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Examination for Irish Teachers. ANSWERS: FEMALES.Geography.-8. State what you know of the physcal geography of the Mediterranean Sea.

The Mediterranean fills an immensely deep and comparatively a precipitous chasm, which would almost seem to have been the effect of subsidence towards the South, contemporaneous with and complementary to the upheavel of the great line of mountainous tracts which run along the whole extent of South Europe. A bar extends the Gut of Gibraltar at about 900 feet in depth. Inside of this the water deepens 89 rapidly, that between Gibraltar and Ceuta, where the breadth of the channel does not exceed 12 miles, the depth is already 6,000 feet; 90 miles east of Malta, we find a depth of 15,000; between Rhodes and Alexandria, 9,900; and between the latter place and Candia, 10,200. Its length is about 2,400, and its breadth varies from 400 or 500 to 79 miles; the area in square miles is upwards of 750,000; about 1,000,000 square miles of country are drained by it. At one time the Mediterranean was considered tideless; we find that in the port of Venice the tide has a range of 5 feet at new and full moon; at Naples the range is 12 inches. Various currents keep the waters in circnlation. In ancient times the celebrated whirlpool of Chyrbdis was the terror of the neighbouring mariners. It has been held, on the authority of Halley, that the evaporation of this sea is materially greater than the extra supply from its rivers, and that, therefore, it must be increasing in saltness by the continual indranght of sea-water from the Atlantic, unless relieved (as has also been supposed) by an under current of salter and heavier water flowing outwards. To prove this, we will suppose the total area of Mediterranean, Euxine, and Azof Seas amounts to 1,150,000 square miles, and that these seas are traversed medially by the isotherm of 63°. Now this is the mean temperature of July at Tottenham, at which, for that month the observations of Howard assign an average evaporation of 4:111 inches, which, continued over the year, would give 49-33 inches. Dalton's determination for Liverpool for the same month is 5.11 in., corresponding to 61.33 in., per annum.

The observed annual evaporation at Marseilles exceeds 85 Paris inches (Känitz i. 446). So that we shall be quite within limits in taking 50 inches per annum as the average evaporation over the whole surface in question. As regards the quantity restored by rain, Palermo, as an insular station, well-situated abont middle breadth of the Mediterranean, gives 22:3 in., for the fall of rain, which may be taken as the average supply from that source, leaving 27:7 in., or, in round numbers, 28 in. for the excess of evaporation. This, computed as extending over the whole area, gives 508 cubic miles of fresh water annually abstracted.

The Nile delivers into the sea 101,000 cubic feet of water per second (Talabot), on the average of the whole year, which gives an annual contribution of fresh water from this river alone = 21.653 cubic miles. So that, even on the extravagant supposition that each of the other principal rivers(the Danube, Dnieper, Don, Rhone, Dniester, Ebro, and Po) contribnte as much as the Nile, we should still have only 173 cubic miles of river supply, leaving 335 to be furnished from the Atlantic. In point of fact, the current which sets in at the straits-estimated by Admiral Smyth as 4 miles in breadth, with an average velocity of 2) miles per hour- would carry in, supposing it to extend 30 fathoms only in depth, 2,986 cubic miles per annum, of which it is therefore past a doubt that at least 2,000 must flow out again in the form of an undercarrent-

--no lateral current being observed to exist. In several places in the Mediterranean, springs of fresh water, nay, even subterranean rivers, well up to the surface from considerable depths. Many such are enumerated by Admiral Smyth; but the most remarkable is Anàvolo, in the Sinus Argolicus, between Kiveri and Astros, where a body of fresh water 50 feet in diameter rises with such force at a quarter of a mile from the shore, as to pruduce a visible convexity of surface, and to disturb the sea for several hundred feet round.

The winds of this sea are peculiar in their manner of blowing; at the same time several vessels sail over its surface in each a different direc. tion, carrying different winds. The sirocco, from Africa, blowing over its surface, has a strange effect on newly-laid paint, which will never after dry. It is accompanied by a gloomy sky, and has a depressing effect on the animal system. As many as sixteen waterspouts have been visible at one time. The most important islands are the Balearic islands, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Ionian islands, Candia, Cyprns, and Rhodes.

9. State the number of Jupiter's satellites, and the uses made of the observations of them.

Jupiter is attended by four satellites or moons revolving round him from west to east, in the same way as the moon does round the earth, according to the law of gravitation. These satellites suffer eclipses on entering into the shadow of Jupiter, and are occulated or hidden when they pass behind his body. The times of the eclipses, when observed at different places on the earth's surface, determine directly the difference of longitude of the places, since they must occur at the same moment of absolute time; but the observations are given in terms of local time. The velocity of light was first determined by Roemer, a Danish astronomer, in 1675. He deduced it from certain observations on the first satellite of Jupiter. He observed that an eclipse of the satellite took place about 16 minutes sooner when the earth was in con. junction with Jupiter than when in opposition-this difference he properly accounted for by supposing that such was the interval of time which the last glimpse of light sent off by the satellite, as it entered the planet's shadow, took to traverse the earth's orbit. From this be calculated the velocity to be about 192,000 per second. But, by taking

, the newer estimate of 91 millions of miles as the sun's distance, this number must be reduced.

10. Whepce do we obtain barilla, madder, indigo, and cochineal ? and explain as you would to a class the nature of these articles. Barilla, or patron (carbonate of soda), usually occurs in white, grey, or yellowish efflorescent crusts. Has a vitreous or earthy lustre, alkaline taste. Sp. gr.=1:42. Composition-hydrous carbonate of soda. Soda=18-8, carbonio acid=2:67, water=54:5 per cent. Effervesces strongly with nitric acid. Effloresces on exposure. It is found only in solution, or mixed with other soda substances. Found in the soda-lakes of Egypt,

56 miles west of the Delta of the Nile; in lakes at Debreczin in Hungary ; in Mexico ; and in small quantities dissolved in the Seltzer and Carlsbad waters. Can be obtained also from the ashes of marine plants. It is used for various domestic and manufacturing purposes.

MADDER (rubia), a genus of the monogynia order, in the tetrandia class of plants. The corolla is monopetalous and campanulated; and there are two monospermous berries. There are seven species, of which the most remarkable is the tinctorum, or dyer's madder, so much used by the dyers and calico-printers. The roots are of a reddish colour, somewhat transparent, and have a yellowish pith in the middle, which is tougb, and of a bitter taste. Madder-root is used in medicine. The virtues attributed to it are those of a detergent and aperient. If taken internally it colours the bones, through their substance, of deep red, but does not change the colour of the fleshy or cartilaginous parts. This plant is cultivated chiefly in Holland and Turkey-hence the name of the dye-" Turkey red.”

INDIGO (indigofera), a genus of the decandria order, in the didalphia class of plants. There are 35 species, the most remarkable of which is the tinctoria, a native of the warm parts of Asia, Africa, and America. The plant requires a rich soil, well tilled, and not too dry. It is ripe at the end of two months after being sown, and lasts about two years, after which it degenerates and must be planted afresh. A beautiful dye of a deep-blue colour is obtained from the plant.

COCHINEAL (cocus in zoology). There are 22 species, the most im. portant being the coceus cacti, so highly valued in every part of the world for the incomparable beaaty of the red dye extracted from the dried body of the insect. It is a native of Mexico..

SERIES II, 1. What maritime counties lie between Eden and the Dee? Cum. berland, Westmoreland, Lancashire, and Cheshire.

2. Name the counties that touch Middlesex. Kent, Surrey, Berks, Buckingham, Hertford, and Essex.

3. Name the islands in the Baltic that belong respectively to Russia, Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden. Russia-Aland, Dago, and Oesel, Prussia-Rugen. Denmark - Zealand, Funen, Langland, Falsten, and Bomholm. Sweden-Gothland and Oland.

4. Where is the greatest rainfall, and why? The greatest rainfall is on the southern slope of the Himalayas; on the Khasia mountains, in the lower valley of the Brahmapootra, the S. W. monsoon, bringing the vapours of the Indian Ocean, deposits 600 inches of rain. The southern slope of the Himalayas, being in the Torrid zone, where evaporation is greatest, is one of the canses why the rainfall should be very large. The S. W. winds coming from the Indian Ocean, saturated with moisture, meeting the Himalayas, are forced upwards, and on ascending, the vapour is immediately condensed falling in torrents of rain,

5. What modern countries comprise the ancient Lybia, Ethiopa, and Įhsulæ Fortunatæ ? Lybia-The modern Barca, extends along the northern coast of Africa, west of Egypt, to the Gulf of Sidra Ethiopia -Includes Nubia and Abyssinia, which extend along the Nile, south of Upper Egypt. Insulæ Fortunate-Now the Canary Islands, on account of the number of dogs (canes) found in them.--Irish Teachers' Journal.


Sketches in English History.

GEORGE III.-(Continued from page 16.) George Canning was born in the parish of Marylebone, on the llth of April, 1770, his parents having recently left Ireland, their native country. In 1793 he was elected member of Parliament for Newport, Isle of Wight. In January, 1794, he delivered his maiden speech, in which he displayed considerable talent. In 1796 he was appointed one of the Under-Secretaries of State. In 1799 be took a conspicuous part in the debates relative to the Union with Ireland. In 1801 he resigned with Pitt, Addington becoming his successor. In 1804 Pitt again resumed office, and Canning was appointed Treasurer of the Navy, which he held until Pitt's death in 1806. The friends of the departed Premier now resigned office, when Fox and Grenville succeeded, whose administration was termed "All the Talents.” Fox's death put a speedy end to it, when the Duke of Portland was appointed Premier, and Canning Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. In 1809 he again resigned. In 1812 he stood a severe contest for Liverpool, and was returued at the head of the poll. In 1804 he was appointed Ambassador to Lisbon, where there was neither court nor sovereign, at the enormous salary of £14,000 per annum. He was seventeen months in Lisbon. In 1816 he accepted office as President of the Board of Control. In June the same year Queen Caroline returned to this country, and Canning, who was averse to taking any share in the proceedings that were meditated against Her Majesty, tendered his resignation, which the King declined accepting; at the same time, however, permitting Canning to abstain as much as he thought fit from the expected discussion on the Queen's conduct. In 1822 he was appointed GovernorGeneral of India, bnt soon afterwards accepted the foreign Secretaryship. Canning bad by this time (1823) become deservedly popular for the spirited and liberal opinion, which he most powerfully advocated, as well with regard to foreign as domestic policy; he insisted on the necessity of aiding Portugal against Spain with such fervent eloquence, as had rarely, if ever, been heard since the days of Pitt. At the funeral of the Duke of York, in January, 1827, he caught a cold, the consequence of which was a disorder that soon afterwards ended in death. Early in March he delivered a powerful speech in favour of Catholic emancipation. So intense was his anxiety for the fate of the motion, which was lost by a majority of four only, and so great were his exertions on this occasion, that for a short time afterwards he was rendered incapable by illness of re-appearing in his place. Meanwhile, the friends of Lord Liverpool, who had been attacked by paralysis in May, lost all hope of his recovery; the premiership became vacant, and on the 12th of April, 1827, Canning was appointed First Jord of the Treasury. He struggled with all his expiring energy to retain his eminence, but died on the 8th of August. Canning died when, at the zenith of his political reputation, he had attained the pinnacle of all his earthly ambition, as well with regard to popularity as place. His early errors are forgotten in admiration at his recent spirit, upright and manly conduct. No unprejudiced mind could withhold its applauso from a Minister whose views were at once so eminently patriotic, and

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so universally benevolent. Had he lived he would most probably have become entitled to the gratitude of the world. As an orator, he enshrined the most appropriate classical allusions, the most brilliant ideas, and the most exquisite irony in language, which with rare exceptions, even when uttered without premeditation, no art could refine, to which no labour could give an additional polish. For elegance and purity of composition, he has perhaps never been excelled ; and in taste, with regard to rhetorical ornaments, but seldom equalled. His raillery was often irresistible, his wit pare and poignant, and his humour at once admirably refined, and remarkably effective. He was possessed of so large a share of political courage, that during his whole public life, he was rarely known to flinch or avoid an attack, however well merited. He seldom lost his perfect self-possession; but when in the fervid utterance of his thoughts, he rose into the most lofty and spirit-stirring eloquence, which appeared to electrify the whole house. A contributor to a periodical, describes Canning's dress as having been plain, but in perfect good taste, his person tall and well made, his form being moulded between strength and activity, his countenance beaming with intelligence, but having a cast of firmness, mingled with a mild, good natured expression. His head bald as the first Caesar's, his forehead lofty and capacious, his eye reflective, but at all times lively, and his whole countenance expressive of the kindlier affections of genius and intellectual vigour. In the prime of his life he was decidedly handsome, but latterly, continues the writer, he exhibited marks of what years, cares, and ambition, had done upon him.

Edward Law, Lord Ellenborough, the fourth son of Edmund, Bishop of Carlisle, was born at Great Salkeld, in Cumberland, 1750. He was educated at the Charter House, whence he went to the University, and shortly after was entered of the Inner Temple. He was a man of the most determined and vigorous character, independently of his nerve, his vigour, his readiness and tact iu speech; he was, moreover, profoundly versed in his profession, and had an understanding of great strength, joined to much natural good sense and shrewdness. He was made a King's Counsel in 1781. For many years after this period be enjoyed a great and lucrative practice, and succeeded his deceased friend, Lord Kenyon, as Chief Justice of the King's Bench, in 1802. During the government of Mr. Pitt, he held a seat in the Cabinet during the ministry of Lord Grenville, in 1806. Lord Ellenborough continued to preside in the King's Bench till November 1816, when he resigned. He died in December 1818.

John Scott, Lord Eldon, brother of Lord Stowell, and son of a coalfitter at Newcastle-on-Tyne, was born on the 4th of June, 1761. In 1772, he became a student of the Middle Temple, and followed his professional pursuits with a zeal and assiduity that has scarcely ever been paralleled. In the year 1783, he was returned to Parliament for Weobly, and in 1788, was appointed Solicitor-General, receiving on this occasion the honour of knighthood. In 1793, he was advanced to the Attorney-Generalship. In 1799, Sir John became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and was created a peer, by the title of Baron Eldon. In 1801, he was raised to the Woolsack. He resigned office in 1806, on the accession of the Whigs to power, but resumed it in 1807, when the


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