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,vice versa; or, in other words, the end is» in all cases, a reason for the choice of the mean, or means; but the mean, or means, are, in no cafe, a reason for the choice of the end. But as I shall have this affair to examine to the bottom in my last chapter, I shall say no more about it in this place.
If the Dr. should still think, that St. Paul's affirming justification from the consequences of sin, (ver. 18, 19.) to be by, or through, the righteousness or obedience of Christ, is favourable to his notion of the sacrifice of Christ, as being the perfect obedience and goodness of his whole life; it may be observed, that this apostle, in one of these verses, (viz. ver. 18.) cautions us against thus understanding him, by calling the obedience of Christ, by, or through, which we are justified, or made righteous, one righteousness, or one act of righteousness, or righteous act, and that as standing in, contrast, with that one offence, or one act of offence, of Adam, by, or through, which judgment came upon all men to condemnation: for he fays, As by one offence, (S7evos Tk,gcnrlcopolos,) judgment came upon all men to condemnation ; so by one righteousness, (<T< ivds S>Matiu[A.cttos, by one righteous act,) the free gift came upon all men to justification of lifec. And as it is St. Paul's design in the context, L 4 as
* See Mr. Locke in locum.
as well as in this verse, to exhibit the contrast between one offensive act of Adam and the consequences of it to mankind, and one righteous act of Christ and the consequences of it to mankind, he must, when he mentions the obedience or righteousness of Christ without any restriction, be understood to speak of one act of obedience, or one righteous act only; for if he is not so understood, the contrast, which he is exhibiting, will be lost. And I sincerely wish that the Dr. as he has taken notice of this interpretation, in his notes upon ver. 18. had paid a greater regard to it, because it is a dead weight upon that interpretation which supports his notion of the sacrifice of Christ, as being the perfect obedience and goodness of his whole life.
The last text the Dr. mentions, as having something in it for his purpose, is, 2 Cor. viii. 9. Te know the grace (the goodness and love) of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your fakes he became poor, that ye, through his poverty, might be rich.— The thing which the apostle speaks of in these words, is, the poor and indigent state of life, in which Christ was graciously pleased to be placed here on earth, for the good and benefit of mankind. This is the thing which he expresly mentions; and the only thing which the nature and scope of his discourse required to be mentioned. But
he he doth not say one word about the sacrifice of Christ, or about its nature and efficacy. If the Dr. thinks he doth; he hath it to prove. And till he has proved it, I must be allowed to think, that this text makes nothing for his purpose.
The conclusion of the Dr'* Scripture-
§. 2i. The Dr. concludes this long paragraph of scripture-evidence in the following words, "From all this, it appears, that "the blood of Christ, or that by which he "has bought and redeemed us, is his love tc and goodness to men, and his obedience "to God, exercised indeed through the ,** whole course of his humiliation in this "world, but most eminently exhibited in ** his death. His blood is precious, (1 Pet. "i. 19.) And it is precious, not in the fense "in which silver and gold, or any other "material thing, is precious, but as it is the "blood of a lamb without spot and blemifo: ct that is to fay, it is his compleat and fpot"less righteousness, his humility, goodness, *c and obedience to death, which makes his f blood precious in the best and highest "fense, and gives his cross all its worth and "efficacy.
§. 22. In what respects the blood of Christ is precious, and from what it derives its value or worth, I have considered already k; and have nothing further to add, on that head, in this place. And for the rest; the whole proof, which the Dr. has brought from the scripture, in support of that notion of the sacrifice of Christ which he here gives us, has been minutely considered} and, upon the strictest examination, it has been found, I think, that no one part of it amounts to a good proof, or even the shadow of a proof, of the truth of it.
§. 23. Having thus dispatched the examination of all the scripture-evidence, which the Dr. has produced, in the VIIItk chapter of his Key to the Apostolic writings, of his notion of Christ's sacrifice, as being the perfect obedience and goodness of his whole life; I now proceed to examine his scripture illustrations of it,: as they lie before us in the Xth chapter of his Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined.
§. 24. These scripture-illustrations are of the analogical kind; a species of illustration, which, though pretty well calculated to confound, and stop the mouth of an opponent, has been so far from being of any
k See this fame section, §. 2—12. inclusive.
great service in explaining and proving scripture-doctrines, that it has often obscured, and not seldom misrepresented them. If any person wants to have an instance of these dangerous effects of analogical illustrations, he may turn over to that part of the late learned and worthy bishop of Durham's Book of Analogy, which relates to the atonement, or sacrifice, of Jesus Christ; where he will fee, what havock may be made both of scripture-doctrine and common-sense, by the mere force of analogys. And, I am afraid, that the Drs analogical illustrations will not, upon trial, be found to have a much better effect upon the scripture-doctrine concerning that point. But let us proceed to the examination of them.
*The Dr'* Scripture-illustrations.
§.25. The Dr. after having said, that Christ's perfect obedience and goodness "was the sacrifice which he offered to "God, and which made atonement for the "fin of the world," subjoins,—So the obe"dience of Abraham was a reason for be,c stowing blessings upon his posterity, Gen. "xxii. 16—18.—xxvi. 4, 5. So Moses, "and other good men, averted the judg"ments of God by their prayers and
"righteousness, Exod. xxxii. 30 32.