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what person soever tendered, would have the same efficacy as the moral virtues themselves; or that the efficacy of the moral virtues, and of the symbols of them, is to be accounted for, after the fame manner?
Having now examined all the evidence for the symbolical nature and efficacy of Jewish sacrifices, the Dr. has brought from the way and manner in which the scriptures speak of Sacrifice and Sacrificing, in those passages which have no relation to Jewish Sacrifices, I now proceed to
Containing an examination of that proof of the symbolical meaning, efficacy, and defgn of Jewish sacrifices, which Dr. Taylor brings from those accounts which the scriptures give us of atonements that were made by other means than Levitical sacrifices.
§. i.yvR. Taylor having observed, " that "words of seven significations ** are derived from the Hebrew root "caphar; of which significations, atone"ment, or to make atonement, is one V" and taken notice, likewise, "that the word, *c atonement, in our English translation of
« See Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined, Chap. IV. §. 62.
"the ce the Old Testament, is always rendered te from some tense, or noun, derived from "this Hebrew root V he next sets down all the places in the Old Testament where this Hebrew word occurs, in the fense of atonement, either as a verb, or a noun. And in doing this, he marks all these places with an asterism, where it occurs in an extra-levitical fense, or as having no relation to Jewish sacrifices. The places thus marked, are the following, viz. (i.) As
a verb, Exod. xxi. 30.—xxix. 10, 15 .
xxxii. 30. Numb. xvi. 46, 47.—xxv. 13.—
xxxi. 50. 2 Sam. xxi. 3. Deut. xxi. 8.—
xxxii. 43. Numb. xxxv. 33. Psal. lxv. 2.— lxxix. 9. Prov. xvi. 6. Isai. vi. 7.—xxii. 14. —xxvii. 9. Dan. ix. 24. Gen. xxxii. 20. Prov. xvi. 14. Ezek. xvi. 63. Isai. xlvii. 11. Deut. xxi. 8. 2 Chron.xxx. 18. Psal. lxxviii. 38. Jer. xviii. 23. Isai. xxviii. 18. (2.) As a noun, Exod. xxx. 12. Job xxxiii. 24.— xxxvi. 18. Prov. vi. 35.—xiii. 8.—xxi. 18. Isai. xliii. 3. Psal. xlix. 7. Numb. xxxv. 31, 32. 1 Sam. xii. 3. Amos v. 12 c.
§. 2. In order to discover the true sense of atonement, and of making atonement, in each of these texts, the Dr. sets them all down, one after another, in one column; and, opposite to each of them, (in
b See Scrip, doc. of Aton. ex. Chap. IV. §. 61. c Ibidem §. 66, 67. ,
ananother column,) he marks down the mean by which the atonement was made, and the effect which was produced by it. e. g.
Amos v. 12.—They afflict EFFECT. Exemption of the the just, they take a bribe guilty from punishment
[an atonement] MEAN. A premium given. d
§. 3. Instead of sitting down each of the texts aforesaid, together with the effecl and mean of atonement, after this manner; I shall give the reader a view of the several effects which are ascribed to extra-levitical atonements in these texts, and of the several means by which they were produced; this being all that is necessary to my purpose.
§. 4. The effects which are ascribed to extra-levitical atonements in these texts, are the following, viz.
1st. The prevention of, or deliverance from, certain natural evils; particularly dangers, sufferings, calamitys, the wrath of man, the power and oppression of enemies, distemper of body, death, the restoration of safety and prosperity.
2dly. The prevention of, or deliverance from, penal evils, or such natural evils as had been threatened or inflicted as the punishment of sin; particularly, sufferings, ca
d See Seripture^doctrine of Atonement examined, Chap. V.
lamitvs, kmitys, judgments, destruction, the plague, enemies, captivity, sickness, death.
jdly, Satisfaction to the injured Gibeonites, which was effected by an act of justice on bloody Saul's family.
§. 5. The means, by which the foregoing effects are said to be produced in the texts aforesaid, are the following, viz. Half a shekel of money; a censer of burning incense in the hand of Aaron; the execution of justice on criminals; an offering out of the spoils; the slaying of an heifer, protestation of innocence, and prayer; the mercy or pure goodness of God; mercy and truth; benevolence and justice practised towards men; prayer; wife and prudent counsel; a handsome present; a sum of money payed; a premium, or bribe; affliction and correction, productive of repentance and reformation; such sufferings of wicked men as were conducive to the happiness and deliverance of the righteous.
§. 6. These then are all the effects which, in the texts before-mentioned, are ascribed to extra-levitical atonements; and these the several means by which those effects were produced. Hence it is evident, that an extra-levitical atonement did consist in the production of one or other of these effects, by some one other of the means mentioned. This gives us a clear idea of the nature of extra-levitical atonements.
§. 7. Now,
§. Now, if the Dr's notion of the symbolical meaning and design of Jewish sacrifices, can be rightly inferred from this representation which he has given us of the nature of extra-levitical atonements, as being certain effects produced by various forts of means; it must be inferred either from every part of it, or from a certain part of it only. The Dr.himself doth not pretend to infer it from every part of this representation. And, indeed, in many parts of it, there is such a dissimilarity between the means and effect';, and thole of Levitical atonements, that nothing can be inferred from them concerning the nature and design of Jewish sacrifices. It remains, therefore, that the Dr's notion of the symbolical meaning and design of Jewish sacrifices, can only, even in his own apprehension of things, be inferred from some part of the representation which he has given us. of the nature of extra-levitical atonements; and particularly from that part of it, where there appears to b- .some similarity between the means and effects used and produced in the one cafe, and those which were used and produced in the other. And in order to discover this part of it, it will be necessary to attend to that arrangement or assortment of the foregoing tests, which the Dr. exhibits in the Vlth chapter of his book.