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nity, no personal addresses are ever made to him. Surely some of the ancient liturgies afford proof positive of the contrary, as Mr Whiston well knew, from the use which he occasionally made of them, when seeming to favour his own views. But laying them aside, I would introduce to the reader's notice an old and curious tract, entitled - The • Acts of Paul and Thecla.' It was first published in Greek, by the laborious Dr Grabe, in the first volume of his · Spicilegia,' from a manuscript in the Bodleian library; and is, by its learned editor, thought to have been the work of a presbyter of Asia, early in the second century. With this little tract Mr Whiston is highly offended ; a circumcumstance which serves, in my opinion, greatly to enhance its value ; not that I deem it an authentic work, but that its antiquity, and its conformity with the sentiments and expressions of the earliest ages of christianity seem to me to be unquestionable. In the Greek original, there are numerous expressions of high respect bestowed on Christ, and he is throughout treated with deserved dignity. In the Latin version, however, of which the precise date cannot be ascertained, (otherwise than by the fact about to be noticed), these dignified expressions are changed into some indifferent and very general appellations. The intention is obvious, and will discover itself to any one who will take the trouble of comparing the Latin copy with the Greek original. The passage which has proved so galling to Mr Whiston, is that in which Thecla is introduced ex

pressing pressing herself thns


οι τον βαπτισμα καθαρον τηρησαντες, οτι αυτοι αναπαυσονται προς τον πατερα, και τον υιον, xal toʻcyıcı avera' _Blessed are they, who keep their baptism pure, for they shall rest with the Father, with ' the Son, and with the Iloly Ghost,' Mark the Latin copy : Quia ipsi refrigerabuntur, apud Pa* trem et filium charissimum'- For they shall be refreshed with the Father, and his most deur Son, no mention being made of the I/oly Ghost at all. The like equality of reverence paid to the Holy Ghost, is found also toward the conclusion of the tract• οτι σε φιλα, και σε ποθω, και σοι προσκυνω, τω πατρι, και “τω υιω, και τα πνευματι αγιω, εις τους αιωνας'-I love

thee, I desire thee, I worship thee, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, for ever.' And again, in the very conclusion- δοξαν τα πατρος, το υιε, και το πνευματG'arylou '-10 the glory of the Father, the Son, and the

Holy Ghost.' All this the Latin version withholds, together with the history of Thecla’s escape, by a rock rending to receive her, from the attack of those who intended to violate her person. Viewing this escape as rather fabulous, Dr Grabe himself ascribes the conclusion of the tract to some posterior writer. But as this part of the history contains nothing more marvellous, than what the body of the work had previously detailed, and as the learned Doctor justly thought, that the recovery of this interesting little tract was an acquisition to the christian antiquary, he had, in my opinion), done better not to have lessened its usefulness, by calling in question the story told in the conclusion; thus, by


means of a little hypercriticism, setting aside the noble attestations to the Deity of the Holy Ghost, which the conclusion of the work is stored with. It is solely with a view to these attestations, that I have troubled the reader with the above discussion; and whatever may be his sentiments on the subject, he will, I am sure, give me credit for the motives which led me to state my opinion thus briefly respecting the triumph of the Socinian- that in the early ages no addresses are personally made to the Holy Ghost, as God.

I have now, I may say, disposed of the most material points which have offered themselves to my mind, regarding the important christian doctrine of the holy and undivided Trinity;' a doctrine which has been so wantonly attacked by. one set of writers, and, in my estimation, so feebly defended by another. The only apology which I have to plead for having dwelt so long upon this branch of theological science, is, that none other has a claim to equal regard; the doctrine of a • Trinity in Unity,' being essential to the right apprehension of every other christian doctrine, and necessarily to be maintained, to the right discharge of every christian duty. Besides, its having occupied so much of the space, allotted to this work, has been in a great measure owing to the extreme arduousness of the undertaking, and to the necessity, imposed upon me, of clearing my way as I proceeded, even at the expence of tediously repeating, over and over again, the same observation.


G g

Before, however, I can yet conclude, there are two imputations, which possibly some may

think I have incurred, and which it is natural for me to be most anxious to guard against. First, it may be imputed to me, as nothing short of a high crime and misdemeanour, that I have arrogantly presumed to make free with Fathers, Bishops, Doctors, and Dignitaries ; and, though confessedly in a humble state of obscurity, have set myself in opposition to men deservedly placed in a state of ecclesiastical and theological eminence. It strikes me, that in some part of his learned labours, Lord Bacon talks of • THE IDOLATRY OF GREAT NANES,' as inimical to the investigation of truth : while, like other idols, experience tells me, that` great names' have jarred, and may continue to jar with each other, and sometimes with themselves. To this imputation if the public shall be disposed to attach any odium, it becomes me to attempt no farther vindication of myself, than simply to say, in the language of the trite Latin adage, Sape

etiam est olitor verba

opportuna locutus."

The second imputation is of more weight. It derives its origin from the strong predilection in favour of what is called the doctrine of the Divine Nonarchy, first taught by St Athanasius; and, under the sanction of his great name, still vigorously inaintained. Of this doctrine the great Dr Bull is so estreinely fond, that he affirms, • the subordination of the Son to the Father, as to his origination

• and

• and principiation, is altogether necessary to be known, and believed, that by this means the

Godhead of the Son might be so asserted, as * the Unity of God nevertheless, and the DIVINE • MONARCHY, might still be preserved inviolate.' To combat this bold champion,' in the very field, where the mastery has been for many years assigned to him, is surely a perilous attempt, in a theological stripling' like me. But having already advanced to meet him, in the ' armour' of Scripture, which all parties acknowledge to be impregnable, am in no fear about the issue of the present contest,

The Divine MONARCHY of the great JEHOVAH, (in the strictest sense which the term will bear) I do most firmly believe and adore. But the MONARCHY of ONE in JEHOVAH, having the other two in subordination, and in subjection, adınitting that these two are also Jehovah, (which must be Dr Bull's meaning, if he has any meaning), is a doctrine to which nullus magister, no great name, no human authority, can ever induce me to subscribe ; not only by reason of its having no foundation whatever in the word of God, but of the dangerous conclusions flowing from such unfounded premises. Will it be believed, however, that all further reasoning against such premises is on my part rendered unnecessary, from the admission of no less a theologian than Di Waterland; as contained in his “ Importance of “ the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity asserted”against Episcopius, Curcellæus, and others, who, Gg2


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