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PERGOLESI, Giovanni Battista, one of his productions. In Rome, his Olimpiade the most distinguished musicians, whose was represented anew, with the greatest proper name was Giambattista Jesi, was magnificence, and its beauties were enborn at Pergola (hence his name, Pergo- thusiastically applauded. According to lesi), in the March, according to some in the universal opinion of the Italians, no 1707, according to others in 1704. . In one ever excelled him in musical expres1717, he entered the Conservatorio dei po- sion. Some call him the Dominichino, veri di Gesù Cristo at Naples, then under others even the Raphael, of music ; but the direction of Gaetano Grecco. This he is censured for repetitions, an abrupt great master initiated his pupil in all the style, and transpositions which injure the secrets of the art. At the age of fourteen text. Pergolesi inclines more to the soft years, Pergolesi had distinguished himself than to the powerful ; even his Stabat, by various compositions, in which melody according to the judgment of modern muwas sacrificed to artifices of counterpoint ; sicians, is somewhat weak. His manner but no sooner had he left the Conserva- is tinged with melancholy, originating, torio, and studied the vocal compositions perhaps, from his feeble state of health. of Vinci and Hasse, than he changed his Porto Rico, or PUERTO Rico, an island manner entirely. In his first opera, how- belonging to Spain, one of the Great Anever, only some ariette were well receive tilles (of which group it is the smallest ed; but prince Stigliano judged favorably and most easterly), lies between lat. 170 of Pergolesi's talents, and procured him 50 and 18° 32' N., and between lon. 65° employment (1730—34) at the Teatro 43 and 67° 10 W., having the Atlantic on nuovo. During this time, he also com- the north and the Caribbean sea on the posed La serva Padrona, for the theatre south. It is separated from Hayti, on San-Bartolomeo. But his genius was not the west, by a channel twenty-five leagues satisfied with ordinary subjects: he seized broad. One hundred and ten miles in an opportunity to make himself known at length, by thirty-six in breadth. PopulaRome by a more important composition, tion, 130,000, of which 25,000 are slaves. and wrote, in 1735, his Olimpiade, for the Until 1815, Porto Rico was an expense to theatre Tordinone. Yet this opera, though Spain; but since that time foreigners have of great merit, did not please much. been allowed to settle there; and it is now Pergolesi now returned to Naples, and in a very flourishing condition. It has a composed his Dirit and Laudate, the suc- fine climate, a fertile soil, and produces cess of which afforded a compensation coffee, sugar, tobacco, cotton, fruits. The for the former coldness of the public. exports of the year 1830 were estimated His health declined, and his friends in- at $2,500,000; imports at $2,000,000. The duced him to go to Torre del Greco, at sugar crop of 1831 was estimated at 45,000 the foot of mount Vesuvius, which is con- bogsheads, that of coffee at 125,000 quinsidered salutary for pulmonary patients. tals, Porto Rico, which was called by Here he composed his far-famed Stabat the natives (Arrowauks) Boriqua, was disMater dolorosa, his cantate Orfeo, and the covered by Columbus in 1493, and is said Salve, Regina, his last work. He died in to bave contained at that time 600,000 ja1739, at Puzzuoli, when his fame had habitants, who were soon exterminated by just begun to spread over Europe. The the Spaniards. theatres and the churches resounded with
Page. Percussion Locks
29 Pen.. 3 Percy (Thomas) 15 Persia
30 Penal Law (see Criminal Perdiccas.
History of Persia
“Pere Lachaise (see Lachaise) Persian Language, LiteraPenance. “Peregrinus Proteus
ture, and Ancient ReliPenates 4 Perennial .
35 Pencil “Perfectibility
“ Persian Æra (see Epoch) 39 Lead Pencils (see Plumba- Peri.
Gulf go) " Pericardium
Wheel (see HydrauPencil of Rays. “Pericarpium
lics, vol. vi. p. 506) “ Pendant.... «Pericles ..
40 Penelope (see Ulysses) 5 Perihelion.
“ Perspective Penguin (see Pinguin). “Perillus (see Phalaris) “ Perspiration
42 Penitentiaries (see Prisons) “Perimeter
" Perth .
43 Penn (William). « Period
“ Perturbations Pennalism .. 8 Periodicals
21 Peru Pennant (Thomas). " Periosteum (see Bonc). 22 Perugia (province)
46 Pennsylvania (state) “ Peripatetic Philosophy.
(city). University (see Peripetia
Lake (see ThrasyPhiladelphia) 11 Periphery (see Circle)
mene) Penn Township,
“ Peripneumony (see Pneumo- Perugino Penny (see Sterling Money)
" Peruke (see Wig) Post (see Posts) “ Peripteral Temple (see Archi- Peruvian Bark (see Bark, PePennyroyal.
tecture, p. 311),
ruvian) Penobscot (river)
« Peristyle (sce Architecture, p. Pervigilia
« Pestalozzi (John Henry)
43 Pensioner. 12 Perjury
« Pestilence (see Plague, and Pentaglot (see Pentapla) " Perkin Warbeck (see War- Spasmodic Cholera). Pentameler
24 Pesium, or Pesto (see Pæs. Pentapla, Pentaglot “ Perkins (doctor Elisha)
tum) Pentaieuch (sce Hebrew Lan- Permutations (see Combina- Petal. guage, and Moses).
« Petalite Pentecost. “ Pernambuco
“ Petard Pentelic Marble (see Mar- Péron (François)
25 Petecchiæ (see Plague) ble).
" Pérouse, La (sec Lap'rouse) " Peler ! (emperor of Russia) . 49 Penthesilea (see Amazons) « Perpendicular.
II emperor of Russia). 55 Pentheus “ Perpetual Motion
III (emperor of RusPenumbra (see Eclipse) “ Perpetuity Peon “ Perpignan..
St., Church of (see Peony (see Pæony). “ Perrault (family of).
56 Peplum (see Panathenæum). “ davesta)
26 Peterborough (the earl of). “ Pepper .. “ Perry, Oliver (see Appendix
Bishop of (see Pepperell (sir William)
to this vol.)
Marsh, Her Peppermint (see Mint) (see Pear)
bert) Pepys (Samuel) " Persecution of Christians
“ Peterero Pera ..
14 Persephone (see Proserpine). 28 Peters (Hugh) Perceval (Spencer) “ Persepolis
Peter's, St. (river) 57 Philip II (king of France) · 78 Physics (see Natural Phi- Plast
IV of France (see losophy).
“ Physiocratic or Agricultural
the Bold (see Burgun-
gy, vol. viii. p. 509)
119 Pillai Petition
80 Pib-Corn, or Hornpipe
Picard (Louis Benoii)
“ Picards (see Adamiles) Petroleum (see Bitumen)
Pue Petty (see Lansdowne) « Philology
81 Piccolomini (family of this Petty Bag
name). Peutinger Table
“ Philology (History of) 93 Picbegru (Charles) Pewter.. • Pbilomela 99 Pichincha (the Battle of)
123 Peyronnet (Pierre Dénis) Philopoemen
6 Pichler, or Pickler (family Peyrouse, La (see Lapérouse) 66 Philosopher's Stone (see Al
PS Pfeffel (Christian Frederic).
100 Pick-Axe. (Gottlieb Conrad) “Philosophy, Intellectual (see Pickens (Andrew) Pfyfer (Louis). Appendix, end Pickering (Timothy)
of this vol- Pickets. Phædra
" Pickle-Herring (see HarlePhædrus.
Natural, or Phys- quin).
Peripatetic (see Pico della Mirandola (see Phalaris
Peripatetic Phi- Mirandola) Phalarope
losophy) 101 Picquet (see Piquet) Phamenophis (see Memnon). 68 Philtre
Picromel. Phanar (see Fanariots). “ Phipps (see Mulgrave). 102 Picrotoxia.
15 Phantasm (see Spectre) Phips (sir William)
Pictet (Marcus Augustus). Phantasmagoria (see Lantern) Phlebotomy.
Pictou Phantasos (see Morpheus) “ Phlegethon
103 Picts (see Scots) Phaon (see Sappho) " Phlegrean Fields
Picts' Wall. Pharaoh (see Egypt)
Phlogisticated Air (see Ni- Pictures, Living Pharisees
Picturesque. Pharmacolite (see Lime, vol. Phlogiston
Picus vii. p. 558).
“ Phocas's Column (see Col- Piedmont Pharmacopoeia
Piedmontese Revolution. Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics 6 Phocion
Pieno. Pharo, a game (see Faro) 69 Phocis .
105 Piepowder Court
(see of Messina (see Faro Phænicia
Courts of England). of Messina)
70 Phoenix (Greek coin) 107 Pierian Pharos
Pierre (Jacques Bernardin
Henri de St.)
St. (island) Phelloplastics “ Phorcus, or Phorcys
Pierrot Pherecydes " Phosphorescence
108 Piété, Mont de (see LomPhidias of Athens 71 Phosphorus
bard-House) Philadelphia 72 Photius.
110 Pietism Philadelphists (see the end of Photometer
111 Pietola the article Boehme) 75 Phrat (see Euphrates)
Pietro di Cortona (see CorPhilæ “ Phrenology
tona).. Philanthropinism (see Schools) Phrygians
114 Pigafeita (Antonio) Philemon and Baucis . Phryne.
Pigalle (Jean Baptiste) of Athens.
Phryxus (see Argonauts, Pigeon. Philidor (Andrew)
Athamas, and Helle) 115 Pig Iron (sce Iron, vol. vi.
Pig of Ballast
Pig of Lead
78 Phthisis (see Pulmonary Pigments
Pigmy (see Pygmy).
Physical Astronomy (see Pike (a fish)
(a weapon) Spain).
Pilasters (see Architecture, Pistachia Tree
156 Plessis .
186 vol. i. p. 338). 134 Pistoia .
Plinth (see Architecture, vol. nautics). Pitcairn's Island
i. p. 338)
183 Pilchard Pitch (see Pine)
Pliny (Caius Plinius SecunPiles (see Hemorrhoids)
dus) Pilgrimages Pitcher Plant (see Nepen
(Caius Plinius Cæcilius Pillau. 135 thes)..
Pitch Ore (see Uranium) Plotinus Pillory « Pitch-Pipe
Plough Monday Pillow
136 Pitchstone, Pearlstone,Pum- Plover Pilot Mountain (see Ararat) ice, and Obsidian
190 Pimeline. Piu (Christopher)
Plumber's Solder (see BisPimento
William (see Chat- muth, vol. ii. p. 116) Pin
Plum Island Pinang (see Prince of
191 Pinchbeck ..
Seven Wise Men)
160 Plus. Pinckney (Charles Cotes. Pittsburg
192 Pindar, Peter (see Wolcot) 138 Pius II (see Piccolomini) Pluviose (see Calendar, vol. (a Greek poet). VI
ii. p. 403) Pindarees.
VII (Gregory Barna- Plymouth (town in England) “ Pindemonte (cavaliere Ip
has Chiaramonti) ... 162
(town in Massa: polito) VIH (Francis Xaviero
chusetts), 193 Pindus
Colony of (see Pine “ Pizarro (Francisco)
New England) Pine-Apple 144 Pizzicato
163 Pneumatics. Pinel (Philip)
Place, La (see Laplace). Pneumony Pingre (Alexandre Gui) 145 Plagiarism (see Plagium)
194 Pinguin. Plagium
195 Pinite.. “ Plain Song
166 Pococke (Richard) Pink (a plant).
“. Plane, Inclined (see Mechan- Podagra.
167 Podalirius (see Æsculapius) 196 Pinkerton (John).
Planetarium (see Orrery) Podolia. Pinkney (William). 1 Plane Tree
Pocile Pinkneya Pubescens,
“ Poelenburg (Cornelius) Georgia Bark 148 Planimetry
169 Poetics (see Poetry) Pinnace Planisphere.
Great Britain, History of) 174 Poictiers (see Poitiers) 199 Pinturicchio (Bernardino) Plaintain
Point (in music) Piombino
(in geometry) Piombo (Sebastiano del) Plaster of Paris (see Gyp
(in engraving) Pioneers 149 sum)
175 (in manufactures) Piozzi (Hester Lynch) Plastic
among sailors) Pip
Plata (Rio de la)
176 Blanc Pipe (in law)
(United Provinces of
Comfort (Old) (a wine measure)
178 Point of Sight (see Perspec.
201 Pipowders Court (see Courts, Platoff, or Platow
Diana of (see Diana vol. iii. p. 588) 151 Platonic Love (see Plato).
of Poitiers) Piquet ..
Platonists, New (see New Poitou, or Poictou . Piracy
Platonists). Piracy, Literary (see Copy- Plato's Republic (see Plato) “ Polacca, Alla (see Poloright, and Literary Prop- Platte, or La Plaite River
Plautus (Marcus Accius) 185 History
208 Piron (Alexis) Plebeians
153 Plebis-scita (see Civil Law) 186 Polar Bear (see Bear) 212 Pisa Pledge, or Pawn.
Expeditions (see Piscalaqua 154 Pleiades ...
North Polar ExpePisidia (see Natolia) 155 Pleonasm
Plesiosaurus (see Organic Polarity (sec Electricity, Piso. 156Remains)
Polarization of Light 212 Ponta Delgada (see Mi- Porto Cabello, or Puerto Ca-
Rico (see Appendix,
end of this vol.)
Prince of, (see
Santo (see Madeira)"
Charles XIV) Ports Cinque (see Cinque
Portsmouth (town in Eng.
(town in New
Hampshire) . 271
History of 274
Portuguese Language and
Pontus (country of Asia Mi- Literature (prince de).
(in mythology) 247 Poseidon (see Neptune) Polish History, Language
Posen, or Posnania
Posilippo (see Pausilippo)..
Position (see Prosody)
Posselt (Emest Louis)
Possessed Politz (Charles Henry Louis) 227 Pope (Alexander)
“ Post-Captain (see Captain). Poll-Tax (see Tax)
(head of the Roman Postern Pollux (see Castor)
249 Posts .
008 Polnitz (Charles Louis) Poplar..
Potemkin (Gregory Alexan-
261 Pothier (Robert Joseph) Polyænus
Clay (see Clay) 262 Potocki (Polish family)
(a philosopher) 265
in the Appendix at the end Polydectes (see Perseus) Porpoise
of the work). Polygamy “ Porpora (Nicold)
Potter (John) Polyglot. 230 Porsenna
(Robert). Polygnotus of Thasus 231 Porson (Richard)
(Paul) Polyhalite. Port (wine)
Potter's Clay (see Clay).. Polyhedron.
267 Pottery Polyhistor
Potwallopers (see Preston). 308
or Port Hole
Poudre de Succession Polymignite
Port-au-Prince (see Port Ré- Pougens (Marie Charles JoPolynesia .
309 Polynices (see Eteocles, and Port Jackson (see New Poughkeepsie Thebes)
South Wales, and Poultices (see Cataplasms). Polyphemus
Mahon (see Mahon)
Pound Polypus 233 Républicain
« Powder of Succession (see Polyxena 235 Portamento di Voce
Poudre de Succession)
Power (in arithmetic)
(in law) Pomegranate
Looms Pomfret (John)
(a malt liquor) 269 of a Glass Pomology
Portici (see Naples, and Her- Powers, Great (of Europe). Pompadour (Jeanne Antoi- culaneum)
Powhatan. neite Poisson) Portico...
Pownall (Thomas) Pompeii
Portiuncula (see Francis- Poyais. Pompey 239 cans)
Pozzo di Borgo (count)
312 Pompey's Pillar (see Column) 243 Portland (duke of
Pozzolana Pomponius Mela (see Mela)
town in Maine)
Pozzuoli. Ponce de Leon (Juan).
270 Prado (see Madrid) Pondicherry
Pradon (Jean Nicolas)
Pradt (Dominique Dufour