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§. 8. In sorting these texts, the Dr. observes, first, that, "in some cases, persons "make atonement for themselves:"—And, ** in other cafes, atonement is made for
them by others —These observations relate only to the persons by whom, and for whom, atonement was made, but determine nothing about the nature of atonement. For which reason, I shall fay nothing more about them.
§. 9. His next observation, is, that,
one of these texts (viz. Dan. ix. 24.) "relateth to the Messiah f."—This text affords no ground to think, that the Jewish lacrifices were of a symbolical nature, because the atonement, made by the sacrifice of the Messiah, was not of that kind.
§. 10. His third observation, is, that "one place (Isai. xxv. 18.) relates to the "disannulling of an agreementE.''—This agreement was a covenant made with death. And punishment was the mean by which it was to be disannulled. Wherefore, no conclusion can be drawn from the nature of this extra-levitical atonement concerning the symbolical nature of Levitical atonements; because the effect produced, and the mean
- « See Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined, Chap. VI. §. 107, Nk 1.
f Ibidem N°. 2.
* Ibidem N°. 3.
made made use of, in the one case, were quite different from those in the other.
§. 11. He next observes, that " Six (of the cafes in these texts) relate to the "dealings of one man with another," (viz. Gen. xxii. 40. Prov. xvi.-14.'—vi. 35.— xiii. 8. ] Sam. xii. 3. Amos v. 12.) In these cases, he fays, "one person is supposed to "be obnoxious to the resentment of an11 other: and the atonement or ransom is "made by giving, doing, or saying some"ithing to content, appease, and reconcile y the offended party h."—'Tis manifest, therefore, that the means by which these atonements were made, were not of a symbolical nature, and that the effects, produced by them, were entirely different from those of Levitical atonements. For which reasons, no conclusion can be drawn from them concerning the symbolical nature of Jewish sacrifices.
§. 12. His next observation is, "That "three (viz. 2 Sam. xxi. 3. Exod. xxi. "29, 30. Numb. xxxv. 31, 32.) seem "to be mixed cases, relating partly to God "and partly toman. The first text propol"eth both satisfaction to the Gibeonites, "and the removal of the famine which "God had inflicted. In the second, the
i' See Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined, Chap. VI. §. 107. N". 4
F 2 "death
"death due by the law of God to the "owner of an ox that hath slain a man, "might, by the permission of the same "law, be bought off with a sum of money "paid to man. In the third, God per"mitted no atonement for a murtherer, &c. "And man was not to take any bribe to ex* "empt him from punishment'." Concerning these three cases, I shall make the following observations.
In the first case, the giving satisfaction to the Gibeonites was the immediate, the removal of the famine, the more remote, effect of the atonement. The first of these effects was of a nature different from all the effects of Levitical atonements; and the mean, by which it was produced, was not only not symbolical, but the very reverse of those means by which levitical atonements were made. For which reasons, no conclusion can be drawn from the nature of this atonement about the symbolical nature of Jewish sacrifices. The second effect of this atonement coincides with those of Levitical atonements, and will be considered under the Dr's next observation.
In the case which is set forth in the second of these three texts, the judge or civil magistrate was left at liberty to accept of a
1 See Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined, Chap. VI. §. 107. N°. 5.
mulct, mulct, or sum of money, for, and in lieu of, the offender's life'. And in the offender's submitting to this vicarious punishment, and paying the mulct imposed on him, did the. ransom of his life, or the atonement that was made for it, consist. This cafe, therefore, if it doth supply any conclusion about the nature and design of Levitical sacrifices, that conclusion will not be found to be favourable to the jDr's notion of their being of a symbolical nature: for it is this, that the making atonement did consist in vicarious punishment inflicted, not, indeed, upon the sacrifice, but upon the offender himself. And how the Dr. may relish this notion of atonement, or sacrifice, I know not. But whether he doth, or doth not, approve of it, the atonement mentioned in this text, gives no countenance or support to his notion of the symbolical nature of Jewish sacrifices, but is directly against it.
The third text, in this class, is, Exod. xxi. 31, 32. The thing there forbidden, is, the taking any atonement, that is, satisfaction, or mulct in money, for, and in lieu of, the life of a murderer; or for, and in lieu of, the confinement of a man-flayer in the city of refuge. This text, therefore, plainly suggests, that, in some cases, atonement might be made by the civil magistrate's substituting, and accepting of, a lighter punishment in lieu of a heavier or,e; a suggestion F 3 which which is very unfavourable to the Dr's notion of the symbolical nature of Levitical atonements, or sacrifices. The mean, by which, it is supposed, this atonement might have been made, was not symbolical of address to God, or of any thing else. It was the suffering of a lighter punishment in lieu of a heavier one. There is no inference, therefore, which can be drawn from the nature of this atonement, but what makes directly against the Dr's notion of the symbolical nature of Jewish sacrifices.
§. 13. The Dr's last observation, is, that "the remaining twenty-six are. cafes be"tween the most high God and man, and "relate to his favour or displeasure, and to "judgments or blessings from him alone." (These twenty-six cases are those which are exhibited in the following texts, viz. Exod. xxii. 30.—xxx. 1 c, 16. Numb. xvi. 46, 47.—xxv. 13.—xxxi. 50. 2 Sam. xxi. 3. Deur. xxi. 8.—xxxii. 43. Numb. xxxv. 33. Psal. Ixv. 3.—Ixxix. 9. Prov. xvi. 6. Isai. vi. 7.—xxii. 14.—xxvii. 7, 8, 9. Ezck. xvi. 60--63. Ilai. xlvii. 11. Deut. xxi. 8. 2 Chron. xxx. 18. Psal. lxxxviii. 37. Jcr. xviii. 23. Exod. xxx. 12. Job xxxiii. 24.— xxxvi. 18. Prov. xxi. 18. Isai. xliii. 3. Psal. xlix. 7 \)
k Scrip, doc. of Aton. ex. Chap. VI. § 107. N°. 6..