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§. 14. To the cases of this class belongs the atonement which was made in the cafe of the Gibeonites, as far as it had for its effect, ths removal of the famine which the Israelites suffered as a punishment for the oppression of these Gibeonites: for it supplies us with the fame idea of atonement. And, therefore, what is said of them, will be applicable to this.
§. 15. The most part of the texts of this class, supply us with instances of extra-levitical atonements which had the pardon of sin, or the removal of punishment, for their effect; which was, likewise, the effect that was produced by many of the levitical sacrifices. It is, therefore, in these texts, if in any, that we can expect to meet with such assertions, hints, and suggestions as may furnish us with reasons to conclude, that Jewish sacrifices were of a symbolical nature and intention. It will, therefore, be proper here, to be particularly careful in the examination of all that the Dr. has said about these texts, and of all the inferences which he has drawn from them; and to try, as far as we can, whether his main conclusion has, or has not, any support from them, viz. " That Jewish sacri"sices were symbolical addresses to God, "expressing by outward signs, what is ex"pressed in prayer.and praise by words, or "in the course of life by deeds."—Before I F 4 enter enter upon this subject, I must confess, that my expectation of finding any thing in these texts that has a tendency to confirm or support this notion of Jewish sacrifice?, i< very small. For though the effect, produced by these sacrifices, and by the atonements mentioned in the texts of this class, was the fame; yet the mean, by which it was produced in the former cafe, was so different from the several means by which it was produced in the latter, that I cannot,fee, that there can be any reasoning from the nature of these extra-levitical atonements to that of Jewish sacrifices, that can be thought to be conclusive and satisfactory: for when means of a different nature concur in the production of the fame effect, these means must, of necessity, exert their efficacy, in the production of that effect, after a different manner. But let us fee what the Dr. fays in this affair.
§. 16. The first thing he fays, is, " In "two of these cafes, sin is neither expressed "nor implied'."—These two cafes are those which are exhibited, Prov. xxi. i 8. Isai. xliii. 3. In which two texts, the sufferings of the wicked are mentioned, as being a ransom or atonement for the righteous, or the means of their deliverance and happiness.
1 See Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined, Chap. VI. §. 107. N°. 6.
'Tis manifest, therefore, that these two texts treat of an affair in which Jewish sacrifices never had, never could have, any concern. And therefore, 'tis impossible, that they should supply any inference, hint, or suggestion in support of the Dr's notion of the symbolical nature of these sacrifices, or, indeed, concerning any other notion of the nature of them.
§. 17. The Dr. proceeds thus, " In ct the rest of them, (/'. e. of the texts of this "class,) sin is expressed or implied. Now "here we are to consider, I. The effect ** of the atonement. And II. The means by which it was made."
I. " The effect is the pardon of sin va"rioufly expressed or implied.—Sometimes *c it is expressed by the forgiveness, or ** taking, or purging away, or cleansing tc of sin.—Sometimes by the removal, and, "in negative atonement, by the inflicting "and continuing of calamitys; or the be** stowing of blessing?.—Sometimes, partly "by the forgiving, or not forgiving of sin, u partly by the removal or not removal of "calamitys."
II. " The means by which atonement '* was made, are such as God affords and ** provides, or such as men devise."
"jst. Such as God affords and provides: ?c as (j.) His own goodness and mercy f* alone.-—^(2.) Prayer.—(3.) Instruction,
"prayer, tc prayer, and repentance. (4.) Acts of
*c virtue and justice.—(5.) Disciplinary vi"sitations-.—(6.) An offering to the service
"of religion. (7.) Sufferings of some
cc which turn to the benefit of others,"
"adly. Such as men devise, as counsels, "riches, forces, or any shifts they use to "preserve and secure themselvesm."
§. 18. Here one would have expected, to find the Dr. applying the texts of this class to his main purpose, by making these criticisms, and pointing out these affirmations, hints, or suggestions, upon which his notion of the sybolical nature of Jewish sacrifices has its dependence. But instead of this, he only gives us an account of the effect of these extra-levitical atonements which are mentioned in them, and of the several means by which these atonements were made; without drawing one single inference from it, or any part of it, about the nature of Levitical sacrifices Of atonements. And this omission is the more surprising, because the establishment of his main point did entirely depend on a contrary management.
§. 19. An6, indeed, in these texts, as far as I can fee, there is nothing at all; nothing affirmed, hinted, or suggested; from which
m See Scripture-doctrine of Atonement examined. Chap. VI. §. 107. N°. 6. and §. 108.
it can be fairly inferred, that Levitical, piacular sacrifices were £* symbolical addresses "to God, expressing by outward signs, "what is expressed in prayer by words» "or in the course of life by deeds."—'Tis true, that the effect of the atonements mentioned in them, and of those sacrifices which were offered for sin, was the fame, viz. the pardon of sin, or the removal of such calamitys as had been inflicted as the punishment of it: and, therefore, both of them were subservient to the same end. But though they were thus productive of the fame effect, (yet, because the means were different,) it will not follow, that these atonements for sin, were of the fame nature, or that they were made after the fame or a similar manner. Extra-levitical atonements for sin, as the Dr. very well observes, were made by, or through, the mercy of God, prayer, instruction, repentance, acts of virtue and justice, disciplinary visitations, or an offering to the service of religion: but Levitical atonements were made by means of a very different nature; even by the oblation of stain animals, or of the tenth part of an ephah of fine Jlower. The atonements, therefore, which were made, by means that were of such a different and dissimilar nature, must have been of a dissimilar nature, and made after a different manner. This is a conclusion