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and writer among the Quakers. In 1677, than fifty sail arrived with settlers from in company with George Fox and Robert England, Ireland, Wales, Holland, and Barclay, the celebrated apologist, he again Germany. Soon after Penn returned to set sail on a religious visit to Holland and England, king Charles died; and the reGermany, where he and his friends were spect which James II bore to the late received by many pious persons as the admiral, who had recommended his son ministers of Christ, particularly at Her- to his favor, procured to him free access werden, by the princess Elizabeth of the at court. He made use of this advantage Rhine, daughter of the king of Boherpia, to solicit the discharge of his persecuted and grand-daughter of James I of Eng- brethren, fifteen hundred of whom reland. The persecutions of dissenters con- mained in prison at the decease of the tinuing to rage, notwithstanding their late king. In 1686, having taken lodgings repeated applications to parliament for at Kensington, to be near the court, he sufferance and protection, William Penn published a Persuasive to Moderation now turned his thoughts towards a settle- towards Dissenting Christians, &c., bumment in the new world, as a place where bly submitted to the King and his great himself and his friends might enjoy their Council, which is thought to have hasreligious opinions without molestation, tened, if it did not occasion, the king's and where an example might be set to the proclamation for a general pardon, nations of a just and righteous govern- which was followed the next year by his ment. “ There may be room there,” suspension of the penal laws. At the said he, “though not here, for such a revolution, in 1688, Penn's intimacy with holy experiment." He therefore, in 1681, the abdicated monarch created suspicions, solicited a patent from Charles II, for å of which he repeatedly cleared himself province in North America, which the before authority, until he was accused by king readily granted, in consideration of a profligate wretch, whom the parliament his father's services, and of a debt still due afterwards declared to be a cheat and an to him from the crown. Penn soon after impostor. Not caring to expose himself published a description of the province, to the oaths of such a man, he withdrew proposing easy terms of settlement to such from public notice, till 1693. In that as might be disposed to go thither. He year, through the mediation of his friends also wrote to the Indian natives, inform- at court, he was once more admitted to ing them of his desire to hold his posses- plead his own cause before the king and sion with their consent and goodwill

. council, and was again acquitted of all He then drew up the Fundamental suspicion of guilt. The most generally Constitution of Pennsylvania, and the known production of his temporary sefollowing year he published the Frame clusion bears the title of Fruits of Soliof Government, a law of which code tude, in Reflections and Maxims relating held out a greater degree of religious lib- to the Conduct of Human Life. Not erty than had at that time been allowed long after his restoration to society, he in the world. “All persons living in this lost his wife, Gulielma, to which he said province, who confess and acknowledge all his other troubles were 'as nothing in the One Almighty and Eternal God to be comparison. He travelled, however, the the Creator, Upholder, and Ruler of the same year, in the west of England, and in world, and that hold themselves obliged the next prosecuted an application to parin conscience to live peaceably and justly liament for the relief of his friends, the in civil society, shall in no wise be mo- Quakers, in the case of oaths. In the year lested or prejudiced for their religious 1696, he married a second wife, Hannah, persuasion or practice, in matters of faith the daughter of Thomas Callowhill

, an and worship; nor shall they be compelled eminent merchant of Bristol, and soon at any time to frequent or maintain any after buried his eldest son, Springett, a religious worship, place or ministry what- remarkably pious and promising youth. soever.” Upon the publication of these pro- In 1698, he travelled in Ireland, and reposals, many respectable families removed sided the following year at Bristol. In to the new province; the city of Phila- 1699, he again sailed for Pennsylvania, with delphia was laid out, upon the banks of his second wife and family, intending to the Delaware; and in 1982, the proprie- make his province the place of their futor visited his newly-acquired territory, ture residence; but advantage was taken where he remained about two years, ad- of his absence to undermine proprietary justing its concerns, and establishing a governments, under color of the king's friendly intercourse with his colonial prerogative, and he thought it necessary neighbors ; during whichi period no less to return to England again in 1701. After

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his arrival, the measure was laid aside, dents, originated in the chapters and and Penn became once more welcome at monasteries. (See Feast of Fools.) court, on the accession of queen Anne. PENNANT, Thomas, an English natuIn 1710, finding the air near the city to ralist and antiquary, born at Downing, in disagree with his declining health, he Flintshire, in 1726, studied at Oxford. took a handsome seat in Buckingham- His first production was an account of an shire, at which he continued to reside earthquake felt in Flintshire, April 2, 1750, during the remainder of his life. In the which appeared in the Philosophical year 1712, he had three distinct fits of the Transactions, in 1756; and, the following apoplectic kind. The last of these so im- year, he was chosen a member of the paired his memory and understanding as royal society of Upsal, through the influto render him ever after unfit for publicence of Linnæus. He commenced, in action ; but he continued to deliver, in the 1761, a body of British Zoology, which meeting at Reading, short, but sound and first appeared in four vols. folio, and was sensible expressions. In 1717, he scarcely republished in quarto and octavo, anel knew his old acquaintance, or could walk translated into German by C. Theoph. without leading. He died in 1718. The Murr. This work was followed by his writings of Penn (first published in two Indian Zoology (1769); Synopsis of volumes folio) bespeak his character as a Quadrupeds (1771); Genera of Birds Christian and a philanthropist. Of his (1773); History of Quadrupeds (1781);

a ability as a politician and legislator, the Arctic Zoology (1786); and Index to prosperity of Pennsylvania is a lasting Buffon's Natural History of Birds (1787). monument.

In 1765, Mr. Pennant took a journey to Pennalism is the name for the torments the continent, when he visited Buffon, and impositions to which the elder stu- Haller, Pallas, and other eminent foreigndents in German universities used to sub- ers. He was admitted into the royal soject the younger ones, called Pennale ciety in 1767; and, in 1769, he undertook (pen-cases), afterwards fores. This abuse a tour into Scotland, of which he publishwas carried to a great extent ; and books ed an account in 1771, and a second volwritten 200 years ago exhibit a real bar- ume appeared in 1776, relating to a secbarity of manners in this respect. In ond tour in the same country, and a 1661 and 1663, the German empire thought voyage to the Hebrides. In 1778, he it necessary to enact laws against pennal- published a tour in Wales ; to which was ism. It corresponds to the English fag- afterwards added, in another volume, a ging ; and, though few traces of it exist at Journey to Snowdon. He produced, in present in Germany, it is still customary, 1782, a narrative of a Journey from Chesin most schools, to greet the “foxes” ter to London; and in 1790 appeared (scholars who ascend from a lower class his amusing work, An Account of London into a higher) with a sound beating ; and (4to.). In 1793, he professedly took leave we find in Byron's Life, by Moore, to what of the public in a piece of autobiography an extent fagging has been carried in the Literary Life of the late Thomas England. It is said that pennalism origi- Pennant; but he subsequently committed nated in the Italian universities (Bologna, to the press a History of Whiteford and &c.), which is very probable, as the stu- Holywell, in his native county. He died dents at these universities kept together in 1798. After his death appeared Outlines in “nations,” in order to protect each of the Globe (4 vols., 4to.), forming a porother, and young students went with rec- tion of a very extensive undertaking, ominendations to the senior of those na- wbich was never completed, and some tions. But in those rude times, the weak, other posthumous publications. His skill who wanted protection, were every where in the selection of interesting subjects for exposed to the brutal'abuse of the stronger. discussion, and his felicity of illustration, Among mechanics, apprentices and young attracted admirers, rather than the extent journeymen were subjected to similar of his researches, or the profundity of his discipline—a consequence of the rude observations. feudalism which had penetrated every PENNSYLVANIA, one of the United States, part of society. Others derive these prac- as now limited, extends from N. lat. 390 tices from the chapters of the clergy, 43 to N. lat. 42° 16', and from 74° 35 to among whom every new canon was 80° 31' W. lon. from Greenwich. It is obliged to pay a certain sum for a banquet bounded north by New York; east by the on his entrance; and it is a well known river Delaware, which separates it from

; fact, that many of the customs, songs (de- New Jersey ; south-east by the state of cent and indecent), &c. of German stu- Delaware ; south by Maryland and part

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of Virginia, and west by the latter and niary embarrassments; and although he the state of Obio. It lies nearly in the actually entered into a contract for this form of a parallelogram. Darby, in his purpose, yet an apoplectic attack renGeographical View, states that its greatest dered him incapable of perfecting the length is due west from Bristol, on the legal forms. The litigated question with Delaware river, to the eastern border of the state of Connecticut touching the Ohio county, in Virginia, through 5° 56 right of territory in the northern part of the of longitude, along N. latitude 40°°9. This state, was depending from the year 1750 distance, on that line of latitude, is equal until a few years since, when the public to 315 American statute miles. The and private rights of soil were settled in greatest breadth is 176 miles, from the favor of Pennsylvania, under conciliations Virginia line

to the extreme northern an- and restrictions, determined by special acts gle, on lake Erie; and the mean breadth, of the Pennsylvania legislature and the 157. The same writer calculates the decisions of the supreme court of the U. area at above 47,000 square miles, and States. The seat of the state government 30,080,000 statute acres. The original was transferred from Philadelphia to LanSwedish colony came over in 1638, caster in the year 1799, and the progress under the government and protection of of improvement and population caused it, Sweden. The Dutch and the Finns had in 1812, to be removed to Harrisburg, also settled on the Delaware, before the where handsome buildings are erected for British conquest of the New Netherlands, the accommodation of the legislature and in 1664. In 1682, William Penn founded the officers of the government. The a colony, having previously obtained a whole state is divided into 52 counties, charter from Charles II, which put bim viz. Adams, Alleghany, Arinstrong, Beain possessiou of the soil and government ver, Bedford, Berks, Bradford, Bucks, of the country. This charter was granted Butler, Cambria, Centre, Chester, Clearin consideration of an unsettled pecuniary field, Columbia, Crawford, Cumberland, account between the government and the Dauphin, Delaware, Erie, Fayette, Frankestate of Penn's father. The emigration lin, Green, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, from Wales into Pennsylvania was as Juniatta, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lehigh, early as 1683. The emigrants purchased Luzerne, Lycoming, M'Kean, Mercer, a large body of land, and called the seve- Miffliv, Montgomery, Northampton, Northral settlements after favorite places in umberland, Perry, Philadelphia, Pike, Wales. The Indian right was respected Potter, Schuylkill, Somerset, Susquehan

by William Penn, and his sense of justice nah, Tioga, Union, Vinango, Warren, Washsuo induced him to make an equitable pur- ington, Wayne, Westmoreland, York.

chase from the aborigines, notwithstand- There are three incorporated cities in this ing his charter ; and the same policy was state-Philadelphia, Pittsburg and Lancas

pursued by the constituted government ter. There are very few counties which send after the revolution, as the state of Penn- have not a borough and many populous

sylvania made new purchases from the towns, the most considerable" of which native proprietors at a fair price, and in are Harrisburg, Reading, Easton, Carlisle,

open treaty, in 1784. Though the state York, Chambersburg, Brownsville, Washle of Pennsylvania might have considered ington, &c. By an estimate of the popu

the proprietary claims as a royalty, to lation in 1782, it was supposed to be which the independent government could 330,000. By the census of 1790, it was lawfully succeed, yet, as a peculiar ac- ascertained to be 434,373. In 1800, it knowledgment of the inerits and claims was 602,545. In 1810, it was 810,091. of William Penn and his family, by an In 1820, it was 1,049,458 ; and in 1831, it act of the legislature, the sum of £130,000 was 1,347,672. The government of Penn

sterling, together with a confirmation of sylvania consists of three branches legisSe title to all the manor lands, which were lative, executive and judicial. The legis

ten per cent. on all surveyed lands in the lature consists of a senate and a house of province, was to be offered to the Penn representatives. By the present constitufamily, which offer was by them accepted. tion, the house of representatives cannot

This was a liberal compensation for exceed 100, and are chosen annually.

revolutionary losses, considering that, in The senate, whose number cannot be i the year 1712, William Penn offered more than one third of the lower house,

to the queen of England the govern- are chosen for four years, one fourth of ment and soil of the province for the their body annually; at this period both sum of £12,000, payable in four years. branches are fuli. The governor is This was certainly owing to his pecu- elected for three years, but cannot hold the office more than nine years in twelve. side of the Susquehannah are the KittaThese elections are all by the people and tinny ridges, comprising the North or by ballot. All judicial officers are ap- Blue, the Horse and the Tuscarora mounpointed by the governor during good be- tains, Sherman's hill, Sideling hill, Raghavior, and are removable by address of ged, Great Warrior's, Tussey's and Wills's both houses or by impeachment. The mountains; then the great Alleghany inhabitants are principally descended ridge, which, being the largest, gives from the English, Welsh, Irish, Scotch name to the whole; and west of this are and Germans, also French, Swedes, and a the Chestnut ridges, including the Laurel few Dutch. The language is generally a hill. Between the Juniatta river and the pure English, but, in many counties, the west branch of the Susquehannah are German prevails to a considerable extent. Jack's, Tussey's, Nittany and Bald Eagle The character of the Pennsylvanians is mountains. The mountain area has been somewhat diversified by difference of ex- estimated at 6750 square miles, or very traction and various modes of education, nearly one seventh part of the superficies but this is chiefly in minor points. The of the state. Some of these mountains facilities of receiving education are great. admit of cultivation almost to their sumThere is a university in Philadelphia, and mits, and the valleys between them are colleges have been established at Carlisle, oflen of a rich black soil, suited to the Canonsburg, Washington, Pittsburg, and various kinds of grass and grain. The Meadville, and provision has been made other parts of the state are generally level by the legislature for the establishment of or agreeably diversified with hills and an academy in every county in the state. vales. The principal rivers are the DelaThere are also fourishing Moravian ware, Susquehannah, Schuylkill, Lehigh, schools at Bethlehem, Nazareth and Litiz; Alleghany, Monongahela, Ohio, Juniatta, and, by the will of the late Stephen Gi- Youhiogeny, and Clarion, formerly desig. rard, of Philadelphia, a fund of $2,000,000 nated as Toby's creek. Besides these (to be augmented, if necessary, by rents main streams, Pennsylvania is watered by of real property, and residuary personal numerous large creeks and rivulets, to as estate) has been appropriated for the great a degree as the same extent of counestablishment of a college for the educa- try in any part of the U. States. This tion of orphan children. The different state deserves credit for her numerous religious denominations in Pennsylvania improvements in turnpike roads, canals, are Presbyterians, Methodists, German rail-roads and bridges, which have been Calvinists, German Lutherans, Friends, constructed in a superior style of excelEpiscopalians, Baptists, Roman Catholics, lence and durability. The first turnpike Seceders, Covenanters, Universalists, Swe- road in the U. States was made in Penndenborgians, Jews and Unitarians. With sylvania. (For further information with regard to the face of the country, the regard to these internal improvements, mountains strike the eye, at the first glance see the various heads.) The soil of Pennon a map, as the most prominent natural sylvania is much diversified ; in some features. The Appalachian system in parts it is barren, but a great proportion the U. States generally extends in a di- of it is fertile, and a considerable part rection deviating not very essentially from very excellent. West of the mountains, south-west to north-east, but in Pennsyl- the soil of the first quality is a deep black vania, the whole system is inflected from mould, equal in fertility to any part of the that course, and traverses the state in a U. States. Wheat is the most important serpentine direction. Towards the south article of produce.

Indian corn, rye, boundary, the mountains lie about north- buckwheat, barley, oats, flax, hemp, beans, north-east, gradually inclining more east- peas and potatoes are extensively cultiwardly as they penetrate northward, and, vated. Apples, cherries, pears, peaches in the central counties, many of the and plums are abundant. The trees chains lie nearly east and west. But, as natural to the soil are hemlock, pine, they extend towards the northern border hickory, walnut, wild cherry, locust, maof the state, they again gradually incline ple, chestnut, mulberry, oak, gum sassato the north-east, and enter New York fras, elm and poplar. The magnolia and New Jersey in nearly that direction. glauca grows in low grounds, and the The principal ridges ou the east side of acuminata attains to a great height among the Susquehannah, are the Kittatinny or the western mountains. Grapes are comBlue mountains, behind which, and nearly mon, and some of them, mellowed by frost, parallel to them, are Peters, Tuscarora with the addition of sugar, make a pleasand Nescopeck mountains. On the west ant wine. The wild plum and crab apple

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grow in abundance. Foreign grapes have Pennsylvania exceeds all the other states in some counties been cultivated to advan- in the variety and extent of her manufactage, and wine and brandy, of good quali- tures, some of which are of superior exty, have been made. This article of cellence. Those of iron have been menmanufacture has hitherto been a matter tioned. The various fabrics from wool of experiment only. The sugar-maple, and cotton give ample employment to the in the western and northern parts of the capitalist and the artisan. . All the necesstate, is abundant, and the inhabitants saries of life, and many of its luxuries, are generally make therefrom a sufficient to be found in this state, the produce of quantity of sugar for home consumption. its soil and the labor of its citizens. (For Iron ore is distributed, in large quantities, the exports of this state, see articles Philain many parts of the state, and the manu- delphia, and Pittsburg.) facture of iron from the ore, through the PENNSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY. (See Philfurnace, the forge, the foundery, the rolling adelphia.) and slitting mill, the nail cutting machine, PENN TOWNSHIP; a small township in up to the finest cutlery, is carried on to a Philadelphia county, Pennsylvania. This greater extent than in any other state in place was selected by the late Mr. Girard, the Union. Copper, lead and alum ap- for the establishment of a school for orpear in some parts of the state. Lime- phans. The site is about two miles from stone and marble, of the finest quality the old court-house in Philadelphia. for the purposes of architecture and PENNY. (See Sterling Money.) statuary, abound in various parts of the PENNY Post. (See Posts.) state. In the middle counties, anthracite, PENNYROYAL; a species of 'mint (mentha and in the western, bituminous coal, is pulegium), formerly in considerable refound in great abundance. This state is pute as a medicine, but now almost totally famous for its breed of draught horses, and neglected. In this country, the same name nature has abundantly supplied the forests is applied to the hedeoma pulegioides, a with game. Deer, turkeys, pheasants and small plant, allied to, and not very differpartridges are numerous. Wild ducks. ent in its sensible properties from the are found on almost every stream. Wild former, nor, indeed, from the other spegeese, swans and pigeons are migratory, cies of mint. (See Mint.) and frequently found in large flocks. PENOBSCOT; the largest river of Maine. Singing birds of various notes and plu- The western and principal branch rises mage are common. In the eastern rivers in the western part of the state, and unites are found rock-perch, bass, shad and her- with the eastern branch 54 miles northring, which come from the sea in large east of Bangor. After the junction, it runs shoals. In the western waters there is a south by west, till it flows into the head species of catfish, weighing from 50 to of Penobscot bay, between the towns of 100 pounds; likewise pike, of an enor- Penobscot and Prospect. It is navigable mous weight and size, are found. Stur- for ships to Bangor, where the tide termigeon is common to both sections of the nates, 52 miles north of Owl's Head, at state. In the smaller streams, trout, pike, the entrance of the bay. Many towns chub, sun-perch, mullet, catfish and white on the banks of the Penobscot are beautisalmon are found in their several seasons. ful and flourishing. Bears, panthers, wild cats, foxes, wolves, Penobscot Bay, at the mouth of Pebeavers, otters and raccoons are more or nobscot river, on the coast of Maine, is a less common, in proportion to the progress large and beautiful bay, and affords great of settlement and cultivation. Rabbits and advantages for navigation. It contains squirrels are still abundant. In the low several islands. Its entrance, between grounds are found minks, muskrats, and the Isle of Holt and Owl's Head, is eighopossums. Of the numerous tribe of teen miles wide, and its length from north snakes, the bite of the rattlesnake and to south is about thirty miles. Lon. 68° copperhead alone is deadly. The Penn- 40 to 68° 56' W.; lat. 44° to 44° 30' N. sylvania farmer lives as comfortably as Pensacola, the capital of West Floriany one of his station in any part of the da, is situated on a bay of the same name, world. Commodious farm houses of in lat. 30° 28 N., and lon. 87° 12 W.

stone or brick, extensive barns and farm The shore is low and sandy, but the town buildings, show the agricultural prosperity is built on a gentle ascent. It is in the Fof the state. Log and frame houses are form of a parallelogram, and the length is common in the new settled country. In nearly a mile. Only small vessels can the towns and villages is a considerable approach the town, but the bay is one of sproportion of brick and stone houses. the most safe and capacious in the gulf

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