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** (especially, Isai. xxviii. 18.) the word "193 capbar seems to retain something of "what I take to be its natural and origi*' nal fense, viz. to cover or smear over, "as Gen. vi. 14. the only place, where it "is evidently so usede." Agreeably to this, the Dr. fays, " Atonement for sin, is the

quotes Neh. iv. 4, 5. Pfal. xxxii. 1. Pfal. Ixxxv. 2 Jam. v. 20. In which texts, the pardon of sin is expressed by its being covered, and the punishment of it, by its not being coveredf.

The text, Gen. vi. 14. to which the Dr. here refers us, is as followeth, Make thee an ark of Gopher •'wood; rooms Jhalt thou make in the ark; m^f vecapharta and thou (halt pitch it within and without becopher with pitch. The Dr. thinks, that the root ~i<D caphar bears its natural and primary fense in this text; in which I agree with him. But then he fays, that the natural and original signification of this root, was that of covering; and in this I cannot agree with the Dr. especially considering, that covering, in the sense of hiding or concealing

e See Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined, Chap. VI. §.115. f Ibidem §. 1x7.

covering of sin." To su


which, he


ing a thing, is the signification of this Hebrew-root which he contends for.——The noun copber in this text, without doubt, signifies pitch, bitumen, or some substance of the like glutinous and tenacious nature; for no substance, of different qualities, could have answered the end intended. Now, as it is natural to think, that nouns, or the names of things, were invented and sixed before the verbs which signify actions upon or about them? and to conceive, that these verbs would be often taken from those names which were given to things, of which we have many evident instances in all languages: so it is natural to think, that the verb "193 caphar was taken from the noun.

copber, which signifies pitch or bitumen; and that this verb, at the beginning, signified neither more nor less, than to pitch, or to apply pitch to a thing; which fig— nification doth not imply the idea of covering, much less that of covering with a design to hide or conceal.

As to the pitching of Noah's ark; the thing intended by it, was, the filling up the spaces in the joinings, and the chinks, cracks, and vacuitys in the wood, with this cement, to the end, that there might be such a close union effected in, and between, all its component parts, as might render it impenetrable by the waters of the flood. Wherefore, if the wood of the ark was not porous, but of a close texture, all this might have beendone, without covering the ark over with pitch. Or, if the porosity of the wood rendered it necessary to cover the whole ark with this glutinous matter, yet the covering it with it, was not the thing directly and ultimately intended, but was only subordinate to it. The principal and ultimate end, aimed at, was not the covering of the ark, but the filling the seams, chinks, cracks, and pores, of the boards of it with pitch, in order to bring all the parts of it into close contact with one another, and to preserve them in that state of union. When these things, therefore, are considered, it appears, I think, thnt the fense of the words pitching with pitch, in the texts before us, is rather that of pointing, cementing, or uniting, than that of covering. And when all these places in the Hebrew bible, where this verb and noun occur in a derived and figurative fense, are carefully inspected and considered, it will, I doubt not, be found, that they retain more of this fense, than that of covering.

But supposing, that the verb caphar did, in the text before us, signify to cover, or to hide; yet, surely, it was not the design of atonement to cover or hide sin. Yea, by the sacrifical atonements, sin, instead of being covered or hidden, was exposed to public view; and, therefore, the covering I of of sin is excluded from the idea of facrifical atonement. God, indeed, is said, in some texts of scripture, to cover sin, by which is meant, that he pardons or forgives it. But between pardoning sin, and making atonement for sin, there is a wide difference. By pardon, sin is covered: by atonement, it is not; otherwise the pardon, subsequent to atonement, and by which alone sin is covered, would be useless. The texts, therefore, produced by the Dr. and in which God is said to cover or pardon sins, are no way to his purpose; because it doth not follow, from God's being said to cover or pardon sins, that atonements, made by sacrifice, did cover or pardon them.—The passage which the Dr. quotes from Jam. v. 20. relates to another affair, and is much less to his purpose than any of the others; for which reason, I shall say nothing about it here.

The place in which, above all others, the Dr. thinks that the verb caphar doth retain something of its natural and original signification, as signifying to cover, is Isai. xxviii. 18. Your covenant with death "13D cuppar jhall be disannulled, (atoned,) and your agreement with hellJhall not stand: when the overflowing scourge jhall pas through, then ye sail be trodden down by it. The Dr. says that the fense of the Hebrew Word cuppar in this text, is, it shall be

blotted blotted out, smeared over, cancelled 8, consequently, covered. But this interpretation of the Hebrew word, appears to me, to be very unnatural; because their covenant with death, as appears from the latter part of the verse, was to be atoned for by punishment, which is not a mean of covering or hiding sin, but of exposing it to public view, and the sinner himself to shame and disgrace. The words, I think, should be rendered thus, Tour covenant with death Jhall he atoned for, or expiated, viz. not by sacrifice, but by punishment. And then the Hebrew verb will bear the same sense which it doth in other places, where atonement is said to be made by the execution of justice upon offenders: which is a fense very different from that of covering or hiding.

As to the Hebrew noun man caporeth, which signifieth the mercy-seat, and is derived from the root caphar, the Dr. fays, "the fense of it seems to be transferred "from covering, or securing with pitch, "to a thing of a different nature \" But in this the Dr. I think is as much mistaken, as he is about the natural and original fense of its root, caphar. This notion of his about the fense of the word, caporetkt which signifies the mercy-feat, is grounded I 2 on

£ See Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined! Chap. V. §. 95. N°. 25. * Ibidem Chap. IV. §. 63,

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