over other officers." His chief object was (whom he had privately married in 1707, now to merit that distinction. Having oband declared his lawful wife March 6, tained the naval victory at Twermunde, 1711). Assisted by the field-marshal and completed the subjugation of Finland Scheremeteff, she sent to the grand-vizier by the subsequent capture of the fortress proposals of peace. A large sum

A large sum of of Nyslot, he was received, on his triummoney, and valuable jewels, with promises phal entry into Petersburg, by the viceof further remittances, all without the czar Romanadowski, with the salutation, knowledge of Peter, are said to have ac- “ Hail, vice-admiral!” Perceiving the opcompanied the letter of Scheremeteff to pressions exercised by the nobility upon the graud-vizier. During this time, Peter, the lower classes, he established a board despairing of any favorable results from to inquire into abuses. The investigation this mission, and reduced to despondency, ended in the exile to Siberia of a great wrote to the senate in Moscow—" If I fall number of civil officers from the first to into the hands of the enemy, consider me the third rank, and strict provisions no longer as your sovereign, and obey no against future abuses. He did not concommands which shall proceed from the siderit prudent to attempt to abolish slaveplace of my confinement, though it should ry for the present. He repaired the dev. be signed by my own hand. If I perish, astations which the war had caused in choose the worthiest among you to suc- Ingria, by settling in that country a numceed me.” July 23, 1711, the peace of ber of rich peasants from the interior of Hus was concluded, in spite of all the op- Russia. He exercised the greatest pruposition of count Poniatowski, the agent dence in regard to the religious contests beof Charles XII. Peter purchased his own tween the Roskolnicks (those of the ancient safety, and that of bis army and empire, faith) and the Orthodox, but was obliged by the sacrifice of Azoph. (See Russia, to put to death a Roskolnick, who sought and the Ottoman Empire.) Cantemir, to obtain a martyr's crown by assassinating prince of Moldavia, whom Peter refused the czar. Events of this nature increased io give up on any condition, followed the Peter's aversion to Moscow, and confirmed czar, and continued to receive from him a bis determination to make Petersburg the pension until his death, twelve years af- capital of the empire. All his commercial terwards. He now applied himself with ordinances, and his measures for the great activity to the prosecution of the growth and embellishment of the city, war in Pomerania against Sweden. To were directed to this object. In the midst restore his health, he went to Carlsbad, in of these plans, he was informed that the summer of 1711, and, on his return to Charles XII had returned, and was now Moscow, publicly solemnized his marriage in Stralsund. But as this headstrong with Catharine (Feb. 19, 1712). The trans- prince refused to consent to the neutrality


of Pomerania, and thus offended England volved in the guilt of Alexis, were exeas well as Holland, he prepared for the cuted with great cruelty. Peter treated czar the way to new and easy conquests. With equal severity the nobles who opStralsund was taken December 23, 1715, pressed the people, and did not even by the Prussians and Danes, without the spare his favorites Menzikoff and Apraxin. aid of Peter; and in the first impulse of He endeavored to introduce a more reguanger, the czar was on the point of siding lar administration of justice by the instiwith Charles, because his troops were re- tution of the colleges of the governments, fused admittance into the works, and and a legislative committee, taking the were even driven back by force. Before code of his father, Alexis, for the basis of his visit to Pyrmont for the recovery of his new system. A commercial college his health, he agreed with the king of was also erected, and the commercial Denmark upon a landing at Schonen ; in class treated with distinction. His amusepursuance of which, he went to Copen- ments consisted in ornamenting his capihagen. Four fleets, Russian, Danish, tal, collecting a cabinet of natural cuEnglish and Dutch, were united, forming riosities, encouraging art, and raising the a squadron-of 80 sail

, partly to cover the tone of society; he, likewise, provided disembarkation at Schonen, and partly to amusements for the court and people, by make head against the Swedish Heet, public shows, masquerades, &c. (among which was cruising in the Baltic. The which the papal election, intended to excommand of the combined fleet was unan- pose the head of the Roman church to imously committed to the czar; and he ridicule, was particularly remarkable). convoyed 100 merchant vessels, lying in Peter now landed troops on almost every the sound, by the fleet of Sweden. The point of the Swedish coast, and comlanding at Schonen was abandoned by menced a war of devastation, never to be the advice of the Russian generals; this forgotten in the annals of that country. excited suspicions in the mind of the Jealousy of the growing power of Russia Danish king, and Peter left Denmark and united Poland, Prussia and Denmark with took possession of Mecklenburg. For the Sweden. But Peter resisted all, and accomplishment of certain political plans, maintained his dignity in a dispute with he undertook a journey to Holland and Austria. He banished the Jesuits from the France, towards the end of 1716. In empire, because they meddled with affairs Amsterdam, besides the naval and com- in which they had no concern, and premercial objects of his visit, he also attend- pared for a conflict with England." In ed to all the subjects of art and science. 1719, all the English merchants in Russia His wife, who visited him after her deliv- were arrested, and threatened with the ery in February, 1717, remained at the seizure of rheir property. Peter was now Hague, while Peter, in the beginning of called to endure the severest trials, in the April, went through Brabant to Paris, death of Scheremeteff, his companion in where he visited all the literary, military, arms, and (on the 25th of April, old style) mechanical and other institutions and col- of the heir to the throne, Peter Petrowitsch, lections of art, &c., and concluded a treaty his son by Catharine, born November 8, of amity and commerce with France, in 1717. The czar remained alone for three behalf of himself and Prussia. His main days and three nights after the death of object, the separation of France from his son, without food or drink ; fears were England, and his designs on Mecklen- at length entertained for his life. But he burg, were not accomplished. In Octo- resumed his firmness, and one of his first ber, 1717, he returned to Petersburg, and measures was the institution of the “holy instituted investigations into charges of directing synod,” designed to put an end abuses and acts of oppression. Prince to the hierarchy. (See Greek Church.) In Wolkonski, the governor of Archangel, 1720, Sweden was again devastated; the was shot, and military courts were com- Swedish king having resolved on the invamissioned to inquire into accusations sion of Finland, with the aid of an Engagainst others. He then went to Moscow, lish fleet. Peter, however,continued his neto judge his only son, Alexis (9. v.), who gotiations, while he prepared for action, was condemned to death by the high of- and directed the construction of the port ficers of the empire. Though pardoned of Royerwick. At length a third expedishortly after, he is said to have died of the tion against the Swedish coasts, successagitation into which the trial and sentence fully conducted by Peter in 1721, in spite had thrown him. At his funeral, which of the English fleet, led to the peace of was solemnized with great pomp, the czar Nystädt (August 30, 1721, old style), by melted into tears. Many persons, in- which Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, with

Wiburg and Kexholm, were ceded to July 12, 1724, Peter again conducted a fleet Russia. But the duke of Holstein, whom against Sweden, to enforce his claims on he had promised to aid in the recovery of Sweden and Denmark, in behalf of the Sleswick, was made the victim of political duke of Holstein: having effected this purexpediency. Thus, after twenty-one years, pose, Peter returned to Cronstadt, where he the northern war was concluded without celebrated by a splendid parade the creation exhausting the resources of Peter, and the of his pavy,which now consisted of 41 ships power of Russia was fixed upon an im- of war,with 2106 cannonsand 14,960 sailors. movable basis. The czar celebrated the This great monarch employed the last peace by thanksgivings and festivals, and years of his life in providing against the à general pardon (murderers and irre- inundations, to which Petersburg was exclaimable highwaymen only excepted), and posed in the autumn; in continuing the by a remission of all the claims of the crown Ladoga canal, and in the erection of an previous to 1717. The senate and the academy of sciences (Feb. 1, 1725). He holy synod requested him, in the name turned his attention next to the examinaof the nation, to accept the titles of“ father tion and punishment of state criminals; to of his country, and emperor of all the the promotion of the labors of the legislaRussias, with the surname of the Great." tive body; the establishment of the order He was proclaimed emperor on the grand of Alexander-Newsky; the improvement celebration of the peace, Oct. 22, 1721. of the condition of the monks; the banThis title was immediately acknowledged ishment of the Capuchins from Russia; by Prussia, Holland and Sweden, and, at a and a new commercial treaty with Swelater period, by all the other powers. To den. He also betrothed his favorite daughprevent his great creation from falling to ter Anna to the duke of Holstein, Nov. pieces in weak or incompetent hands, he 24, 1724, having already placed the crown decreed (Feb. 5, 1722), that the sovereign upon the head of his wife, Catharine, on of Russia should have full power to elect the 18th of the preceding May, in token his successor, and to change this appoint- of his love and gratitude. He likewise ment, if he should see fit. By the new provided that an education should be judicial organization, it was provided that given to the surviving son of the unliappy no actual senator should sit in a court of Alexis, such as would become a future justice, and no president of a court of jus- emperor of Russia. But Peter had long

a tice in the senate. The emperor now un- felt his strength declining, from the pains dertook his long meditated expedition to he had suffered through the strangury, ever Persia, to secure the Russian trade on the since 1723: hence the gloom, alternating Caspian sea. In 1715, 1716 and 1719, he with violent bursts of passion, to which had sent experienced naval officers to ex- he became subject; and to this, perhaps, is amine this sea and its coasts, and to holdves- to be ascribed the execution of Mons, first sels necessary for an expedition in readiness. chamberlain, and favorite of the empress In the first year of the war, he took Der- Catharine; the reason assigned for which bent, and built several fortified towns, was neglect of duty, bribery, &c. Late in which he peopled with Cossacks of the the autumn of 1724, going to visit the forge Don. The domes confusions in Persia and manufactory of arms at Systerbeck, compelled the shah to yield, and by the he saw a boat "filled with soldiers and treaty of Sept. 12, 1723 (to which the Porte sailors stranded, and sent a shallop, which likewise assented July 8, 1724), to cede did not succeed in getting it off; deterto Russia the cities of Derbent and Baku, mined to gain his end, he set out for the with their territory, and the provinces spot himself

, and, as his vessel could not Ghilan, Mazanderan and Astarabad. After quite reach the spot, he leaped into the his return, Dec. 26, 1722, he instituted water and waded to the boat, which he new examinations for maladministration. aided in getting off. But the cold which The vice-chancellor Schaffiroff, one of he caught rendered his condition extremehis favorites, was condemned to death, but, ly dangerous. He celebrated the new on the scaffold, his punishment was com- year, 1725, according to his usual custom, muted to banishment. Menzikoff was chose a new antipope, and ordered the sentenced to pay 200,000 roubles into the demolition of the superfluous chapels, exchequer ; he was deprived of a large part and the removal of the images. A surof his income, and flogged by the empe- gical operation gave him no relief; his ror's own hand : for the infliction of this pain often deprived him of reason. In punishment, Peter used his dubina (a cane his intervals of sanity, he was soothed of thick Spanish reed). Several others with the consolations of religion, by Thewere disgraced or flogged, or heavily fined. ophanes, archbishop of Pleskow. In one

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of these intervals, he granted full pardon said, killed at Ropscha, a seat of count to Menzikoff, at the earnest desire of Rasumoffsky, July 14 (3 old style), 1762. Catharine. He expressed a wish to speak (See Orloff:) with his favorite daughter, Anna ; but PETER, Sr., CHURCH OF. (See Rome.) when she came, the emperor was speech- PETER, the apostle (whose original less. He expired February 8, 1725, in the name was Simon), was a Galilean fisherarms of his wife, who had not left bim for man from Bethsaida. His brother Anthree nights. Peter was 53 years of age, drew, having been received by Jesus and, according to his physicians, might among his disciples, introduced Simon to have lived 40 more, if he had not so long the divine instructer. He promptly reconcealed his disorder. Peter was a man solved to leave all and follow Jesus, at of powerful and original genius, who did whose command he had made a most reevery thing himself, and was never the markable draught of fishes. After this instrument of others. His ardor was event, we find him always among the foljoined with prudence, resolution, and a lowers of Christ, and one of his most congenerous humanity. His violent passions fidential disciples. From the firmness of and sensual excesses were the fruits of his faith, Jesus named him Cephas (in the barbarism of his nation, his imperfect Greek, Petros), a rock, and bestowed upon

education and uncontrolled power. On bim peculiar marks of affection; yet he · the centennial celebration of his accession never gave him any superiority over the

to the throne, an equestrian monument by other apostles, as the Roman Catholics Falconet, representing him at full speed maintain, nor did Peter himself ever assume springing up a rock, with his hand extend- it. On the contrary, Jesus reminded him, ed, and the inscription Petro Primo, Catha- in their presence of his faults, and his impetrina Secunda, MDCCLXXXII

, was ex- uosity; and, in the last dreadful night before, posed to view in Petersburg. Voltaire the crucifixion, Peter encountered the rewrote the life of Peter.

proving look of his master, whom he had PETER II, emperor of Russia, grand followed at a distance to the house of the son of Peter the Great, and son of Alexis, high priest, and there basely denied, from ascended the throne in consequence of fear of punishment. Repentance for this the will of Catharine I (q. v.), in 1727, crime purified and strengthened his noble when but thirteen years old. He died in heart, which glowed with a warm love of 1730, of the small pox, and was succeeded Jesus. His zeal and eloquence made him by Anna Ivanowna. (q. v.)

often the speaker in behalf of his fellow PETER III (Fedrowitch); emperor of apostles on important occasions; as, for inRussia. As the male line of the Roma- stance, at the feast of pentecost, after the noffs ceased with Peter II, the empress ascension of Christ, where Peter bad the Elizabeth, daughter of Peter I and Catha- boldness to preach the gospel publicly, for rine I, agreeably to the order of succession the first time, and converted several enjoined by her father, appointed Charles thousands by his powerful eloquence ; Peter Ulrich, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, and before the Jewish council, where he son of her sister Anna Petrowna and the defended the new faith. His opinions duke of Holstein, her successor, in 1742; had great influence in the Christian and, in 1745, she married him to the prin- churches; and, on his proposal, the aposcess Sophia Augusta, of Anhalt-Zerbst (attles and elders of the first synod at Jerua later period the famous Catharine II). salem resolved that a conformity to the Peter III ascended the throne in 1762. laws of Moses should not be required of His first step was a reconciliation with the Gentile converts to Christianity. PeFrederic II, to whom he restored the con- ter probably travelled through several quered kingdom of Prussia Proper, and countries of Middle and Western Asia, as sent 15,000 men to assist him. He estab- a teacher of Christianity ; but the tradition lished some salutary laws; but a conspira- that he went to Rome, and was crucified cy broke out, which put an end to his life, there, in the year 67, rests only on the after a reign of six months. His predilec- legends of the Roman church, on which, tion for the people of Holstein; his at- also, the pope rests his claims to be contempts to establish Prussian tactics, and sidered the successor of this apostle. The to overthrow the privileges of the great, two Epistles of Peter, in the New Testahad made him numerous enemies. This ment, were written in Greek, and directed conspiracy broke out in the night of July to the churches in Asia Minor. In their 8, in 1762. (See Catharine II.) He abdi- style, and in the exposition of doctrines, cated the throne July 10, but could not they bear strong marks of his ardent mind, save his life by this means. He was, it is hurrying from thought to thought, care



less in expression, but animated and forci- ker, are several of his letters.—Sir Walter ble.

Scott has been said to be preparing a Life PETER THE HERMIT; an enthusiastic of the Earl of Peterborough. monk of Amiens, who, about the close of PETERBOROUGH, Bishop (See the eleventh century, roused Europe to Marsh, Herbert.) the first crusade. (q. v.) Peter, who had PETERERO, or PATTERERO ; a small made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, instigated piece of ordnance used on board ships by the difficulties he had undergone, few, for the discharging of nails, broken iron, at his return, to pope Martin the Second, or partridge-shot, on an enemy attempting and, under the auspices of that pontiff, to board. They are generally open at the preached to an assembly of more than breech, and their chamber made to take 4000 of the clergy, with 30,000 laymen, out to be loaded that way, 'instead of at that met at Piacenza, the wild project of the muzzle. driving the Mohammedans from Jerusa- PETERS, Hugh, minister of Salem, Maslem. "The success of his enthusiastic sachusetts, was born at Fowey, in Coruharangues was proportionate to the bold- wall, England, in 1599, and, in 1622, took ness of his scheme and the ignorance his degree of master of arts at Trinity of his auditors. Peter himself led the college, Cambridge. After obtaining a way through Hungary, at the head of an license, and preaching in London, with undisciplined multitude of more than great success, he removed to Holland, and, 300,000 men, a comparatively small num- several years afterwards, to America, on ber of whom survived to reach the city. account of his non-conformity. In 1636, Peter distinguished himself by his person- he was intrusted with the charge of the al courage at the storming of the holy church at Salem, and remained there five city; and, having witnessed the accom- years. He did not, however, confine his plishment of his undertaking, returned attention exclusively to spiritual concerns, to his native coun‘ry, where he founded but took an active interest in mercantile the abbey of Noirmoutier, and died its first and civil affairs ; he assisted in reforming superior.

the police of the town; suggested the PETERBOROUGH, Charles Mordaunt, earl plan of the fishery, and of the coasting of, son of lord Mordaunt, whom he suc- and foreign voyages; procured carpenters, ceeded in his title and estate, in 1675, was and engaged in trade with great success. engaged in the expedition to Tangier, in In 1641, he went to England on a mission 1680, in which he served with distinction to procure an alteration in the laws of exagainst the Mohammedans. He went cise and trade, but never returned. Durover to Holland in the reign of James II, ing the civil war, he advocated the cause and, entering into the scheme of his de- of parliament by his preaching, and was thronement, returned to England with his appointed by Cromwell one of the licensuccessor, by whom he was created earl sers of ministers, and also a commissioner of Monmouth, and appointed first com- for amending the laws, though totally dismissioner of the treasury. He succeeded qualified for such employment. After the to the earldom of Peterborough on the restoration, he was tried for conspiring death of his uncle, in 1697, and was sub- with Cromwell, and compassing the king's sequently employed as commander of the death, and was executed October 16, 1660, English army in Spain, in the war of the aged sixty-one years. He is accused by Spanish succession. He distinguished Burnet of having pressed the condemnahimself greatly by his courage, activity tion of the unfortunate Charles, but he and conduct in taking Barcelona, and ob- himself declared, in his will, that he optaining many other advantages over the posed it. He was a man of no learning, French, in consequence of which he was but of impetuous zeal, and peculiar native appointed generalissimo of the imperial vigor of mind. His sermons, several of forces, and received the thanks of the which were published, produced a grex British parliament. In the reign of George effect upon the populace by their striking, 1, he was made a knight of the garter, and though vulgar eloquence. His coarse and received the appointment of general of familiar images never failed to answer marines. His death took place during a their purpose ; and he possessed the faculvoyage to Lisbon, in 1735. Lord Peter- ty of associating his thoughts in such a borough was intimate with his literary manner as to prevent them from being contemporaries, and was himself a writer easily forgotten. of poetry, some of which has been pub- PETERS, Richard, an eminent American lished. In the Correspondence of the judge and agriculturist, was born near Countess of Suffolk, edited by Mr. Cro- Philadelphia, Aug. 22, 1744. He received



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